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' Ut Christian! ita et Roman i sitis." 

" As you are children of Christ, so be you children of Rome." 

Ex Diftis S. Patricii, Book oj Armagh, fol. 9. 



., W. 



Die i- Oclobris, 1871. 



Address of the Clergy of St. Louis to their Archbishop ... ... 236 

Aidan, St., Bishop and Patron of Ferns ... ... 312, 361, 393 

Alphonsus, St., Doctor of Holy Church ... ... ... 378 

Ancient Statue of the Madonna ... ... ... ... 474 

Apostolic Constitutions of the Vatican Council ... ... ... i, 44 

Aran-More of St. Enda ... ... ... .. ... 19,105 


XI. On Self-Love .. ... ... ... ... 123 

XII. The Moral Code of the Gospel ... .. ... 159 

XIII. Humility ... .. . .. ... ... ... 216 

XIV. The Vicious and the Lukewarm : Arguments against Religion 258 

XV. The Fate of Children who die without Baptism ... ... 304 

XVI. The Fate of those who live outside the Pale of the Church 308 

XVII. The Beatific Vision ... ... ... ... ... 357 

XVIII. On Purgatory ... ... .. ... ... 407 

XIX. The Good and the Bad : a Difficulty ... ... ... 450 

XX. Homage due to the Saints ... ... .. ... 504 

XXI. Invocation of Saints A New Difficulty ... ... 561 

Castleknock ... ... ... ... ... ... 245 

Claims of the Irish College, Paris ... ... ... ... 44,78, 145 

Cloyne: Foundation of the See ... ... ... ... 436 

College of St. Anthony of Padua, Louvaiti ... ... ... 31 

Constitutions of the Vatican Council .. ... ... ... i, 44 

Cork : Foundation of the See ... .. ... ... 184 


Letter of Cardinal Antonelli, on the publication of the Apost. 

Constitutions of the Vat. Council ... ... ... 44 

Apostolic Letters of His Holiness, proroguing the General Council 91 
Encyclical Letter of His Holiness, on the Invasion of the Papal 

Territory ... ... ... ... ... ... 170 

Decree placing the whole Church under the Patronage of St. 

Joseph .. ... ... ... 178 

Decree of the Sacred Congreg. of Rites, on Saints honoured from 

time immemorial ... ... ... ... 181 

Brief of our Most Holy Father, on the Outrages against the 

Jesuits in Rome ... ... "... ... ... 326 

Decree declaring St. Alphonsus a Doctor of Holy Church ... 378 
Prayer to which an Indulgence has been attached by His Holiness 379 
Decree on the Traditionalism Controversy in Louvain ... 380 
Decree on the Conditions requisite for gaining Indulgences ... 380 
Letter of His Holiness on the New Teachers in Rome ... 428 
Encyclical of His Holiness to the Bishops of the Catholic World 475 
Letter of the Bishops of Belgium, on the Traditionalist Contro- 
versy ... ... ... ... ... ... 481 

Letter of His Holiness to the Cardinal Vicar of Rome ... 527 

Circular of the Cardinal Vicar to the Parochial Clergy of Rome 529 

Brief of His Holiness according new honours to St. Joseph ... 582 

Donaldus, Archbishop of Dublin ... ... ... ... 328 

Enda, St., Visit to the Island of ... ... ... ... 19, 105 

Endowed Schools of Ireland ... ... . ... 97 

iv . Alphabetical Index. 


Fate of Children who die before Baptism ... ... ... 304 

Fate of those who die outside the Pale of the Church ... .. 308 

Fermoy, Ancient Tract on ... ... ... ... ... 240 

Fleming, F. Patrick, O.S.F. ... ... ... 193 

" Four Masters" ... ... ... ... ... ... 268 

Franciscans of Louvain ... ... ... ... 31, 56, 193, 268 

Historical Studies in an Irish Catholic University ... ... 411 

Homage due to the Saints ... ... ... ... ... 504 

" Hortus Animae" ... ... ... ... ... ... 93 

Humility ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 216 

Indulgences of the Rosary ... .. ... ... 370,421,467 

Ireland, Endowed Schools of ... ... ... ... 97 

Irish Catholic University, the Place of Historical Studies in .. 411 

Irish College, Paris, Claims ... ... ... ... ... 44,78, 145 

Irish Historical Studies in the I7th Century ... ... 31, 56, 193, 268 

Irish Martyr at Tien- Tsin ... ... ... ... ... 130,430 

Jesuits and Literature ... ... ... .. ... 511 

Jubilee Feast of Pius IX. ... ... ... ... 430,441,518,564 

"Leabhar na-Huidhri" ... ... .. ... .. 224 

Letter of the Archbishops and Bishops of Ireland to their Flocks ... 49 
Letters of Balmez. See Balmez. 

Letter of Archbishops and Bishops of Ireland to His Holiness ... 166 

Letter of His Holiness in reply to same ... ... ... 169 

Letter of His Holiness to Sister M. F. Clare ... . ... 182 

Lyon, Bishop of Cork, Letters of, in 1596 ... ... ... 489 

Macchiavelli ... ... ... ... ... 293, 345, 457 

Monasticon Hibernicum 45, 94, 140, 184, 240, 290, 341, 389, 436, 485, 535 

Moral Code of the Gospel ... ... ... ... . * 159 

Old Castleknock ... ... ... ... ... ... 245 

Pius IX., Jubilee Feast of ... ... ... ... 430,441,518,564 

Patronage of St. Joseph ... ... ... ... .. 178 

Prorogation of the Vatican Council ... ... ... .. 91 

Purgatory ... .. ...*. ... ... ... ... 407 

Roman Chronicle .. ... ... ... 330,382,431,482,531,575 

Rosary, Indulgences of the ... .. ... 370,421,467 

Round Towers, &c. , Remarks on ... ... ... ... .554 

Scale of Perfection ... ... ... ... ... ... 93 

Schools (Endowed) of Ireland ... . . ... ... 97 

Self-love ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 123 

Socrates, a Sketch, by Professor Stewart ... ... ... 537 

Some remarks on "The Druids, Churches, and Towers of Ancient 

Ireland" ' ... ... ... ... ... ... 554 

St. Louis, Address of Clergy of, and Reply of the Archbishop ... 236 

Tien-Tsin, an Irish Martyr at ... ... ... ... 130 

Traditionalism, &c. ... ... ... ... ... 379, 481 

Two Letters of Dr. Lyon, Protestant Bishop of Cork; in 1596 ... 489 

Vatican Council ... ... ... ... ... 1, 44, 91 

Ward, F. Hugh, O.S.F ... ... 56 




OCTOBER, 1870. 




Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and the Redeemer 
of mankind, before returning to his heavenly Father, 
promised that he would be with his Church militant on earth 
all days, even to the consummation of the world. Where- 
fore he has never ceased to assist his beloved Spouse, to 
be with her when teaching, to bless her when at work, to aid 
her when in danger. But this, His salutary providence, 
constantly manifested by other innumerable benefits, has 
been most evidently made known by the fruits which Christen- 
dom has derived in such abundance from CEcumenical 
Councils, and particularly from that of Trent, although held in 
evil times ; for the result has been that the most holy dogmas 
of religion have been defined more precisely, and set forth 
more fully ; errors have been condemned and restrained, 
eccesiastical discipline has been restored and more firmly 
secured, the love of learning and of piety has been promoted 


2 Dogmatic Constitution 

among the clergy, colleges have been established to educate 
youth for the sacred ministry, and the morals of the 
Christian people have been renovated both by the more 
careful instruction of the faithful, and by the more frequent 
use of the sacraments. Hence also a closer communion of 
the members with the visible Head, and an increase of vigor 
in the whole mystical body of Christ : hence the multipli- 
cation of religious congregations, and of other institutions of 
Christian piety : hence, too, that zeal, untiring and persever- 
ing even to the shedding of blood, in widely extending the 
kingdom of Christ throughout the world. 

But while recalling with grateful heart these and other sig- 
nal benefits which the divine clemency has bestowed on the 
Church, especially through the last (Ecumenical Council, we 
cannot restrain our bitter sorrow, caused by the serious evils 
which have mainly had their origin either in contempt on the 
part of many for the authority of that sacred synod, or in 
neglect of its wise decrees. 

For, as to the heresies proscribed by the Council of Trent, 
everybody knows that having rejected the divine authority 
of the Church, and abandoned religious matters to the judg- 
ment of each individual, they gradually split into many sects, 
disagreeing and striving with one another, until at length 
not a few lost all faith in Christ. Wherefore the Holy Bible 
itself, hitherto held up as the sole source and judge of Christian 
doctrine, was now no longer considered as divine, but was 
even ranked among myths or fictions. 

Then, too, arose, widely overspreading the world, that doc- 
trine of rationalism or naturalism which, opposing in every 
way, the Christian religion as being a supernatural institu- 
tion, spares no effort to banish Christ, our sole Lord and 
Saviour, from the minds of men, and from the life and cus- 
toms of nations, that thus the reign of what they call mere 
reason or nature may be established. And having forsaken 
and rejected the Christian religion, and denied God and his 
Christ, the minds of many sunk into the abyss of pantheism, 
materialism, and atheism, so that, denying rational nature 
itself, and every rule of justice and rectitude, they endeavour 
to destroy the very first foundations of human society. 

Moreover, it has unhappily come to pass that, in this gene- 
ral prevalence of impiety, many even of the children of the 
Catholic Church have strayed from the path of true piety, 
and that, owing to the gradual decay of truth after truth in their 
minds, the Catholic spirit has become weakened in them. For, we 
find that, led away by various and strange doctrines, wrongly 
mixing up nature and grace, human science and divine faith, 

On the Catholic Fflith. 3 

they corrupt the genuine sense of the dogmas as it is held 
and taught by Holy Mother Church, and endanger the in- 
tegrity and the purity of the faith. 

At the sight of all this, how could the Church fail to be 
moved to her inmost soul ? For, as God wills all men to be 
saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth ; as Christ 
came to save what had perished, and to gather into one the 
children of God who had been dispersed ; so the Church, 
constituted by God the mother and teacher of nations, recog- 
nizes herself as debtor to all, and is always ready and solicitous 
to raise the fallen, to support the tottering, to embrace those 
who return, to confirm the good, and lead them on to better 
things. Wherefore she can never cease from testifying and 
proclaiming the all-healing truth of God, not unmindful that 
to her it has been said, "My Spirit that is in thee, and my 
words that I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of 
thy mouth, from henceforth and for ever." 1 

We, therefore, following the footsteps of our predecessors, 
in virtue of our supreme Apostolic office, have never ceased 
from teaching and defending Catholic truth, and reprobating 
perverse doctrines. And now, the bishops of the whole 
world being assembled in the Holy Spirit by our authority, 
in this GEcumenical Council, and sitting and judging with us, 
we, relying on the Word of God written and handed down as 
we have received it from the Catholic Church, religiously 
preserved and expounded in its true sense, have resolved to 
profess and declare, in sight of all, the salutary doctrine of 
Christ from this Chair of Peter, proscribing and'condemning, 
by the power given to us by God, the errors contrary thereto. 



The Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church believes and 
confesses that there is one true and living God, Creator and 
Lord of Heaven and earth, almighty, eternal, immense, 
incomprehensible, infinite in intelligence, and in will, and in 
every perfection, who, being one single, absolutely simple, and 
unchangeable spiritual substance, must be acknowledged to be 
really and essentially distinct from the world, perfectly happy 
in Himself and of Himself, and ineffably exalted above all 
things which, besides Himself, exist and can be conceived. 

This only true God, of His bounty and almighty power, 

1 Isaiah, lix, 21. 

4 Dogmatic Constitution 

not to increase His own happiness, nor to acquire, but rather 
to manifest His perfection by the good gifts whichHe bestows 
on creatures, and of His perfectly free will, made out of nothing, 
at once, from the first beginning of time, both the spiritual and 
the corporal creature, to wit, the angelical and the mundane, 
and then the human creature, having something in common 
with both, being constituted of soul and body. 1 

Besides, God protects and rules by His Providence all things 
which He has made, "reaching from end to end mightily, 
and ordering all things sweetly." 2 For all things are naked 
and open to His eyes, 3 even those which are yet to come by 
the free action of creatures. 



The same Holy Mother, the Church, holds and teaches that 
God, the beginning and end of all things, can with certainty 
be known by the natural light of human reason, from created 
things ; for the invisible things of Him from the creation of 
the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things 
that are made ; 4 and, yet, that it was pleasing to His, wisdom 
and goodness to reveal Himself, and the eternal decrees of His 
will, to mankind in another and a supernatural way, as the 
Apostle says: "God, who at sundry times and in divers manners, 
spoke in times past to the fathers by the prophets, last of all, 
in these days, hath spoken to us by His Son." 5 

It is to be attributed, indeed, to this divine revelation that 
those among divine things which of themselves are not im- 
pervious to human reason can, even in the present condition of 
mankind, be known by all easily, with firm certainty, and 
without any admixture of error. It is not, however, for this 
reason that revelation is to be held absolutely necessary ; but 
because God of His infinite goodness ordained man to a super- 
natural end, viz., to be a sharer of divine good gifts which 
utterly exceed the intelligence of the human mind : for eye 
hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the 
heart of man, what things God hath prepared for them that 
love Him. 6 

Further, this supernatural revelation, according to the belief 
of the universal Church, set forth by the Sacred Synod of 
Trent, is contained in the written books and unwritten tradi- 
tions which have reached us, having been received by the 

1 Cone. Lat. iv. * Wisdom, viii. I. s Heb. iv. 13. 

4 Romans, i. 20. B Hebrews, i. I, 2. "I. Cor. ii. 9. 

On the Catholic Faith, 5 

Apostles from the mouth of Christ himself, or delivered, as if 
from hand to hand, by the Apostles, under the dictation of 
the Holy Spirit 1 Which books of the Old and New Testament 
are to be received as sacred and canonical, in their integrity, 
with all their parts, as they are enumerated in the decree of the 
said Council, and are contained in the old Latin Vulgate edition. 
And the Church holds them sacred and canonical, not because, 
having been composed by mere human industry alone, they 
were afterwards approved by her authority, nor merely 
because they contain revelation without error, but because, 
having been written under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, 
they have God for their author, and have been delivered as 
such to the Church herself. 

But as the things which the Holy Synod of Trent whole- 
somely in order to curb froward spirits decreed concerning 
the interpretation of Divine Scripture, are perversely ex- 
plaired by some, we, renewing the said decree, declare 
this to be its sense, that, in matters of faith and morals 
appertaining to the edification of Christian doctrine, that is to 
be received as the true sense of Holy Scripture which has been 
held and is held by Holy Mother Church, to whom it belongs 
to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the Holy 
Scriptures ; and therefore that no one is permitted to inter- 
pret the same Sacred Scripture contrary to this sense, or 
contrary to the unanimous consent of the Fathers. 



Since man depends altogether upon God, as upon his Creator 
and Lord, and since created reason is absolutelv subject to 
uncreated truth, we are bound to yield by faith the obedience 
of our intelligence and will to God when he reveals. And 
the Catholic Church professes that this faith, which is the 
beginning of man's salvation, is a supernatural virtue, whereby, 
the grace of God inspiring and assisting, we believe the 
things which He has revealed to be true, not on account of 
their own intrinsic truth as seen by the natural light of 
reason, but on account of the authority of God himself who 
reveals, and who can neither be deceived nor deceive. Fo'r 
faith, as the apostle testifies, is the substance of things to be 
hoped for, the evidence of things that appear not. 2 

Nevertheless, in order that the obedience of our faith might 

1 Council of Trent, session iv.. Deer, cle Can. Script. 
1 Heb. xi. i. 

6 Dogmatic Constitution 

be in harmony with reason, God willed that the interior helps 
of the Holy Spirit should be accompanied by exterior proofs 
of his revelation, viz., by divine facts, and principally by 
miracles and prophecies, which, while clearly displaying the 
omnipotence and infinite knowledge of God, are most certain 
proofs of His divine revelation, and suited to the intelligence 
of all. Wherefore, both Moses and the Prophets, and, most of 
all, Christ our Lord Himself, were the authors of many and 
most manifest miracles and prophecies ; and we read of the 
Apostles : " But they going forth preached everywhere,the Lord 
working withal, and confirming the word with signs that fol- 
lowed." 1 And again, it is written : " We have the more firm 
prophetical word, whereunto you do well to attend, as to a 
light that shineth in a dark place." 2 

But although the assent of faith is by no means a blind mo- 
tion of the mind, still no man can assent to Gospel teaching, 
in the way necessary to obtain salvation, without the en- 
lightenment and inspiration of the Holy Spirit, who gives 
sweetness to all in accepting and believing the truth. 3 Where- 
fore, faith, even when it does not work by charity, is in itself 
a gift of God, and the act of faith is a work appertaining to 
salvation, by which man yields a free obedience to God, by 
consenting to, and co-operating with, His grace, which he 
might resist. 

Further, all those things are to be believed with divine 
and Catholic faith which are contained in the Word of God, 
written or handed down, and which the Church, either by a 
solemn judgment, or by her ordinary and universal magisterial 
teaching purposes for belief as having been divinely revealed. 

And since, without faith, it is impossible to please God, 
and to attain fellowship with his children, therefore without 
it no one was ever justified, nor shall any one obtain eternal 
life unless he shall persevere in it unto the end. And, that 
we may be able to satisfy the obligation of embracing the 
true faith and of constantly persevering in it, God has insti- 
tuted the Church through His only begotten Son, and has 
furnished her with manifest marks that he has instituted her, 
so that she may be recognized by all as the guardian and the 
teacher of the revealed Word ; for to the Catholic Church 
alone belong all those things, so many and so marvellous, 
which have been divinely arranged to render evident the 
credibility of the Christian Faith. Nay more, the Church, 
pf herself, by reason of her admirable propagation, her 

1 Mark, xvi. 20. * II. Peter, i. 19. 

* Council -.>f Orange II. can. 7, 

On the Catholic Faith. 7 

eminent holiness, and her inexhaustible fecundity in every- 
thing good, by reason of her Catholic unity and her invincible 
stability, is a great and perpetual motive of credibility, and 
an irrefragable witness of her own divine mission. 

Whence it happens that, like a sign set up to the nations, 1 
she both invites to her those who have not yet believed, and 
assures her children that the faith which they profess rests on the 
strongest foundation ; which testimony is efficaciously sup- 
ported by the strength from above. For our most benign 
Lord, by His grace, stirs up and helps the straying that they 
may arrive at a knowledge of the truth, and those whom He 
has brought out of darknesss into His own admirable light 
He strengthens by His grace to persevere in that light, 
deserting none unless he be deserted. Therefore there is no 
parity between the condition of those who have adhered to 
the Catholic truth by the heavenly gift of faith, and of those 
who, led by human opinions, follow a false religion ; for those 
who have received the faith under the teaching of the Church 
can never have any just cause for changing or doubting that 
faith. This being so, whilst we return thanks to God the 
Father who has made us worthy to share in the portion of 
the saints in light, let us not neglect so great a salvation, but 
with our eyes fixed on Jesus, the author and finisher of our 
faith, let us keep unalterably the confession of our hope. 



The Catholic Church perpetually and unanimously has also 
held and holds that there is a two-fold order of knowledge, 
distinct not only in principle but also in object ; in principle, 
because in the one, knowledge comes by natural reason, and 
in the other by divine faith ; in object, because, besides those 
things which natural reason can reach, there are proposed to 
us for our belief mysteries hidden in God, which, unless di- 
vinely revealed, cannot be known. Wherefore the Apostle, 
who testifies that God is known by the nations through 
created things, still, when treating of the grace and truth 
which came by Jesus Christ 2 says : We speak the wisdom 
of God in a mystery, a wisdom which is hidden, which God 
ordained before the world unto our glory, which none of the 

princes of this world knew but to us God hath 

revealed them by his spirit. For the spirit searcheth all 
things, yea the deep things of God. 8 And the only begotten 

1 Isaiah xi. 12. * John, i. 17. 'I Cor. ii. 7-9. 

8 Dogmatic Constitution 

Son himself confesses to the Father, because he has hid 
these things from the wise and prudent, and has revealed 
them to little ones. 1 

And reason, indeed, enlightened by faith, when it seeks 
carefully, piously, and soberly, attains by God's gift some, 
and that a very fruitful, understanding of mysteries, as 
well from the analogy of those things which it naturally knows, 
as from the close relations which the mysteries bear to one 
another and to the last end of man ; but reason never be- 
comes capable of apprehending mysteries as it does those 
truths which constitute its proper object. For the divine 
mysteries by their own nature so far transcend the created intel- 
lect, that, even when manifested by revelation and received 
by faith, they remain covered with the veil of faith itself, 
and enveloped, as it were in a certain mist, so long as we are 
pilgrims in this mortal life apart from God j for we walk by 
faith and not by sight. 2 

But although faith is above reason, there can still never 
be any true opposition between faith and reason, since the 
same God who reveals mysteries and infuses faith has be- 
stowed* the light of reason on the human mind, and God 
cannot deny himself, nor can truth ever contradict truth. The 
empty semblance of this contradiction is mainly due to the 
fact, that either the dogmas of faith have not been understood 
and expounded according to the mind of the Church, or that 
rash conceits have been taken for the judgments of reason. 
We define, therefore, that every assertion contrary to the 
truth of enlightened faith is utterly false. 8 Further, the 
Church, which, together with the Apostolic office of teaching 
has received the charge of guarding the deposit of faith, 
derives from God the right and the duty of proscribing 
science falsely so named, lest any should be deceived by 
philosophy and vain deceit. 4 Therefore all faithful Christians 
are not only forbidden to defend, as legimitate conclusions 
of science, such" opinions as are known to be contrary to the 
teaching of faith, especially if such have been reprobated 
by the Church, but rather are absolutely bound to hold them 
to be errors clothed in a delusive semblance of truth. 

And not only can faith and reason never be at variance with 
one another, but they afford each other mutual assistance ; 
for right reason demonstrates the foundations of faith, and, 
illumined by its light, cultivates the science of things divine ; 
while faith frees and guards reason from errors, and furnishes 
it with manifold knowledge. So far, therefore, is the Church 

1 Matt. xi. 25. ' II. Cor. v. 7. 

1 V. Council of Lateran, Bull Apostoliti regiminis. * Colos*. il. 8. 

On the Catholic Faith, 9 

from opposing the cultivation of human arts and sciences, that 
she in many ways helps and promotes it ; for she is neither igno- 
rant of nor despises the benefits to human life which result from 
them, but confesses that, as they came from God, the Lord 
of sciences, so, if they be rightly treated, they lead to God by the 
help of His grace. Nor does the Church forbid that each of 
these sciences within its own sphere should make use of its 
own principles and its own method, but, while recognizing 
this just liberty she is sedulously on her guard, lest by 
opposing the divine teaching, they assume the patronage of 
errors, or lest going beyond their own boundary, they invade 
and trouble the domain of faith. 

For the doctrine of faith which God has revealed has not 
been proposed as a philosophical invention, to be perfected by 
human talent, but has been delivered as a divine deposit 
to the Spouse of Christ, to be faithfully kept and infallibly ex- 
pounded. Hence, also, that meaning of the sacred dogmas is 
perpetually to be retained which Holy Mother Church has once 
set forth, nor is that meaning ever to be departed from under the 
appearance and pretence of more profound intelligence. Let 
then the intelligence, science, and wisdom of each and all, of 
individuals and of the whole Church, in all ages and at all times, 
increase and flourish abundantly and vigorously, but only in 
its own proper sphere, that is to say, in the same dogma, the 
same sense 1 and the same opinion. 1 



1. If anyone shall deny one true God, Creator and Lord of 
things visible and invisible ; let him be anathema. 

2. If anyone shall shamelessly affirm that besides matter 
nothing exists ; let him be anathema. 

3. If anyone shall say that the substance or essence of God 
and of all things is one and the same ; let him be anathema. 

4. If anyone shall say that finite things, both corporeal 
and spiritual, or at least spiritual, have emanated from the 
divine substance ; 

or that the divine essence by the manifestation or develop- 
ment of itself, becomes all things ; 

or, in fine, that God is a universal or indefinite being, which 
by determining itself constitutes the universality of things, 
distributed according to genera, species, and individuals ; let 
him be anathema. 

1 Vincent of Lerins, Common, n. 28. 

io Dogmatic Constitution 

5. If anyone confess not that the world, and all things 
contained in it, both spiritual and material, have been in their 
whole substance produced by God out of nothing ; 

or shall say that God created not of His will free from all 
neceessity, but as necessarily as He necessarily loves Him- 
self ; 

or shall deny that the world was made for the glory of God ; 
let him be anathema. 


1. If anyone shall say that the one and true God, our 
Creator and Lord, cannot be known with certainty by the 
natural light of human reason through created things ; let him 
be anathema. 

2. If anyone shall say that it is impossible or inexpedient 
that man by divine revelation should be instructed regarding 
God and the worship to be paid to him ; let him be anathema. 

3. If anyone shall say that man cannot be raised by divine 
power to a knowledge and perfection higher than that which is 
natural, but that he of himself can and ought, by a conti- 
nuous improvement, at length arrive at the possession of all 
that is true and good ; let him be anathema. 

4. If anyone shall not receive as sacred and canonical the 
books of Holy Writ, entire with all their parts, as the holy 
Synod of Trent enumerated them, or shall deny that they 
have been divinely inspired ; let him be anathema. 


1. If anyone shall say that human reason is so indepen- 
dent that faith cannot be required of it by God ; let him be 

2. If anyone shall say that divine faith is not distinguished 
from the natural knowledge of God and of moral things, and 
that therefore it is not essential to divine faith that revealed 
truth be believed because of the authority of God, who reveals ; 
let him be anathema. 

3. If anyone shall say that divine revelation cannot be made 
credible by outward signs, and therefore that men must be 
moved to faith by each one's sole internal experience, or by 
private inspiration ; let him be anathema. 

4. If anyone shall say that no miracles can be performed, 
and therefore that all narratives of them, even those con- 
tained in Holy Writ, are to be classed among fables or myths ; 
or that miracles can never be known with certainty, and that 
the divine origin of Christianity cannot be proved by them ; 
let him be anathema. 

On tin Catliolic Faith. 1 1 

5. If anyone shall say that the assent of Christian faith is 
not free, but that it is necessarily produced by the arguments 
of human reason ; or that the grace of God is necessary only 
for the living faith which worketh by charity ; let him be 

6. If anyone shall say that the condition of the faithful and 
of those who have not yet arrived at the only true faith is equal, 
so that Catholics suspending their assent may have just cause 
for doubting the faith already received under the teaching of 
the Church, until they shall have completed a scientific de- 
monstration of the credibility and truth of their faith ; let him 
be anathema. 


1. If anyone shall say that in divine revelation no true 
mysteries properly so called are contained, but that all the 
dogmas of faith can be understood and demonstrated from 
natural principles by reason properly cultivated ; let him be 

2. If anyone shall say that human sciences are to be 
handled with such freedom that their conclusions, although 
they may be opposed to revealed doctrine, are to be retained 
as true, and cannot be proscribed by the Church ; let him be 

3. If anyone shall say that sometimes it may happen that 
according to the progress of science, a sense different from 
that which the Church has- understood and understands is to 
be given to dogmas taught by the Church ; let him be 

Therefore, fulfilling the duty of our supreme pastoral office, 
we entreat, by the bowels of Jesus Christ, and by the authority 
of the same God our Saviour we command all the faithful of 
Christ, and chiefly those who preside or exercise the ministry 
of teaching, zealously and devotedly to labour in warding off 
and banishing from holy Church these errors, and in spreading 
the true light of pure faith. 

And since it is not sufficient to shun heretical pravity, unless 
those errors also be diligently avoided which approach it more 
or less closely, we admonish all of the duty of also observing 
the constitutions and decrees by which all such evil opinions 
not here distinctly enumerated have been proscribed and pro- 
hibited by the Holy See. 

12 First Dogmatic Constitution 




The eternal Pastor and Bishop of our souls, in order to 
render perpetual the life-giving work of His redemption, 
determined to build the Holy Church, wherein, as in the 
House of the living God, all the faithful might be united in 
the bond of one faith and charity. Wherefore, before en- 
tering into His glory, He prayed unto the Father, not for 
the apostles only, but for those also who through their 
preaching should come to believe in Him, that all might be 
one, even as the Son and the Father are one. As then the 
apostles whom he had chosen to Himself from the world were 
sent by Him, not otherwise than He Himself had been 
sent by the Father ; so did He will that there should 
ever be pastors and teachers in His Church to the end of 
the world. But in order that the Episcopate might be 
one and undivided, and that by means of a closely united 
priesthood the whole multitude of the faithful might be pre- 
served in the unity of faith and communion, placing Blessed 
Peter over the rest of the Apostles, He established in him the 
abiding principle of this twofold unity, and its visible founda- 
tion, that upon its strength the everlasting temple should be 
built, and the sublime structure of the Church destined to 
reach the heavens, should rest on the firmness of this faith. 1 
And since the gates of hell, with daily increasing hatred, 
endeavour on all sides to overthrow, if possible, the Church, 
by upheaving the foundation thus set by God ; We, for the 
preservation, safe-keeping, and increase of the Catholic flock, 
with the approval of the sacred Council, do judge it to be 
necessary to propose to the belief and acceptance of all the 
faithful, in accordance with the ancient and constant faith of 
the universal Church, the doctrine regarding the institution, 
perpetuity, and nature of the sacred Apostolic Primacy in 

1 S. Leo M, serm. iv. (al. iii.)~cap. 2. in diem Natalis sui. 

On tJtc Church of Christ. 1 3 

which consists the strength and solidity of the entire Church, 
and to proscribe and condemn the contrary errors, so baneful 
to the flock of Christ. 



We, therefore, teach and declare that, according to the 
testimony of the Gospel, the primacy of jurisdiction over the 
Universal Church of God, was promised to and conferred on 
Blessed Peter the Apostle, immediately and directly by 
Christ the Lord. For it was to Simon alone (to whom he 
had said before : thou shalt be called Cephas 1 ), that after- 
wards, on occasion of the confession made by him : thou art 
the Christ, the Son of the living God the Lord addressed the 
words : Blessed art thou Simon Bar- Jona,. because flesh and 
blood hath not revealed it to thee, but my father who is in 
heaven. And I say to thee that thou art Peter ; and upon this 
rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not 
prevail against it. And I will give to thee the keys of the 
Kingdom of Heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon 
earth, it shall be bound also in heaven ; and whatsoever thou 
shalt loose upon earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven. 2 And 
it was upon Simon alone that Jesus, after His resurrection, 
bestowed the jurisdiction of Chief Pastor and Ruler over all His 
fold in the words : Feed my lambs : feed my sheep. 3 At open 
variance with this clear doctrine of Holy Scripture, as it has 
been ever understood by the Catholic Church, are the perverse 
opinions of those, who, distorting the form of government 
established by Christ the Lord in His Church, deny that 
Peter in his single person, in preference to all the other 
Apostles, whether taken separately or together, was endowed 
by Christ with a true and proper primacy of jurisdiction ; 
or of those who assert that the same primacy was not bestowed 
immediately and directly upon Blessed Peter himself, but 
upon the Church, and through the Church on Peter as her 

If anyone, therefore, shall say that Blessed Peter the Apostle 
was not appointed by Christ our Lord the Prince of all the 
Apostles, and the visible Head of the whole Church militant; or 
that the same directly or immediately received from the same 
Lord Jesus Christ a Primacy of honor only, and not of true 
and proper jurisdiction ; let him be anathema. 

'Joan. i. 42. *Matt. xvi. 16-19. Joan. xxi. 15-17. 

14 First Dogmatic Constitution 



What the prjnce of shepherds and great shepherd of the 
sheep, Jesus Christ our Lord, established in the person of the 
blessed apostle Peter, to secure the perpetual welfare and 
lasting good of the Church, the same must, by the power of 
its founder, necessarily remain for evermore in the Church ; 
which, being founded upon the Rock, is to stand firm to 
the end of ages. For none can doubt, and indeed it is 
known to all ages, that the holy and blessed Peter, the 
prince and chief of the apostles, the pillar of the faith and 
foundation of the Catholic Church, received the keys of the 
kingdom from our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour and 
Redeemer of the human race, and that in his successors, the 
Bishops of the Holy See of Rome, founded by him, and 
consecrated by his blood, he lives and presides, and judges 
up to the present time and always.' Whence, whosoever 
succeeds Peter in this See, by the institution of Christ himself, 
obtains the Primacy of Peter over the whole Church. The 
disposition made by truth therefore remains, and Blessed 
Peter, abiding in the strength of the rock that he received, 
has not abandoned the helm of the Church, 2 of which he 
took charge. On this account it has at all times been neces- 
sary that every Church that is to say, the faithful throughout 
the world should agree with the Roman Church, on account 
of its more powerful princedom, that all being associated in 
that See whence the rights of communion spread to all, as 
members united under the head, might combine to form one 
connected body. 3 

If, then anyone, shall say that it is not by the institution 
of Christ the Lord, or by divine right, that Blessed Peter 
has a perpetual line of successors in the Primacy over the 
Universal Church ; or that the Roman Pontiff is not the 
successor of Blessed Peter in this Primacy ; let him be 



Wherefore, resting on plain testimonies of the Sacred 
writings, and in accordance both with the clear and express 

J Cf. Ephestni Concilii Act. iii. et S. Petri Chrysol. ep. ad Eutch. presbyt. 
1 S. Leo M. Serm. iii. (al ii.) cap. 3. 

S. Iren. adv. hter. 1. iii. c. 3. et Epist. Cone, Aquilei. a. 381. ad Gratian: 

On the Church of Christ. 1 5 

decrees of our predecessors, the Roman Pontiffs, and of 
General Councils, we renew the definition of the (Ecumenical 
Council of Florence, in virtue of which all the faithful of 
Christ must believe that the holy Apostolic See and the 
Roman Pontiff holds the primacy over the whole world, 
and that the Roman Pontiff is the successor of Blessed Peter, 
Prince of the Apostles, and true Vicar of Christ, Head of the 
whole Church, and father and teacher of [all Christians ; 
and that to him in Blessed Peter was given by Jesus Christ 
our Lord full power to feed, rule, and govern the universal 
Church : as is also contained in the acts of the general Councils 
and in the sacred canons. 

Further, we teach and declare that, by the appointment of 
our Lord, the Roman Church possesses the supreme authority 
of ordinary jurisdiction over all other Churches, and that this 
power of jurisdiction of the Roman Pontiff, which is truly 
episcopal, is immediate ; to which all, both pastors and faithful, 
of whatsoever rite and dignity, both individually and collec- 
tively, are bound to submit, by the duty of hierarchical sub- 
ordination and true obedience, not only in matters belonging 
to faith and morals, but also in those that appertain to the 
discipline and government of the Church throughout the world, 
so that through the preservation of unity both of communion 
and of the profession of the same faith with the Roman Pontiff, 
the Church of Christ may be one flock under one supreme 
pastor. This is the teaching of the Catholic truth, from which 
no one can deviate without detriment to faith and salvation. 

But so far is this power of the Supreme Pontiff from being 
prejudicial to that ordinary and immediate power of episcopal 
jurisdiction, by which the Bishops, who, having been set by the 
Holy Spirit, have succeeded to the place of the Apostles, 
feed and govern, as true Pastors, each the flock assigned to 
him, that this episcopal authority is really sustained, strength- 
ened, and vindicated by the supreme and universal Pastor; 
in accordance with the words of St. Gregory the Great : 
My honour is the honour of the whole Church. My honour 
is the firm strength of my brethren. When due honour is 
not denied to each of them, then am I truly honoured.! 

Moreover, from this supreme power possessed by the Roman 
Pontiff of governing the Universal Church, it follows that he 
has the right of freely communicating in the exercise of this 
his office with the Pastors of the whole Church, and with their 
flocks, that these may be taught and governed by him in the 
way of salvation. Wherefore we condemn and reject the 
opinions of those who hold that the communication between 

1 S. Cregor. M . ad Eulog. Alexandria. 1. viii. ep. xxx. 

1 6 First Dogmatic Constitution 

the supreme Head and the Pastors and their flocks can lawfully 
be impeded ; or who represent this communication as subject to 
the will of the secular power, so as to assert that whatever is 
done for the government of the Church by the Apostolic See, 
or by its authority, cannot have force or value, unless it be 
confirmed by the assent of the secular power. 

And since by divine right of the Apostolic primacy, the 
Roman Pontiff presides over the Universal Church, we further 
teach and declare that he is the supreme judge of the faith- 
ful, 1 and that in all causes appertaining to ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction, recourse may be had to his judgment ; 2 and that 
none may re-open the judgment of the Apostolic See, than 
whose there is no greater authority, and that it is not lawful 
for any one to sit in judgment on its judgments. 3 Wherefore 
they depart from the straight path of truth who assert that it 
is lawful to appeal from the decisions of the Roman Pontiffs 
to an (Ecumenical Council, as to an authority superior to the 
Roman Pontiff. 

If, then, anyone shall say that the Roman Pontiff has the 
office only of inspection or direction, but not full and supreme 
power of jurisdiction over the Universal Church, not alone in 
things which belong to faith and morals, but in those which 
relate to the discipline and government of the Church spread 
throughout the world ; or who assert that he possesses merely 
the principal part, and not all the fulness of this supreme 
power ; or that this power which he enjoys is not ordinary 
and immediate, whether over each and all the Churches, or 
over each and all the Pastors and the faithful ; let him be 




Moreover, that the supreme power of teaching is also in- 
cluded in the Apostolic primacy, which the Roman Pontiff, as 
the successor of Peter, Prince of the Apostles, enjoys over the 
whole Church, this Holy See has always held, the perpetual 
practice of the Church attests, and (Ecumenical Councils 
themselves have declared, especially those in which the East 
with the West met in the union of faith and charity. For the 
Fathers of the fourth Council of Constantinople, following in 

1 Pii PP. VI. Breve Super soliditatc, d. 28. Nov. 1786. 

* ConciL Oecum. Lugdun. ii. 

Ep. Nicolai I. ad Michaelera Imperatorem. ' 

On tlie Church of Christ. 17 

the footsteps of their predecessors, issued this solemn pro- 
fession : The first condition of salvation is to keep the rule 
of the true faith. And because the sentence of our Lord 
Jesus Christ cannot be passed by, who said : Thou art Peter, 
and upon this Rock I will build my Church, these words, 
which have been said, are proved true by events, because in 
the Apostolic See the Catholic religion has always been kept 
immaculate, and the holy doctrine publicly maintained. There- 
fore, nowise desiring to be separated from the faith and 
doctrine of that See, we hope to be worthy to be in the one 
communion proclaimed by the Apostolic See in which is the 
entire and true solidity of the Christian religion. 1 

And with the approval of the second Council of Lyons, the 
Greeks professed: that the Holy Roman Church enjoyssupreme 
and full primacy and pre-eminence over the whole Catholic 
Church, which primacy it truthfully and humbly acknowledges 
to have received with the plenitude of power from our Lord 
Himself in the person of Blessed Peter, Prince or head of 
the Apostles, of whom the Roman Pontiff is successor ; and 
as the Apostolic See is bound before all others to defend the 
truth of faith, so also if any questions regarding faith shall 
arise, they must be defined by its judgment. 

Finally, the Council of Florence defined : That the Roman 
Pontiff is the true Vicar of Christ, and the head of the whole 
Church, and the father and teacher of all Christians ; and 
that to him in Blessed Peter was delivered by our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the full power of feeding, ruling, and governing the 
whole Church. 

To satisfy this pastoral duty our predecessors ever made 
unwearied efforts that the salutary doctrines of Christ might be 
propagated among all the nations of the earth, and with equal 
care watched that it might be preserved sincere and pure where 
it had been received. Wherefore the Bishops of the whole 
world, sometimes individually, sometimes assembled in synod, 
following the long-established custom of the churches, and 
the form of the ancient rule, 2 reported to this Apostolic See 
those dangers especially which arose in matters of faith, that 
there chiefly the losses of faith might be repaired where 
the faith cannot fail. And the Roman Pontiffs, accord- 
ing to the exigencies of times and circumstances, sometimes 
assembling CEcumenical Councils, or inquiring into the mind 
of the Church scattered throughout the world, sometimes 
by particular Synods, sometimes using the other helps supplied 

M formula S. Hormivloe Papte, prout ab Hadriano II. Fatribus Concilii 
Oeaimenici VIII., Constantinopolitani IV., proposita et ab iisdem subscripta est. 
1 Cf. S. Bern. Epi^t. 190. 


1 8 First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ. 

by Divine Providence, defined that those doctrines were to be 
held, which, with the help of God, they had found to be confor- 
mable to the sacred Scriptures and apostolic Traditions. For 
the Holy Spirit was not promised to the successors of Peter that 
by His revelation they might proclaim any new doctrine, but 
that with His assistance they might scrupulously keep and faith- 
fully expound the revelation delivered through the Apostles, 
that is, the deposit of the Faith. And indeed all the venerable 
Fathers have embraced and the holy orthodox Doctors have 
reverently followed their apostolic doctrine ; knowing most 
fully that this see of holy Peter remains ever free from all 
blemish of error according to the divine promise of the Lord 
our Saviour made to the Prince of His disciples: I have prayed 
for thee that thy faith fail not, and thou, at length converted, 
confirm thy brethren. 

This gift, then, of truth and never-failing faith was con- 
ferred by Heaven upon Peter and his successors in this Chair, 
that they might perform their high office for the salvation of 
all ; that the whole flock of Christ, turned away by them from 
the poisonous food of error, might be nourished with the 
food of heavenly doctrine ; that the occasion of schism being 
removed the whole Church might be kept one, and, resting on 
its foundation, might stand firm against the gates of hell. 

But since in this very age, in which the salutary efficacy of 
the Apostolic office is more than ever required, not a few are 
found who carp at its authority, we judge it altogether 
necessary solemnly to assert the prerogative which the only- 
begotten Son of God has vouchsafed to join with the supreme 
pastoral office. 

Therefore, faithfully adhering to the tradition received 
from the beginning of the Christian faith, for the glory of God 
our Saviour, the exaltation of the Catholic religion, and the 
salvation of Christian people, with the approbation of the 
Sacred Council,.we teach and define it to be a dogma divinely 
revealed : that when the Roman Pontiff speaks ex cathedra, 
that is, when in discharge of the office of Pastor and Teacher 
of all Christians, by virtue of his supreme Apostolic authority, 
he defines that a doctrine regarding faith or morals is to be 
held by the Universal Church, he enjoys, by the divine assist- 
ance promised to him in Blessed Peter, that infallibility with 
which the divine Redeemer willed His Church to be endowed 
in defining a doctrine regarding faith or morals ; and that 
therefore such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreform- 
able of themselves, and not from the consent of the Church. 

But if anyone which may God avert presume to contra- 
dict this our definition ; let him be anathema. . 



{.sN a summer's day, some fourteen hundred years ago, St. 
Enda of Aran, as his ancient life tells us, knelt by the shore 
of the harbour where Lough Corrib joins the sea, to ask a 
blessing on the fishermen who then plied their craft in Galway 
Bay. 1 On a summer's day in the present year, from the very 
spot where our saint had prayed, we set sail to visit, in love 
and reverence, the remote Aran, which his virtues had changed 
from a Pagan isle into Aran of the Saints. And as the faint 
breeze bore us slowly over the waters that lay almost motion- 
less in the summer calm, we gazed with admiration upon a 
scene which, at least in its larger outlines, was but little 
changed since St. Enda and his pilgrim band had first looked 
upon it. Before us there lay stretched out the same expanse 
of sea, fringed on one side by the dark plains of lar-Connaught, 
along which the eye travelled from the white cliffs of Barna to 
where the Connemara mountains, in soft blue masses, stood out 
in fantastic clusters against the sky. On the other side ran the 
Clare coastline, now retreating before the deep sea-inlets, and 
now breasting the Atlantic with bold promontories like that of 
gloomy Black-Head, or with gigantic cliffs like those of Mohir. 
And as the day closed, and we watched the evening breeze 
steal out from land, crisping the water into wavelets that 
presently rippled against the vessel's side ; and as we saw 
the golden glory of the sunset flush with indescribable love- 
liness, earth, and sea, and sky, we thought how often in bygone 
days, the view of Aran rising, as we then saw it, out of the 
sunlit waves, had brought joy to the pilgrim who was journey- 
ing to find rest upon its rocky shore : 

And as I view the line of light that plays 

Along the smooth waves, towards the burning west, 

I long to tread that golden path of rays, 
And think 'twill lead to some bright isle of rest. 

It was some such thoughts as these that stirred St. Enda's 
heart when he cried out that Aran was to be the place of his 
resurrection, where, in his flesh, he was to look upon the face 
of his God ; it was through some such feeling that St. Columba, 
after lavishing upon the Aran of his soul every term of endear- 
ment, crowned at length his praise by calling it the " Rome of 
the pilgrim." 2 

1 Colgan, Acta SS., page 709, n. 25. 
> See infra, St. Columba's " Farewell to Aran." 

20 A Visit to the A ran-More of St. Enda. 

The Aran isles arc three in number, named respectively, 
Inishmore (the large island), Inishmain (the middle island), 
and Inisheen (the eastern island). The eastern island is 
the smallest of the three, and is about two-and-a-half miles 
long ; the middle island is three miles long ; the largest 
is about nine miles in length, and twenty-four in circum- 
ference. The entire group contains about 11,288 acres, of 
which only 742 are productive. Geologically considered, the 
islands belong to the upper division of carboniferous limestone. 
Mention is made of Aran at a very early period of Irish 
history. The most authoritative of our ancient Irish MSS. 
relate that after the great battle of Moytura, on the shores 
of Loughs Corrib and Mask, in which the Firbolgs or Bel- 
gae, after four days' fighting, were defeated by the Tuatha 
de Dannan, a portion of the Belgae crossed over to Aran, 
where as in an impregnable stronghold, they established 
themselves, about the beginning of the Christian era. One 
of their leaders was Engus MacUathmore, after whom 
the great fort or dun on Inishmore was named. About 
the year of our Lord 480, the island was inhabited by in- 
fidels from Corcomroe, the adjacent part of Clare. About 
that date, St. Enda received the island by the donation of 
Engus, King of Munster, whose wife, Darenia, was St. Enda's 
own sister. The Pagans were converted to Christianity, or 
quitted the island, which, under St Enda, soon became one 
of the great Christian sanctuaries of the west of Europe. The 
Annals of the Four Masters tell of a great conflagration at 
Aran in the year 1020, and of the devastation wrought there 
by the Normans or Danes in the year 1081. At a later 
period it was held by the O'Briens, the head of whom, 
commonly called MacTeige O'Brien, kept his residence at 
Aircin or Arkin, on the great island. The O'Briens were ex- 
pelled in their turn by the O'Flahertys, who, again, were 
dispossessed by Queen Elizabeth, under whom the castle of 
Arkin was erected in 1587, on the site of the residence of the 
O'Briens. Elizabeth gave the island to John Ransom, from 
whose hands it passed into the possession of Sir Robert 
Lynch, of Galway. In Cromwell's time this castle was pulled 
down, and a strong fort erected in its place, of which fort we 
shall have occasion to speak further on. In December, 1650, 
700 of the Irish landed here in boats, flying from defeat on the 
mainland, and were speedily followed by 1,300 of the English 
foot, with a battery. The Irish surrendered, and Sir R. Lynch 
having been declared a traitor, Erasmus Smith became owner 
of Aran. This crafty undertaker disposed of his interest to 
the Butlers, one of whom, in 1662, was created Earl of Aran ; 

A Visit to the Ar an- More of St. Enda. 21 

from the Butlers the islands passed through the Fitzpatricks 
to the Digbys, 1 who are the present owners. 

The present inhabitants, about 3,400 in number, mainly 
belong to the race that inhabits the south-western parts of 
Ireland. In their character, they exhibit the beautiful results 
of the action of the Catholic religion upon a stock gifted with 
fine intellect and great sensibility, under circumstances which 
allow that religion to exercise, without hindrance, its blessed 
influence. Their simple Catholic faith, so pure, so tender, and 
so fervent, is crowned in them with the crown of good works. 
They are a courteous, handsome, and amiable people, with a 
refinement of manner and a delicacy of sentiment, which 
surprised and delighted us. Their high intelligence, their 
good-natured readiness to oblige ; the total absence of the 
greed of gain, no less than their erect and graceful carriage, 
marked them out as something, of which we had not before 
seen the like. We bear cheerful witness to the accuracy of 
the following account of their social state, given by Dr. 
Petrie : 2 

" I had heard so much of the virtues of the Aran islanders, of 
their primitive simplicity, their ingenuous manners, and their 
singular hospitality, that I could not help doubting the truth of 
a picture so pleasing and romantic, and felt anxious to ascertain, 
by personal observation, how far it might be real. . . . Col- 
lectively, the inhabitants of the Aran islands may be said 
to exhibit the virtues of the Irish character with, perhaps, 
as little intermixture of its vices as the lot of humanity will 

" They are a brave and hardy race, industrious and enter- 
prising ; as is sufficiently evinced, not only by the daily in- 
creasing number of their fishing vessels, the barren rocks which 
they are covering with soil and making productive, but still 
more by the frequency of their emigration from their beloved 
country and friends to a distant wilderness, led solely by 
the hope that their indefatigable labour may be employed 
there to the greater ultimate benefit of their families. 

"They are simple and innocent, but also thoughtful and in- 
telligent, credulous, and in matters of faith, what persons of 
a different creed would call superstitious. . . . Lying and 
drinking the vices which Arthur Young considers as apper- 
taining to the Irish character form, at least, no part of it in 
Aran, for happily their common poverty holds out less temp- 
tation to the one or opportunity for the other. 

'See Ordnance Survey MSS., R.I. A. Lib., Galway, vol. 3, to which we arc 
much indebted, especially for details of measurement. 
8 Stokes's Lif of Tetrie, page 49. 50. 

22 A Visit to the Aran-More of St. Enda. 

"I do not mean to say that they are rigidly temperate, or that 
instances of excess, followed by the usual Irish consequences 
of broken heads, do not occasionally occur ; such could not be 
expected when their convivial temperament,and dangerous and 
laborious occupations are remembered. They never swear, 
and they have a high sense of decency and propriety, honour 
and justice. In appearance they are healthy, comely, and 
prepossessing ; in their dress (with few exceptions), clean and 
comfortable ; in manner, serious, yet cheerful, and easily ex- 
cited to gaiety ; frank and familiar in conversation, and to 
strangers polite and respectful ; but, at the same time, wholly 
free from servile adulation. They are communicative, but 
not too loquacious ; inquisitive after information, but delicate 
in seeking it, and grateful for its communication. 

" If the inhabitants of the Aran islands could be considered 
as a fair specimen of the ancient and present wild Irish the 
veriest savages in the globe, as the learned Pinkerton calls 
them those whom chance has led to their hospitable shores, 
to admire their simple virtues, would be likely to regret that 
the blessings of civilization had ever been extended to any 
portion of this very wretched country." 

Though poor, the Araners are not exposed to crushing want. 
The perennial harvest of the sea supplies these hardy 
fishermen with abundance of food ; their untiring industry 
covers the barren rock with a scanty crop ; their cattle are 
eagerly sought after in the markets of the mainland, and we 
believe that still, as in O'Flaherty's time, the young men 
are accustomed to go down, with ropes tied about them, into 
the caves of the cliffs to kill the wild birds that love to 
make their home therein. 1 Nor is the samphire-gatherer's 
perilous trade unknown to them. In addition, they export 
great quantities of kelp, to be used in the manufacture of 

We landed on Inishmore, at the little village of Kilronan, 
about thirty miles distant from Galway, and, after some rest, 
set out towards the south-west coast to visit the wonderful fort of 
Engus. Having gained the low hill that commands the village, 
we halted to contemplate the weird and dun landscape that 
surrounded us. It was a landscape peculiar to Aran. The 
island falls from the south-west, facing east and north ; and 
from the vantage ground on which we stood, the eye traversed 
fields upon fields of bare, dark-grey rocks, which now rose into 
hills, now sank into valleys, according to the action of the force 
that had originally upheaved the island itself. 

1 O'Flaherty's Ltr Connaught, page 69. 

A Visit to the Aran-More of St. Enda. 23 

But here, above, around, below, 

On mountain or in glen, 
No tree, nor shrub, nor plant, nor flower, 

Nor aught of vegetative power, 
The weary eye may ken ; 

For all is rocks at random thrown, 
Bleak waves, bare crags, and banks of stone. 

The ground was covered with rocks, not scattered and 
disjointed as they occur elsewhere, but spreading into im- 
mense sheets and tables of stone, sometimes sixty feet broad, 
as smooth as polished marble, and giving out beneath the 
tread a sonorous metallic ring. In some places these slabs 
rise tier upon tier, stone overlapping stone with a precise 
regularity of mass and form, which reminded you of masonry 
cunningly piled by giant hands. Winding in and out, in a 
thousand mazes, a thread of fresh green herbage could, on 
closer inspection, be traced along the hill side, up-springing 
where the natural cleavage of the rocks had left deep fissures, 
now and then widening into a patch of verdure, in which 
wild flowers of every hue bloomed in luxuriance against the 
grey crag. Frequent enclosures of loose stones crossed each 
other in and out in almost countless ridges, until it seemed 
as if both rocks and verdure were covered with an iron network 
of most irregular pattern. 

The fertile portion of the island lies in the valley to the 
left of the road leading from Kilronan, and in it the principal 
religious establishments were erected. We passed a group of 
Araners engaged in gathering the harvest, by the simple pro- 
cess of tearing up the corn by the root. On either side of the 
road we remarked, at irregular intervals, monuments raised 
to the memory of the dead. They stood sometimes singly, 
sometimes in groups, almost in each case surmounted by the 
cross, and consisting of a square pile of masonry, about seven 
feet in height. A rude cornice, about half way from the top, 
divided them into two portions, the upper of which bore a 
tablet, having inscribed upon it a prayer for the soul of the 
departed one, to whose memory the pile had been raised. How 
touching is the solicitude thus displayed by those good Catho- 
lics to procure prayers for the souls of their beloved dead ! 
The bodies of the deceased were interred in the far-off ceme- 
teries, where the saints repose ad sanctos as the sepulchral 
slabs in the Roman catacombs express it ; but as these out- 
lying places were remote from the centres of the'population 
and seldom visited by men, the loving Catholic instincts of the 
people suggested the erection of these monuments of prayer 

24 A Visit to the Ar an- More of St. Enda. 

by the wayside, that all who passed by might bestow on the 
faithful departed the suffrages of their charity. 

Leaving the road at a point where a sudden fault in the 
dark rocks allows the waves to wash a narrow strip of beach 
covered with sand of pearly whiteness, we crossed the fields 
towards the hill upon which Dun Engus stands. On reaching 
the south-west coast, we descended through an opening in the 
tall cliffs, down to the water-line, where the Atlantic was surg- 
ging heavily against the solid rock. What a scene lay before 
us ! On the one hand the cliffs rose sheer from the water 
with surfaces seamed, and scarred, and torn by the tremendous 
violence of the billows driven in upon them, by centuries 
of winter tempests. At our feet the waves were breaking 
on the lowest shelf of rock, leaving uncovered (it was low 
tide), a hard ledge honey-combed by the water into countless 
cavities, some deep, where lived the richly-coloured sea-ane- 
mones and other wonders of the shore, others shallow, from 
which we gathered handfuls of salt, extracted from the brine 
by the fierce heat of the sun. On the right, a sudden turn 
brought us to where the rocks rose into a noble arch (which 
recalled forcibly to our mind one of the arches in the Temple 
of Peace in the Roman Forum), spanning a polished pave- 
ment, in the middle of which a pool of water azure blue, 
carried from the sea through subterranean conduits, rose 
and fell within a basin, hewn, as if by hands, in the living 
rock. On climbing the almost vertical escarpment at the 
opening of this grotto, we found a second ledge of rock 
some thirty feet in breadth, over which, at high water, the 
waves rush to dash themselves against a still higher range of 
precipitous cliffs. On the summit of this range the soft grass 
grows to the very brink. This height commands a sea pros- 
pect which is said to be one of the noblest in the world. The 
vast Atlantic stretching inimitably towards the south and 
west, the extensive coasts of Kerry and Clare, with head- 
lands and lofty mountains, and islands far off in sight, must 
be seen in the calm bright sunshine as we saw them, in order 
to form any idea of the sublimity and beauty of the view. 

Crowning the cliff, where it rises precipitously from the sea 
some three hundred and two feet, stands the fort of Dun 
Engus, the finest specimen of a barbaric fortress now existing 
in Europe, or perhaps in the world. We approached it, not 
from the land side, but by a route skirting the edge of the 
cliff, and we shall endeavour to describe each portion of it in 
the order in which it actually fell under our notice. First, we 
came upon a dry stone wall, an irregular ellipse in form, which, 
in its entire circuit from cliff to cliff, encloses a spaqe of about 

A Visit to t/te At an- More of St. Enda. 25 

eleven acres. This wall is very much injured, and is the 
outermost of the three walls which protected the fort. It was 
built in two divisions, after a fashion which we shall describe 
in treating of the two inner walls. At a considerable dis- 
tance from this outermost wall, we came upon an army of 
white sharp-pointed stones, set slopewise in the earth, reaching 
all round breast high, save where a narrow avenue was left. 
This belt runs all round the second wall from cliff to cliff, and 
is in some places thirty feet broad. It fully answers the pur- 
pose of an abbatis or the chcvanx de frise of modern fortifica- 
tions, and must have proved a most formidable defence. No 
assailing party could possibly approach the second rampart, 
except through the avenue, without having its ranks broken 
and disordered by its thick and intricate piles of rock. Be- 
tween the chevanx de frise and the second rampart there is a 
fragment of another wall, about seven feet in height, and 
covering only about one-tenth part of the second interior line 
of defence. This second interior defence consists of a cyclo- 
pean wall surrounding the fort itself at irregular distances, 
being about thirty-two feet distant from it at the western side, 
near the cliff, and about forty-two on the north-western side. 
It is about six feet thick and twelve high, and like the outer- 
most wall is built in two concentric divisions. Within this 
second rampart the space to the central fortification is clear. 
The central fortification consists of an immense oval wall, 
composed of three distinct walls built up against each other, 
like the several coats of an onion, which arrangement occurs 
also in the two outermost enclosures, and in the other for- 
tresses of the same kind in Aran and elsewhere. At first it 
is difficult to understand why the walls were constructed 
thus in layers and not in solid masses. But this peculiarity 
is explained by the principle on which these fortresses are 
constructed, which is thus described by Mr. Ferguson, as ex- 
emplified in the Staigue fort in Kerry : " Within the (enclo- 
sure), at about six feet from the surface, the thickness of the 
wall is diminished by one-third, so as to leave a circular ledge, 
or tcrrc-plcine, of five or six feet in width, projecting all round. 
This ledge is reached by flights of stairs on the inner face of 
the wall. At a height of five or six feet higher another con- 
traction of the thickness of the rampart takes place, leaving a 
like ridge, or shelf of masonry, approached in like manner 
by steps from the former, and serving as a kind of banquette* 
to the parapet formed by the remaining height of the parapet. 

1 Banquettf, in modern fortification, is a little rai ed way or footbank, running 
along the inside of a parapet, on which the musketeers stand to fire upon the 
, in the moat or covered v>ay.Encyc. 

26 A Visit to the Aran-More of St. Etida. 

An arrangement in the building, exhibiting a good deal of 
military contrivance, is made subservient to the formation of 
these internal stages. Instead of building the rampart in bulk, 
and starting with a fresh face of masonry above each ledge, 
the Fir-Volg builders have, in every case, built their rampart 
from the foundation in as many concentric independent walls 
as they designed to have banquettes; so that if an enemy 
should succeed in breaching the external envelope, he would 
find immediately behind it a new face of masonry, instead of 
the easily-disturbed loose interior of a dry stone wall." 1 

The greatest height of this triple wall at present is about 
eighteen feet ; the inner division of the wall is about three 
feet thick ; the second or central, about five ; and the external 
about four ; giving in all a total thickness of about twelve 
feet. The height of the inner division at present is not more 
than seven feet. The entire central fort from the north side 
of the ring to the cliff, measures one hundred and fifty feet, 
and along the cliff, from wall to wall, west to east, one hun- 
dred and forty feet. On the north-west side of the ring, 
there is a passage leading from the inside into the thickness 
of the wall, about five feet in width, and four feet high from 
the bottom to the roof, where it is covered by large stones, 
placed horizontally. This was probably an apartment for the 
use of some of the garrison. A sloping roof, round the inner 
wall, would easily supply shelter for a large number of men. 

The door to the keep is in the north-eastern side, and is 
nearly perfect, resembling in its form that of the earlier 
churches. It is so much blocked up by the loose stones which 
have fallen from the walls, that we were compelled to enter 
on our hands and knees. The traces of stairs are still to 
be distinguished amid the ruin that has been wrought upon 
the walls by the winter blasts, and by the hand of man. The 
course of the banquette, especially along a portion of the 
eastern side, may be quite plainly discerned. 

The stones of which the walls are built are large and small, 
the large being employed in the outside, the small within. 
In no instance did we observe huge blocks like those employed 
in the so-called Cyclopean walls throughout Italy, such as 
we have admired in the walls of the ancient Tusculum. In- 
deed, in some of the Christian temples on the island, we 
found blocks much larger than any we could perceive in the 
ramparts of the Pagan Dun. 

Standing on the square blocks of stone which occupy 
portion of the area of the central fort, we looked in vain for 
some proof that the fort had originally been a complete oval. 
1 " Dublin University Magazine," January, 1853, pp. 92,^3. 

A Visit to t/u' A ran- More of St. Enda. 27 

Nor have we been convinced by any reasoning that has 
since come in our way that it ever was oval. It is true that the 
Aran islands and other places in Ireland exhibit frequent 
instances of round or oval fortresses of the class to which 
Dun Engus belongs, a near example being that of Dun Connor, 
on the middle island,which measures from north to south no less 
than two hundred and twenty seven feet. But it was difficult for 
one standing on the brow of the cliff, and scanning the small 
extent of the change made on the coast line abound him 
within the historical period, to believe that some hundred 
and fifty feet of the living solid rock had been eaten away by 
the action of the waves. Nor do we attach much weight to 
the argument that unless we admit the fortress to have been 
oval, it would have been left defenceless for a space of above 
a hundred feet. Surely, a sheer cliff rising from the sea to 
the height of three hundred and two feet, was a defence 
enough against any force that could be brought up against it 
in those days. Ledwich, who in his Antiquities describes Dun 
Engus as a monkish mandra, furnishes a print in which not 
only is the oval completed, but the modern houses of the 
monks are seen rising over the rampart, which in turn is 
shaded by tall and leafy trees, while in the foreground a 
group of religious are walking down a rocky pathway, orna- 
mented with large wooden crosses ! These wonders are, we 
need hardly say, entirely the product of his imagination. 
Wooden houses in Aran are as rare as leafy trees among its 
barren rocks ; and how rare these are there is little need to 
tell. And yet, for years Ledwich has thus impudently im- 
posed upon the credulity of his readers by a mendacious 
print, which he absolutely invented to sustain a foolish story 
advanced by him concerning St. Enda. It is consoling how- 
ever to reflect that the ancient glories of our Catholic island 
no longer form the exclusive domain of writers like this 
charlatan, whose ignorance was equalled only by his insolent 
attacks upon all that is dear to the heart of a Christian Irish- 

And now quitting these proud fortresses, where the pagan 
monarch paraded his fierce strength, let us visit the 
lowly places wherein Christian humility taught St. Enda, 
himself a king's son, to lead a life hidden with Christ in God. 

St. Enda, whose name is written in Irish, Einne and Ende, 
and in Latin, Endeus and Enna, was born in Louth about the 
middle of the fifth century, and was the only son of Conall, 
King of Oriel, whose territories included the modern counties 
of Louth, Monaghan, Armagh, and Fermanagh. Three of 
his sisters, Fanchea, Lochinia, and Carccha, were nuns, and 

28 A Visit to the Aran-More of St. Enda. 

Darenia, the fourth sister, was wife of Engus, King of Cashel, 
whose death is placed by the Four Masters in the year 489. 
On the death of his father, the youthful Enda was chosen 
to succeed him as head of the men of Oriel. The warlike 
spirit of the times took strong hold of the young prince's 
heart, and we find him at an early period of his life capti- 
vated by the love of glory, and eager to show by his military 
prowess that he was worthy of the royal race from which he 
had sprung, and of the throne which he filled. His holy 
sister Fanchea, was incessant in her exertions to win for 
God her brother's heart, which, with all its defects, she knew 
to be chivalrous and pure. For a time her words of warning 
and entreaty remained without result ; but the season of 
grace came soon. Enda had asked from his sister in mar- 
riage one of the royal maidens who were receiving their 
education in the convent which she ruled. Fanchea commu- 
nicated his request to the maiden : " Make thou thy choice, 
whether wilt thou love Him whom I love, or this earthly 
bridegroom ?" " Whom thou Icvest," was the girl's sweet reply, 
" Him also will I love." She died soon after, and gave her 
soul to God, the spouse whom she had chosen. 

" The holy virgin," says the ancient life, " covered the face 
of the dead girl with a veil, and going again to Enda said to 
him : " Young man, come and see the maiden whom thou 
lovest." Then Enda with the virgin entered the chamber where 
was the dead girl, and the holy virgin uncovering the face 
of the lifeless maiden, said to him : " Now look upon the face 
of her whom thou didst love." And Enda cried out : " Alas ! 
she is fair no longer, but ghastly white." " So also shalt 
thy face be," replied the holy virgin. And then St. Fanchea 
discoursed to him of the pains of hell and of the joys of 
heaven, until the young man's tears began to flow. O ! the 
wondrous mercy of God in the conversion of this man to the 
true faith ! for even as He changed the haughty Saul into the 
humble Paul, so out of this worldly prince did he make a 
spiritualand a holy teacher and pastor of His people. For having 
heard the words of the holy virgin, despising the vanities of 
the world, he took the monk's habit and tonsure, and what 
the tonsure signified, he fulfilled by his actions." 1 

After having founded a monastery in his native place, St\ 
Enda is said to have proceeded to Rosnat or Abba, in Britain, 
where he remained for some time under the spiritual direc- 
tion of St. Mansenus or Manchan. Thence, according to 
the above-mentioned life, he went to Rome, where " attentively 
studying the examples of the saints, and preparing himself 
'(VitaS. Endroi, auctore Augustino Magradin, apud Colgan, ActaS., p. 75-) 

A Visit to the Aran-More of St. Enda. 29 

in everything for the order of priesthood, having at length 
been ordained priest, he was pleasing to the most high God." 
He built a monastery called Lactinutn, or t/te Place of Joy ; 
and rightly so called, adds the life, "because therein the com- 
mand of loving God and our neighbour was most faithfully 
carried out." 

Returning to Ireland, he landed at Drogheda, and built 
several churches on either side of the river Boyne. lie 
then proceeded southwards to visit his brother-in-law, Engus, 
King of Munstcr, from whom he asked the island of Aran, 
that he might dwell thereon. The King was first unwilling 
to comply with his request : not because he was ungenerous, 
but because he had learned from St, Patrick " not to offer 
to the Lord his God, any lands save such as were good 
and fertile, and easy of access." 1 But St. Enda declared 
that Aran was to the place of his resurrection ; and at length 
the King made an offering of the island "to God and to 
St. Enda," asking in return the blessing of the Saint. 

Having thus obtained possession of what he rightly deemed 
a place of singular retirement, and well suited for the rigours 
of a penitential life, St. Enda returned to his brethren and 
conducted them in safety to the island, which was then in- 
habited by Pagans from the adjacent coast of Clare. He 
divided the island into ten parts, and built thereon ten 
monasteries, each under the rule of its proper superior. He 
chose a place for his own residence on the eastern coast, 
and there erected a monastery, the same and site of which 
is preserved to this day in the little village of Kil-eany 
(Kill-Enda), about a mile from Kilronan. One half of the 
island was assigned to this monastery. 

Then began the blessed days, when the sweet odour of 
penance ascended to heaven from the angelic band of monks, 
who, under the severe rule of St. Enda, made Aran a burning 
light of sanctity for centuries in western Europe. " The vir- 
ginal Saint from Aran Island," as Marianus O'Gorman 
styles St. Enda, was to them a model of all the virtues of 
the religious life, but above all he excelled in the exercise of 
penitential mortifications. St. Cuimin of Connor tells us that 

Enda loved glorious mortification 
In Aran triumphant virtue ! 
A narrow dungeon of flinty stone, 
To bring the people to heaven. 

" Aran," says Froude, 2 is no better than a wild rock. It 

1 Acta SS. , loco. cit. Short Studies, vol. 2, page 216. 

3O A Visit to the Ar an- More of St. Enda. 

is strewed over with the ruins which may still be seen of 
the old hermitages ; and at their best they could have been 
but such places as sheep would huddle under in a storm, 
and shiver in the cold and wet which would pierce through 
the chinks of the walls. . . . Yes ; there on that wet 
soil, with that dripping roof above them, was the chosen 
home of these poor men. Through winter frost, through 
rain and storm, through summer sunshine, generation after 
generation of them, there they lived and prayed, and at last 
lay down and died." 

These miracles of penance were the first and immediate 
results of St. Enda's work in Aran. 

It was in his life that these holy men had daily before them, 
the personal realization of all they were striving after : he 
taught them to cherish the flinty dungeon and the drip- 
ping cave for love of the hard manger, and the harder cross ; 
he bade them dwell amid the discomforts and dreariness of 
their island home, because in the tabernacles of sinners the 
blessed majesty of God was daily outraged by the crimes 
of men. Through him they came to know the gift of God, 
and who He was who spoke with them in their solitude; 
Whose converse made eloquent for them the silence of 
the night, and Whose angels peopled their lonely island 
with visions of heavenly beauty. "Trust to one who has 
had experience," his life said to them, as St. Bernard 
said to the monks of Citeaux, "you will find something 
far greater in the woods than you will find in books. Stones 
and trees will teach you that which you will never learn 
from masters. Think you not you can suck honey from the 
rock, and oil from the flinty rock ? Do not the mountains 
drop sweetness ? the hills run with milk and honey, and the 
valleys stand thick with corn ?"' We cannot indeed, de- 
scribe the details of his daily life, for they have been hidden 
from human view, as it is becoming that such secrets of the 
Heavenly King should be hidden. But there yet survives 
the voice of one of those who lived with him in Aran, and in 
the ideal of an abbot which St. Carthage sets before us, we 
undoubtedly find re-produced the traits which distinguished 
the abbot of Aranmore, from whom St. Carthage first learned 
to serve God in the religious life. St. Enda was his first 
model of the " patience, humility, prayer, fast and cheerful 
abstinence ; of the steadiness, modesty, calmness that are due 
from a leader of religious men, whose office it is to teach in 
all truth, unity, forgiveness, purity, rectitude in all that is 
moral ; whose chief works are the constant preaching of the 
i St. Bernard, Ep. 106. 

Irish Historical Stitdies in tJte Seventeenth Century. 3 1 

gospel for the instruction of all persons, and the sacrifice of the 
y of the great Lord upon the holy altar." 1 It was on 
Aranmore, and in St. Enda, that he first beheld at the altar 
of God that pattern priest after whose example he thus warns 
all priests : 

" When you come into the Mass 

It is a noble office 

Let there be penitence of heart, shedding of tears, 

And throwing up of hands. 

There shall be no permanent love in thy heart, 

But the love of God alone. 

For pure is the body thou receivest 

Purely must thou go to receive it." 2 

This angelical life did St Enda live upon Aran in the midst 
of his children until he reached a venerable old age. We 
reserve for our next paper, a further account of his work, and 
of the traces of it yet remaining on the island. 




Introduction. Foundation of tJie Franciscan College of St. 
Anthony's, in Louvain, in 1606 : Mainly due to Dr. Florence 
Conry, O. S. F. Sketch of his life:F. Donagh Mooncy, O. S.F., 
first guardian of St. A nthonys. His labours and writings: 
F. Bonav. Hussey, O.S.F.: The Irish printing-press at St. 
Anthonf s: Later history of St. Ant/iony's. 

1 RELAND owes no small debt of gratitude to those self- 
sacrificing men, who, during the first half of the seventeenth 
century, devoted their lives to illustrate her annals, and 
gather together the scattered fragments of her early history. 
Throughout Elizabeth's reign, ruin and desolation had fallen 
upon this kingdom ; its monasteries were destroyed, its 
schools proscribed, its clergy persecuted, its most fertile dis- 
tricts reduced to a desert waste, and nothing was left undone 

1 " Rule of St. Carthage," Irish Ecclesiastical Record, vol. i., p. 117. 
2 Loc. cit.,p. 118. 

32 Irish Historical Studies 

to seize upon or destroy every monument of its ancient glory. 
Some of the agents of this reckless vandalism were impelled 
by irreligious fury, for thus they imagined they might turn 
away our devoted people from the long-cherished faith of 
their fathers ; others were led on by the delusive hope that 
the national spirit of Ireland would cease to exist when 
the monuments of her early fame were obliterated and for- 
gotten. "It seemed to you" (thus writes Michael O'Clery, 
the chief of the Four Masters, when dedicating his work to 
the O'Gara, of Coolavin, in 1636) " It seemed to you a 
cause of pity and regret, grief and sorrow for the glory of 
God and the honor of Ireland, how much the race of Gaedhal 
have gone under a cloud and darkness, without a knowledge 
of the death of saint or virgin, archbishop, bishop, abbot, or 
other noble dignitary of the Church ; of king or prince, lord 
or chieftain, and of the synchronism or connection of the one 
with the other. I explained to you that I thought I could 
get the assistance of the chroniclers for whom I had most 
esteem, for writing a Book of Annals, in which the aforesaid 
matters might be put on record ; and that, should the writing 
of them be neglected at present, they would not again be 
found to be put on record or commemorated to the end and 
termination of the world." 1 Dr. Petrie, the great restorer of 
Celtic archaeological studies in our own time, having cited 
these words in an address before the Royal Irish Academy, 
adds : " How prophetic were the just apprehensions of that 
chief compiler, that if the work were then neglected or con- 
signed to a future time, a risk might be run that the materials 
for it should never again be brought together. Such, indeed, 

would have been the sad result In that unhappy 

period, nearly all the original materials of this compilation 
probably perished, for one or two of them only have survived 

to our times Had this compilation been neglected, 

or had it, as was supposed, shared the fate of its predecessors, 
what a large portion of our history would have been lost to 
the world for ever." 

There was also another reason why it was particularly im- 
portant in the beginning of the seventeenth century to guard 
the few surviving monuments of our country. The traditions 
of the past were then rapidly fading away from the memory 
of our people. The nc\vly-imported settlers from England 
and Scotland had no interest in cherishing such traditions. 
Novel names of districts and towns were everywhere springing 
up and gradually supplanting the old Irish designations ; the 
system of clans and tribes, each with its respective chronicler 

1 " Annals of the Four Masters," translated by O'Donovan, vol. j. t p. 56. ( 

/;/ the Seventeenth Century. 33 

or bard, handing down from father to son the knowledge of 
the early dialects, was also broken up for ever, and thus there 
imminent peril lest even the few monuments that had 
survived the storm of past vandalism might be unintelligible 
records, and a sealed book for posterity. Hence, I hesitate 
not to say, that were it not for the Irish Franciscans in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, and for others, who, 
both at home and abroad, emulated their devotedness, and 
rivalled them in zeal for preserving the literature of our 
country, the history of Ireland at the present day would be 
little more than a mere blank. The name of Island of Saints 
indeed might not be forgotten, but visionaries and aliens to 
our country might, without fear of rebuke, usurp its glory, 
or set forth, as based on reality, the most foolish dreams of 
their imagination, and pervert alike the truths of our his- 
tory and the tenets of our faith. Thanks, however, to those 
devoted sons of Ireland in the seventeenth century, many 
precious monuments of our early Church and history have 
been preserved to us, sheltered by the mantle of St. Francis, 
in the recesses of our island, or in the monasteries on the 
Continent ; the traditions of our people were duly chronicled, 
the records of the past were illustrated, the knowldege of the 
ancient Celtic language was preserved, and those materials 
were handed down which have enabled the writers of our 
own day to place beyond cavil the just claims of our island 
to a glorious and hallowed page in the history of the 
Christian world. 

In the ranks of those devoted men, the Irish Franciscans 
of the Convent of St. Anthony in Louvain, merit the place 
of honor not indeed that they were the first to enter this 
field of labour but because they were foremost in reducing 
to system the study of our antiquities, and more than any 
others laboured untiringly and perseveringly to preserve and 
illustrate the records of our history. 

This Conventof St. Anthony of Padua, at Louvain, dates from 
the year 1606. " The Rev. Father Florent Conrie, an Irishman 
born, a Fransciscan Friar, and then Provincial of the Order 
in Ireland (it is thus an official account of the foundation 
of the College runs) petitioned King Philip the Third, in 
1606, 'That his Catholick Majestic would be pleased to 
grant the Irish Franciscans a place for a College and means 
whereby to live in the towne and universitie of Loven, and 
diocese of Mechlin, to the service and glorie of God, to the 
preservation of the Catholick religion, and their holy Order 
in the kingdomeof Ireland." 1 

1 Archiv. S. Isid. Rome. There has been much controversy about the date of 
vrr. 7 

34 Irish Historical Studies 

On the 6th of January, 1602, three days after the fatal 
battle of Kinsale, which sealed the fate of Ireland as an in- 
dependent nation, Father Florence Conry set sail with the heroic 
O'Donnell, to solicit aid from the Spanish Monarch. Eight 
months later he watched by the death-bed of that brave 
chieftain at Simancas, and accompanied his remains to their 
regal tomb in the cathedral of Valladolid. 1 Father Conry knew 
too well the fate that awaited him if he set his foot again on 
the Irish shore. He remained at one of the Fransciscan 
convents of Spain, but still continued to devote all his 
energies to promote the welfare of religion in his suffering 
country. At the General Chapter of the Order, held at 
Toledo, in 1606, he was appointed Provincial for Ireland ; 
for so bitter was the persecution (ob saevitiam persecutionis)? 
that then raged throughout the kingdom, that the Pro- 
vincial Chapter could nowhere be held in Ireland. 3 His 
first care was to petition the Spanish Monarch, for the 
erection and endowment of/a Convent of the Order in the 
city and university of Louvain. This request was readily 
granted, and Philip the Third, by letters dated the 2ist of 
September, 1606, signified his pleasure to the Arch-Duke, 
Albert, Governor of the Low Countries, as also to the Mar- 
quis Spinola, Commander of the forces there, that the petition 
of Father Conry should be granted without delay ; and that 
1000 Spanish Ducats per annum, should be allotted for the 
support of the New College. Some difficulties however arose 
in Louvain about the erection of this national Fransciscan 
Convent, and early in the following year, we find FatherConry 
addressing a petition to the reigning Pontiff, Paul V., soliciting 
" Apostolicke authoritie for building the intended Colledge," 
and asking at the same time a confirmation of the Royal pen- 

the foundation of the Convent of St. Anthony : some placing it in the year 1 606 
others in 1609, others at a later period. See Renehan, "Collections on Irish 
Church History," page 190. The dates in our text are taken from the official 
document above referred to, and from copies of the original letters of Philip the 
Third and the Archbishop of Mechlin, preserved in the archives of St. Isidore's 
in Rome. 

1 See " History of Ireland," by T. Darcy M'Gee. Vol. 2., page 63. 

'The above particulars are taken from a MS., entitled " Brevis Synopsis Pro~ 
vinciae Hiberniae fratrum Minorum" written between the years 1630 and 1633, 
preserved in the archives of St. Isidore's. A History of the various Franciscan 
Convents in Ireland was published from this MS. in the Catholic Magazine (Dublin, 
February, 1847). A little later we will have occasion to make some remarks as 
to the compiler of this MS. 

1 Loc. cit. ad. an. 1606. The MS. adds that he governed the Irish Province 
during his three years of office per substitutum vicarium. The next Chapter iu 1 609. 
owing to the severity of the persecution, was held in a wood, near the Convent of 
Roscrea, in sylva prope eoimcntum Roscreensem, when Father Maurice Ultan was 
chosen Provincial. In 1612 the Provincial Chapter was again held in a wood 
near the Convent of Kilmaleighin in sylva prope tonvtntum de KUmaltighin^ and 
Father Francis O'Melaghlain was elected Provincial. 

In the Seventeenth Century. 35 

sion accorded by Philip the Third. A Brief of His Holiness, 
granting all the requests of the Fransciscan Provincial was 
published on the 3rd of April, 1607 ; and the letters of the 
Archduke, Albert, and Isabella, commanding that this Brief 
should be put into immediate execution, are dated the I7th 
of August, 1607. The erection of the building was at once 
proceeded with, and precisely two years from the date of the 
Papal Brief (*>., the 3rd of April, 1609), an official, deputed 
by the Archbishop of Mechlin, visited the new College, and in 
canonical form, declared it duly '* erected and instituted for 
the Fransciscans of the Irish nation." 

To the influence of Dr. Florence Conry at the Spanish Court, 
and to the favour of the Holy See, Ireland was mainly indebted 
for the tranquil retreat thus secured for the zealous children 
of St Francis. The fruits which the College soon produced 
proved how just were the expectations which had been formed 
by its patrons. Its chronicler assures us that from the time 
of its foundation to the year 1630, there were chosen from its 
inmates no fewer than three archbishops and two bishops for 
Irish sees, 1 besides eighteen professors of theology, twenty- 
five professors of philosophy, and sixty-three missionaries for 
labouring in the vineyard of the Irish Church, " some of whom 
laid down their lives, and others suffered imprisonment or 
exile for the faith of Christ." 2 

Although Dr. Conry receives no place among the writers on 
Irish history and antiquities in the seventeenth century, there 
can be but little doubt that he exercised considerable influence 
in forming that great historical school, which, in after time, 
shed such lustre on St. Anthony's of Louvain. He was the son 
of Fithil O'Moelchonry, of Cluantuibh, in Connaught, who 
was an antiquary by profession, and whose family had been 
for centuries the depositaries of the traditions and glories of 
the Western districts of our island. In baptism he received 
the name of Flathri, though in after years he was better known 
by the Latin name, Florentius. When rather advanced in age 
he embraced the religious life of the Franciscans of strict 
observance, and, as Lynch informs us, discharged the duties 
of Provincial of his Order in Ireland even before the close of the 
sixteenth century. In the month of May, 1609, he was pro- 
moted to the See of Tuam, and though he was unable to con- 

1 These were Hugh MacCaghwell. appointed Archbishop of Armagh on 2nd 
April, 1 626 ; Thomas Fleming, appointed Archbishop of Dublin, 23rd October, 
1623 ; Florence Conry, appointed Archbishop of Tuam in 1609; Boctius MacEgan, 
appointed Bishop of Elphin in 1625 ; and Hugh (Bonaventure) Magennis, ap- 
pointed Bishop of Down and Connor on 9th April, 1630. The last named Pre- 
late entered the Convent of St. Anthony's, Louvain, on 2nd June, 1614. 

' Quorum aliqui morte, alii captivitate et carcere pro fide affecti." MS. Brevis 
Synoft. &c., p. 60. 

36 Irish Historical Studies 

sole his flock in person, he never ceased, by the appointment 
of zealous vicars and by frequent pastoral letters, to watch over 
their interests and provide for their spiritual wants. During 
his leisure hours he devoted himself with special ardour to the 
study of the writings of St. Augustine ; and it is recorded that 
he read each of that great Father's works seven times. Wad- 
ding, in his History of the writers of the Franciscan Order, 
gives a list of the Theological writings of Dr. Conry, some of 
which were not published till after the death of this prelate. 
They were held in great esteem by some of his cotempo- 
raries, and were frequently appealed to in the angry contro- 
versies on the subject of divine grace, which agitated the 
schools at this period. An important public letter of Dr. 
Conry, dated at Valladolid, the 1st of March, 1615, on the 
conduct of the Catholic members of the Irish Parliament in 
permitting the confiscation of the estates of the Ulster chief- 
tains, O'Neil and O'Donnel, is preserved to us in the " Historia 
Catholica" of O'Sullivan Beare. 1 In it he passes a high eulogy 
on the individual character of those members, most of whom 
were of English descent, but he censures their parliamentary 
conduct in sacrificing the interests of their Irish brethren, and 
thus effecting the ruin of religion in Ulster. " They showed 
but little constancy," he says, " in admitting Sir John Davis 
as Speaker of the House, and in allowing the unconstitution- 
ally elected members to sit with them in Parliament :" " my 
fears," he adds, " were increased by what you told me of the 
confiscation, and you appear yourself as if undecided about its 
illegality when you say that otherwise the king and his party 
would be offended. What ! Will they not be offended if you 
refuse the oath of supremacy, or if you oppose the confiscation 
of your own property to-morrow or next day ? . . . Do 
you doubt that it is sinful to rob men, not convicted of any 
crime, of their property ? Were not these noblemen pardoned 
by the king, and if they, either to avoid calumnious suspicion, 
or to practise their religion more freely, retired from the 
country, is that a crime either proved or notorious ? Moreover, 
most of the Catholics on all that territory must soon, at least in 
few generations, be perverted to error, and their example and 
numbers will spread heresy through the other provinces. And 
are these souls to be sacrificed to etiquette, or to the labour 
and pain of a three days' struggle and opposition ? What ! 
do you not daily give up your properties ; do you not sacrifice 
the fines and penalties of not attending the Anglican worship, 
rather than violate a law of the Church ? And yet here is a 
matter prohibited, not by a law of the Church, but by the law 
1 Hist. Catholica. edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, page 255. 

/// tlie Sfi'futfinth Century. 37 

of nature and of God. God, in his mercy grant that you com- 
mit not such a crime, nor tarnish your former glory, nor pro- 
voke the wrath of the Almighty." 

One of the most valuable of Dr. Conry's works was a small 
Catechism which was printed in Irish at Louvain, in 1626, 
with the title, " The Mirror of a Christian Life." 

After many years of painful exile, this illustrious founder of 
St. Anthony's died in a convent of his Order at Madrid, on 
the i8th November, 1629, in the 69th year of his age, and the 
2 1st of his episcopacy. His remains were translated to Lou- 
vain in 1654, and a becoming monument was erected at the 
right of the high altar in the Church of the Irish Franciscans, 
with the following sweet lines dictated by Nicholas Aylmer, 
the Rector of the Pastoral College in Louvain : 

"Hie jacet et floret Praesul Florentius aevis, 

Dum pietas, virtus, docta Minerva viget. 
Ordinis altus honor, fidei patriaeque patronus, 

Pontificum, merito, laude, perenne jubar. 
Funde preces animae, lector, pia vota merenti, 

Gratia nam Magnis debita magna viris. 
Vivus, opus fabricae fratres devinxit amore, 

Pignus amicitiae, mortuus ossa dedit." 

Another inscription was added, as follows : 

" Illmus et Revmus Florentius Conrius 
Ord. Min. Regularis Observantiae 

Archiepus Tuamensis 

Provinciae Hiberniae Quondam Minister 

Pietate, Prudentia, Doctrina 

vEternae Memoriae 


Quo Sollicitante 

Pro restauranda in Hibernia fide*orthodoxa 

Hoc S. Antonii a Padua Collegium 
Munificentia Philippi III. Hispaniarum Regis 

Fundatum est 

Anno Christi 1606. 

Laboribus variis Fidei et Patriae ergo 

Pie obiit in Conventu S. Francfsci Matriti 

XIV. Kal. Decembris. ^ttatis 69. Archiep. 21. 

Hujus Collegii PP. Anno 1654 

Quo ejus ossa ex Hispania translata 

Et hie immortalitatis praemium exspectant 

Grati Posuere. 

38 Irish Historical Studits 

If the new Irish foundation at Louvain was fortunate in having 
such a founder, it was perhaps still more fortunate in having 
Father Donatus Mooney for its first guardian. He was a man 
earnestly devoted to the study of the antiquities of Ireland, 
and to him we are specially indebted for that Irish historical 
school which soon became characteristic of St. Anthony's, and 
enabled it in after times to render such services, and shed such 
light on the early monuments of our history. 

Whilst as yet a Fransciscan novice, Father Mooney 
suffered imprisonment for the Faith. He was living with the 
Provincial of the Order, Father John Gray, in the Monastery 
of Multifernan, and the aged Bishop of Kilmore, Dr. Richard 
Brady, 1 had chosen the same sanctuary as a safe retreat. 
They were, however, all seized in 1601, and dragged to prison, 
where our young novice lingered for some months. Whilst 
as yet in prison, he completed his noviciate and was admitted 
to the holy vows of his Order by his fellow-captive, the 
Father Provincial. 

Soon after, he was liberated, but on the condition that he 
should seek a home in exile on the Continent 8 

The chronicler of the Order adds, that he was " a man of 
great ability and learning. After teaching philosophy and 
theology in France, he was appointed the first guardian of the 
convent of St. Anthony, in Louvain, and subsequently he held 
a similar office in Drogheda. He was a distinguished preacher, 
and strenuously laboured for the conversion of the heretics, 
and the salvation of the faithful. Being elected Provincial 
of the Order, in the Chapter held in Waterford in 1615, he 
for three years faithfully discharged the duties of that ar- 
duous post." 

Father Mooney seems to have had a special talent for the 
reconstruction of the walls of the sanctuary in Ireland. In 
1610 he was sent as superior to Drogheda, to restore the 
house of the Order, which, from the middle of the thirteenth 
century, had flourished till the year 1546, when it was reduced 
to ruin by Moses Hill, one of the unprincipled agents of the 
lawless monarch, Henry VIII. From an account of this 
Franciscan mission in Drogheda, which was forwarded to Rome 
in 1623, we learn some interesting details regarding our 
Church at that period of its desolation. Father Balthasar de 

1 Dr. Richard Brady was a religious of the Order of St. Francis, and had been 
Provincial from 1570 to 1573. He was appointed Bishop of Ardagh on 27th 
January, 1576, and was subsequently translated to Kilmore on 9th of March, 1580. 
He lived to an advanced age and died from the hardships of his imprisonment in 
1607. Ward, in his narrative, merely states that " aliquoties ab haereticis captus 
et incarceratus est." Many details regarding this Bishop may b seen in " History 
of the Franciscan Monasteries," p. 49. 

*Brev. Syn., loc. cit. 

In the Seventeenth Century, 39 

la Hoyd, a native of the diocese, 1 was at this time Vicar- 
General of the absent Primate, Peter Lombard, 2 and resided in 
Drogheda. In 1623 his health was seriously impaired by illness, 
and his nephew, Christopher de la Hoyd, was his appointed 
delegate, with the same powers of Vicar-General, and at the 
same time received the charge of the parishes of St. Peter's 
and St. Mary's in that town. At this time there was only 
one public oratory in the town ; in it the Vicar-General per- 
formed the ceremonies of the Church with as much pomp 
as the circumstances of the times would allow, and he was 
assisted by two Jesuits, Fathers Robert Bath and James 
Everard, who established there the Confraternity of the 
Blessed Virgin, and laboured with zeal in administering the 
Bread of Life to the faithful. 

Some ruins of the old Franciscan convent still remained, 8 
and as close to them as his safety would permit, the new 
Superior rented a private house where a small oratory was 
erected, and the faithful very soon flocked in crowds, to 
approach the Holy Sacraments. It happened that the 
Protestant Primate, Christopher Hampton, 4 had chosen 
Drogheda for his residence, and was now busily engaged 
building an episcopal palace for himself and his successors. 6 
The new impulse given to Catholic piety was little less than 
treason in the eyes of the Protestant dignitary ; hence, he 
more than once assailed the humble lodgings of the Fran- 
ciscans, destroyed the altar and carried off the religious to 
prison. 6 They persevered, nevertheless, and the chronicler of 
the Order, writing in 1630, was able to attest that, from 
the re-establishment of the convent in 1610, "the friars never 
ceased to labour for the salvation of the faithful and the 
conversion of heretics, although they have been several times 
persecuted, and some of them arrested and put in prison." 7 

It was also through the exertions of Father Mooney that 
the Franciscan Order was re-established in Dublin in 1615. 
Here, too, the ancient convent had been suppressed by order 
of Henry VIII., and was sold for secular purposes in 1543. 
In Cook-street, which was now chosen for their new and 

1 He is styled in the MS. " Principalis substitutes quondam Vicarii Diocesani 
et nunc in capite institutes Vicarius Generalis Diocesanus ab aliquot annis." 

1 For many particulars connected with this illustrious Archbishop of Armagh, 
see the Introduction to his work entitled " De Hibernia Insula Commentarius, in 
the edition, Dublin, Duffy, 1868. 

* " Etiamnum ruinae apparent." MS. Relatio. 

4 Appointed in 1613, died in 1624. Harris's Ware, Bishops; p. 97. 

6 Ibid. 

9 " Licet variis object! periculis et pseudo-Primatis persecutionibus, qui captis ali- 
quoties quibu^dam fratribus altare soepius destruxit in quo divina res fiebat. ' JUS 
Kelat. ot 1623. 

7 Brev. Synop. MS. in Archiv. S. Isid. 

4O Irish Historical Studies 

more humble abode, the religious set to work with true de- 
votedness ; schools were opened especially for the instruction 
of their own students in philosophy and theology, and the 
chronicler adds that " the faith received extraordinary increase 
in the city and neighbouring country by the preaching of 
the friars." 1 The persecuting spirit of the so-called Refor- 
mation was soon, however, to blight all the fair promise of 
this good work. The destruction of the Franciscan schools 
and convent has been described by many anti-Catholic as 
well as Catholic writers. It is unnecessary to repeat what 
they have written, but I will add to their testimony the fol- 
lowing unpublished narrative, written in 1633 : 

" Through the enmity of Satan, our schools and convents 
were soon destroyed, when on the 26th of December, the 
feast of St. Stephen, in the yar 1629, the heretical mayor 
of the City of Dublin, named Christopher Foster, accom- 
panied by the Protestant pseudo-bishop and a body of troops, 
assailed the chapel of the Friars Minors of that city, over- 
threw the images and altars, and carried off its other orna- 
ments : but when leaving the place, the mayor, with his 
followers, was assailed with sticks and stones by an excited 
tumultuous crowd of women and boys, on account of which 
offence, very many of the Catholics, men and women, boys 
and girls, were arrested and thrown into prison ; some youths, 
moreover, were punished with the lash ; and in the following 
year, 1630, the 24th February, by a new edict of King 
Charles of England, the aforesaid chapel and convent of 
the Friars Minors in Dublin were sacked and levelled to the 
ground." 2 

Father Mooney, as we have seen, was chosen Provincial 
of the Order in Ireland in 1615. The following year he pro- 
ceeded to St. Anthony's, in Louvain, to watch over the growth 
of that institution, and during the leisure months that he 
enjoyed there, composed "The History of his Order in Ire- 
land," a work of vast research and full of invaluable details, 
not only regarding the early foundations of the various Fran- 
ciscan convents, but still more illustrative of the desolation 

1 Brev. Synop. MS. in Archiv. S. Isid. 

2 Ibid., page 45. " Per invidiam diaboli cito dissipata fuerunt cum anno Domini 
1629, die 26 Decembris in festo S. Stephani hora 10 mattutina Christophorus 
Foster Haereticus praetor civitatis Dublinen, comitatus pseudo Episcopo haeretico 
et militum cohorte sacellum fratrum minorum ejusdem urbis ingressus fractis im- 
aginibus et altaribus et sublatis aliis omamentis domum rediret, concitato mulierum 
et puerorum clamore et tumultu, dictus praetor cum sequacibus exceptus fuit 
lapidibus et fustibus propter quod plurimi ex Catholicis viri et matronae, pueri et 
puellae capti et in vincula conjecti sunt, nonnulli adolescentes flagellis caesi, 
annoque sequent! 1630, die 24, Feb. novo edicto Caroli Regis Angliae, praefatum 
sacellum et clomus fratram memoratorum Dublini destructa fuit et sdlo aequata." 

/// the Sei't'nlenntk Centuty. 41 

and ruin that fell upon our Church during the sad era of the 
Reformation, under Henry VIII., Elizabeth, and James I. 1 It 
has been embodied and popularized in the interesting*' History 
of the Rise and Fall of the Irish Franciscan Monasteries," by 
Rev. C. P. Meehan, a work full of interest to all students of 
Irish literature. 

There is another Franciscan Father who merits to be 
mentioned among the first promoters of Celtic studies at St. 
Anthony's. This was Giolla-Brigid, or Bonaventure Hussey, 
a native of Ulster, who, in the Chronicles of the Order, is de- 
scribed as a " man held in great esteem for his singular skill 
in the language and history of Ireland." In a MS. list of the 
first religious who received the habit in the Convent of St. 
Anthony's, 2 I find the name " Bonaventura Hosacus, antca 
Brigidus, dioecesis Cloghorensis, admissus die I Novembris, 
1607." O'Reilly, in his " Irish Writers," states that in 1608 
Father Hussey published his prose Irish Catechism in Lou- 
vain, the first book printed on the Continent in Irish, and that 
it was reprinted at Antwerp in 1611. I suspect, however, 
that the date of its first publication in Louvain should be 
1618, in which year an edition of it, under the title of "The 
Christian Doctrine," is mentioned by Anderson. 3 At all events, 
it was only in 1611 that the Irish typographical press was 
established at St. Anthony's, as we learn from the following 
passage of the History of the Order, written in 1630 : "The 
Irish Convent of Louvain, for the salvation of souls in the 
Kingdom of Ireland, established in the year 1611 a printing 
press with the proper type for the Irish letters, which, on ac- 
count of the prevailing heretical rule, was heretofore imprac- 
ticable to the Catholics of that Kingdom ; and printed some 
books in the Irish language to the great advantage of the 
faithful." 4 Father Hussey also composed a metrical Catechism 
in two hundred and forty verses, which a century later was 
published by Donlevy as an appendix to his own famous 
Catechism in the Irish language. O'Reilly mentions several 
other unpublished poems composed by the same writer, some 
of which are preserved in the Royal Irish Academy. 

1 A copy of this work in quarto, transcribed from the original text, was sold in 
November, 1869, among the MSS. of the late Dr. Todd. The original is preserved 
in the Royal Library at Brussels (MSS. No. 3195). with the following heading : 
" Tractatum sequfttlem de Prmnncia Hiberniae concin tun >it Reverendus admodum P. 
Donatus Monaeus, dum essct provincialis, et hue ex Hibernia ad res hujus collegii S. 
Antonii ordinandas adrenisset." 

* Archiv. S. Isid. Rome. 

* The Native Irish. By C. Anderson, page 59. 

4 MS. Brtv. Synopsis Prow. Hib." pro communi Regni Hiberniae animarum salute, 
Hibernici idiomatis proprios characteres et impressionem anteanumquam ob prae- 
dominantem haereticam potestatem Catholicis ejus Regni permissum anno 1611 
erexit ct aliquot cjusdcm idiomatis libros fidelium utilitati impressit." 

42 Irish Historical Studies 

The extract from the History of the -Order just cited, 
mentions some books, aliquot libros, printed in the Irish lan- 
guage, at St. Anthony's. It is not easy now to determine 
what these books were ; one of them, no doubt, was 
the Irish Catechism of Dr. Conry, already referred to ; 
another was the "Mirror of Penance," published in 1618, by 
Hugh MacCaghwell, O.S.F,, who was subsequently appointed 
to the primatial see of Armagh. In a MS. catalogue of 
the books of the Irish Convent of Louvain, made about the 
year 1675, I find mention of another work with the title 
Acta Sanctarum Virginum Hibernice, which some time before 
had been lent to the Convent of Donegal. Perhaps this 
too may have been one of the books referred to in the 
above extract. At all events the Irish type of St Anthony's 
continued for many years to render good service to our 
literature. The illustrious annalist, Michael O'Clery, availed 
himself of it when publishing his Glossary in 1643 ; F. 
Anthony Gernon, another Irish Fransciscan, made use of 
it in 1645, f r his "Paradise of the Soul;" a Jesuit, F. 
Richard MacGiollacuddy (better known by his anglicized 
name of Archdekin) printed with it a Treatise on Miracles, 
in 1677 ; and Colgan, and his brother hagiologists made 
frequent use of it in the Irish extracts inserted in their 
invaluable Latin works. The type was still preserved at St. 
Anthony's in 1675, but there was then but little encouragement 
for Irish publications. In the MS. list of the books belong- 
ing to that Convent of which I have already spoken, the 
following passage is added, as precious as it is concise, and 
giving the only reference to this Irish type which I have 
been able to discover in contemporary records : 

"In a plain chest is preserved the type of the printing press. 
The key is over the chest. In the pulpit there is one silver 
chalice belonging to the Convent of Donegal, a small case of 
the relics of various saints, and the silver seal belonging to 
O'Donell. In the first of the upper, rooms, in a small chest, 
is the Irish type, with its own forms ; also several copies of 
Colgan's works, Ward's St Romnald, the Fochloir (i.e. O'Clery's 
Glossary), and some skins for the covers of books." 1 

With the arrival of F. Hugh Ward, in 1623, began the 
golden era of historical studies in St. Anthony's. For fifty 

1 " In pinna cesta habentur litterae typographiae : clavis pendet supra cestam. 
In pulpito est unus calix argenteus spectans ad conventum Dungallensem : parva 
Bursa Reliquiarum aliquorum sanctorum ; sigillum argenteura spectans ad O'Do- 
nellum. In cameris superioribus ; in prima manent litterae typographiae 
Hibernicae in parva cesta cum suis formis ; plura exemplaria Actt. SS. Hiber- 
niae et Tr. Thaum ; disquisito de S. Komualdo, &c. , Fochloir, cum coriis aliquot 
pro libris cooperiendit." loc tit. 

/// the Seventeenth Century. 43 

years the religious of that convent pursued these studies with 
unrivalled activity, although more than once their material 
resources were quite exhausted, and they merited for their 
convent the eulogy bestowed by no partial writer in our own 
days: " No Franciscan college has maintained with more zeal 
than this, the character of the order, as expressed in their 
motto: Doctrina et sanctitate." (Proceedings of R. I. A. 
vol. III., page 485). The learned Bollandist, F. De Buck having 
cited these words, adds : " It would be easy to show the just- 
ness of this eulogy presenting in detail the names of the pro- 
fessors who have taught at St. Anthony's." 1 

The historian of Louvain, writing in 1667, laments the 
poverty which the inmates of St. Anthony's had so often to 
endure; for frequently the promised aid of the Government 
was withheld, and the Irish exiles, now that all their property 
was confiscated in Ireland, could contribute but little to the 
support of their religious countrymen, either at home or 
abroad. A century later another writer of Louvain dwells 
on the same theme, but adds, " Notwithstanding their 
poverty, we have often seen, amongst these religious, and we 
still see amongst them, a number of men of distinction, and 
of the highest nobility, who prepared themselves there by 
study and piety to sustain the Catholic religion in England 
and Ireland ; there were even many amongst them who 
suffered persecution, imprisonment, and cruel torments for 
the Faith." 2 In the wars and tumults of which Belgium was 
the theatre during the closing quarter of the last century, 
the Convent of St. Anthony's was more than once exposed to 
the fury of the contending parties, and yet this was not the 
worst violence to which it was subjected. An edict of the 
Emperor Joseph II., in 1782, appointed a visitator, and 
enacted some vexatious laws- regarding the Religious, 
though it did not entirely suppress the Convent. Two years 
later the overflowing of the Dyle swept away all their 
cattle, wood, and property of every kind. At length, in 
1796, when Louvain was invaded by the French, their 
convent was wholly dismantled^ its church was desecrated, 
its property sold, and this hallowed abode of Irish piety and 
learning was thenceforth closed against the children of St. 

1 UArcheologie Irlandaise au Commit de Saint Antoint de Padout a Louvain, 
par le R. P. De Buck, S.J., Paris, 1869, page 3. 
1 Ibid, page 2. 





Si e dato a conoscere alia S. Sede che qualcuno tra i fedeli 
e forse anche tra i Vescovi ritiene non essere obbligatoria la 
Costituzione Apostolica emanata nella Sessione del Concilio 
Ecumenico Vaticano il 18 del percorso mese di Luglio, finche 
con ulteriore atto della S. Sede non venga solennemente pub- 
blicata. Quanto sia strana siffatta supposizione pu6 da ognuno 
facilmente ravvisarsi. La Costituzione, di cui e parola, ebbe 
la piu solenne possibile pubblicazione nel giorno stesso in cui 
nella Basilica Vaticana venne solennemente confermata e pro- 
mulgata dal Sommo Pontefice in presenza di oltre cinquecento 
Vescovi : essendo stato quindi affissa colle ordinarie formalita 
nei consueti luoghi di Roma, sebbene ci6 con fosse necessario 
nel caso. In conseguenza di che, secondo la nota regola, si 
rese obbligatorio per 1'intiero mondo cattolico, senza bisogno 
di altra qualsiasi pubblicazione. 

Ho creduto dover comunicare a V. S. Illma. questa breve 
osservazione affinche possa esserle di norma nel caso di dubbi 
che Le si muovano da qualche parte. 

Con sensi di distinta stima mi confermo. 

Di V. S. Illma. 
Roma, u Agosto, 1870. 

Affezmo. per servirla, 

Monsignor Nunzio Apostolico, 




I have read with pleasure your well-reasoned paper on the 
claims of the Irish College, &c., in the IRISH ECCLESIASTICAL 
RECORD. Permit an observation. On page 673, last volume, 
you quote the Code Napoleon in refutation of Argon, as the 
existing law at the time of the award. . 

A ncitnt Monasteries of Ireland. 45 

If it were argued, in reply, that the status of the 
property were to depend upon the condition of things at the 
time of its creation, it appears to me that it would only 
strengthen your case, as those foundations were made at the 
time when the English crown still maintained its title to the 
kingdom of France, when, therefore, a subject of Britain, or 
of Ireland, was justified in placing his property in France, as 
it was, still constitutionally so, legally under the protection of 
the Crown of England, Ireland, and France. 

First It was therefore placed there in accordance with 
the claims of the Crown of the King of Ireland. 

Second You say the nature of the property was not con- 
trary to Irish law. 

Third Though the British or Irish king had relinquished 
his title to France in the mean time, I do not think there is 
any instance of the property of his subjects becoming forfeited 
in consequence of that. It seems then that you have the 
double claim on the original foundation, and the application 
of the Code Napoleon to the altered relation of the parties. 

Dublin, loth September, 1870. 





[N. B. The text of the ' ' Monasticon " is taken verbatim from A rchdall : the notes 
marked with numbers are added by the Editors.] 


953. Died the abbot Dunlang, son of O'Dunagan. d 

960. The island was again despoiled. dd 

Catigiliky ; In the parish of Miros in West Carbery. Here 
are the foundations of some extensive ruins, with a large 
cemetery ; this probably was the site of the abbey of Maure 
or of the Clear Spring, which was founded A.D. 1 172, by 
Dermot M'Cormac M'Carthy, King of Desmond, who sup- 

*Ann. Four Matters. u Tr. Th. p. 633. 

46 Ancient Monasteries of Ireland. 

plied it with Cistercian Monks from the abbey of Baltinglass ; 
some writers place this foundation three years earlier. 1 

A.D. 1252. Patrick was abbot. 8 

1291. The abbot sued Dovenald O'Maythan for a messuage 
and four carucates of land in Ardocherys h 

1519. The abbot John Imurily was made bishop of Ross in 
this year. 1 

5th December, 3Oth Queen Elizabeth, this abbey with its 
appurtenances in the towns of Maure, Leshinau, Curraghenin, 
Lehenaugh, le Graunge, le Garnans, le Curragh, Ardgehan, 
Lyffevarrey, Cregan; Aneghepheyne, Lahernemannagh, Man- 
ister, Nestrohuirie, and the rectories of Maure and Lyslie, or 
elsewhere, in this county and belonging to the monastery of 
Carigiliky, was granted for ever to Nicholas Walshe, at the 
annual rent of 28 6s. 6*/. u 

Castle Cor; In the barony of Duhallow and two miles north 
of Loghort. It appears from a plea roll 3Oth King Edward I. 
that there was an abbey at Castle Corith ; k but we have no 
other account of it. 

Castle Lyons * 10 A well-built market town, twelve miles from 
Cork, in the barony of Barrymore. 

Gray Friars ; John de Barry founded this monastery in the 
year 1 307, but good authority has given this house to the Black 
Dominican Friars, and says that it was dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary. n A considerable part of this building still re- 
mains, particularly the choir, nave, and steeple of the church. 
The possessions belonging to this monastery come into the 
hands of the first Earl of Cork, who bequeathed the rents 
and profits arising therefrom to his daughter, the Countess 
of Barrymore, to buy her gloves and pins. 

White Friars ; de Barry founded a monastery here 

for Carmelites or Whitefriars.P 

Cloggagh;" An inquisition of the i;th of King James I. 

War. man. Pembridge. f Canobia Cistert. *King,p.y&. b Id. *Id.*Aud. 
Gen. * King, p. 133. ' 'Called anciently Castle Lehan. m War. man. n Burke, 
/. 291, 292. Smith, vol. l, p. 164. p Burke ut supr. 

10 Castle Lyons, or Castle Lehan, Gray Friars, is beautifully situated in a rich 
fruitful soil, a short way from the river Bride. In this place John De Barry 
founded a monastery of Conventual Franciscans, anno 1307. Upon the dissolu- 
tion, it was granted to the Earl of Cork, who assigned it to his son-in-law David, 
the first Earl of Barrymore, or rather, to his daughter ; for, in his will, he says : 
' he bequeathes the rents and profits of his house to his daughter Barrymore to 
buy her gloves and pins. 1 ' A considerable part of this abbey still remains, par- 
ticularly the choir, nave, and steeple of the church, which are still standing con- 
nected with the parish church. 

11 Cloggach. Inquisition I2th January, XXXIII. Elizabeth, finds that this re- 
ligious house, situated near Timoleague on the east, was possessed of half a carucate 
ofland, annual value 6s. &/., Irish money, (q ) 

Inquisition 5th January, XVII. James, finds that all the titles of the aid half 

Coimty of Cork. 47 

finds the possessions of the little abbey of Cloggagh in this 
county.* 1 We have no other knowledge of this abbey. 

Clonntfite ; Lies on the south side of the Blackwater, in 
the barony of Duhallow. 

A Monastery for friars following the rule of St. Augustin, 
was founded here by O'Callaghan. 1 " 

Cloync? In the barony of Iniokilly, a poor village, yet is a 
bishop's see; with a good cathedral. 

A.D. 707. An abbey was founded here.* 

978. It was plundered by the people of Ossory. u 

1089. Dermot, the son of Toirdhealbhach O'Brien, plun- 
dered this place.* 

1159. O'Dubery, abbot of Cluanavama, died this year ; in 
the annals of Inisfall he is called bishop Dubrein.* 

Charles Smith, in his history of the county of Cork, says 
that St. Ite founded a nunnery here, a little west of the 
present See house ; but he cei tainly mistakes, for that abbey 
was at Cluainchreduil, which is in the county of Limerick. 

Cluain; Between the mountains Crot and Marige. St. 
Sedna, a disciple of St. Senan of Iniscathy, governed a church 
erected in this place ; but he was buried at Kinsale. y 

This place and the following are now unknown. 

Cluainfinglass ; An abbey was founded here by St. Abban, 
A.D. 650.* 

Cork /* Is the second city in Ireland, and increasing every 
day in commerce and wealth ; it is a bishop's see and a cor- 
porate town, sending two burgesses to parliament. 

St. Barr, Barroc, or Finbar, but his parents named Lochan, 
was of the race of the Ibriunratha ; he flourished about the 
year 600, and built an abbey, which, after him, was called 
the abbey of St. Barr, or Finbar ; b this foundation is by some 
placed A.D. 6o6. c This abbey was founded near Lougheirc, 
which is generally supposed to be that particular hollow in 
which a great part of the city of Cork stands. St. Barr died 
at Cloyne, but was interred in his own Church, where his 
bones were afterwards deposited in a silver shrine ; d his festival 
is held on the 25th September. 8 

* King, p. 137. T Smith, vol. 2, p. 302. Called by the Irish writers Cluainumha. 
*Conry'sMS. * Annal. Inisfal. w Id. * Id. * Act. SS. p. 573. * Id. p. 615. 
Was called by the ancient Irish Corcach, or Corcachbascoin, that is, a ma~shy place; 
the harbour they called" l.iealaghconliach. Act. SS. p. 494. b Usher. Act. SS.p. 750. 
War. man, c Conrfs MS. d War. Bish.p. 556. Calendar. I'et. 

carucate of land did belong to the abbey ; that the fishery of the pool of Cloggach. 
lying between Cloggach and Kilmoaloada. and adjoining the said lands, did 
belong to the abbey ; that the said abbey, tithes, &c., were concealed by Dermot 
MacCarthy, formerly Vicar of Kilmoaloada, and that on his death. John, his son, 
claimed the same as his lawful inheritance, and sold the same to Dermot O'Drea, 
parson of Kilmoaloada." ''Ordnance Survey Papers," R.I. A., vol. iv., p. 31. 

48 Ancient Monasteries of Ireland. 

St Nessan, a disciple of St. Barr, and a presbyter of Cork, 
died March I7th. f 

A.D. 685. The abbot Russin died April 7th, he was the 
son of Lappaius.* 

733. Died Selbac, the comorb of St. Barr. h 

300. Historians relate, that about this time there were 
in this abbey 700 monks and 17 bishops, who devoted them- 
selves wholly to a contemplative life.' 

822. The Danes plundered and burnt this city. k 

823. They renewed their depredations. 1 

838. The town was again spoiled. 10 

839. The Danes repeated the like devastation. 
874. Died Domnald the scribe. 

891. Died Soerbrethach, another scribe. p 

908. Ailliol M'Eogan, the abbot of Cork, lost his life in 
the same battle in which Cormac M'Cuillenan, Archbishop 
and King of Munster, met his melancholy fate. q 

910. The Danes did again plunder and burn this town. 1 " 

913. They renewed their devastations. 8 

915. The same violences were continued.* 

960. As they were in this year. u 

961. Died Cathmogan, the comorb of St. Barr. w 
970. This abbey was destroyed by the Danes.* 

976. Magthamhain M'Cinneide going to the house of 
Donobhan M'Cathail, King of Cairbre Aodhbha/ under the 
protection of Columb M'Ciaragain, the comorb of St. Barr, 
to conclude a peace with Maolmuaidh and Donobhan, he was 
treacherously seized by Donobhan, notwithstanding the co- 
morb's protection, and delivered to Maolmuaidh M'Broin, 
Tadg M'Broin, and Brian M'Broin, who put him to death ; 
for which base and inhuman action, the comorb and church 
excommunicated both the betrayer and murderers. 2 
973. Cork was plundered twice in this year.* 
990. Died Columb M'Ciaragain, the comorb. b 
1006. Died Cellach, the son of Cenngorann, provost of 
this abbey. 

1013. A great fleet of the Danes came before Cork, and 
destroyed the town by fire. d 

1025. Dungal ua Donchadha, King of Cashel, who had 

1 Act. SS. p. 630. ' Id. p. 1 50. h War. Bish. p. 5 56. ' Walsh's Prospect, p. 145. 
k Anna/. Inisfal. ' Id. m T>: T/i. p. 632. n Annal. Inisfal. Tr. Th. p. 632. 
*MGeogh * Annal. Inisfal. r M'Gtogh. Tr, Th. p. 633. * Annal. Inisfal. 
Tr. Th supr. " War. Bish. p. 556. *M'Curfin, p. 207. ' A territory in the 
eounty of Limerick, now called barony of Kenry. * Annal. Inisfal. Annal. Inisfal. 
k War. Bish. supr. 'Act. SS. p. 334. d Annal. Inisfal. 

( To be continued. ) 




NOVEMBER, 1870. 


[HE words we address to you to-day, beloved brethren, 
come from hearts filled with sorrow and indignation. And 
how can it be otherwise, since we have to announce to you 
that our Holy Father, Pius IX., is a prisoner in the hands of 
his enemies. He has been robbed even of that personal 
liberty, which, as a sovereign, he had made secure for the very 
lowest of his subjects ; he has been torn by brute force from 
his children, whose voices cannot reach his ear, and whom his 
words of guidance can no longer direct. And why has all 
this occurred ? What excuse can be put forward by the men 
who have thus assailed God's anointed? What fault has 
Pius IX. committed, whether as king or as pontiff, that this 
outrage should be inflicted upon him ? 

For nearly five-and-twenty years he has filled a throne, 
inherited by him in virtue of a title the most ancient, the 
most legitimate, the most sacred ; and during that long 
period his rule has been distinguished for all the qualities that 
consecrate supreme power, and render it, as Go'd intended it 
should be, a source of blessing to the people. What prince is 
there, whose sovereign rights have been more clearly defined 
or better guaranteed by the faith of treaties, and by the 
sanction of international law ? Who has ever used power 
more gently ? who more wisely than he? Under his benign 
sway, his capital was the home of genius, the shrine of the arts, 
the seat of learning, the centre of true Christian civilization. He 

VOL. VII. 4 

5 o L etter of tlie A rchbishops 

judged the poor in judgment, and his people in justice, ever 
seeking to lighten their burthen and to promote their prosperity. 
He gave them peace when all around them was convulsed, 
and plenty when others were harassed with want ; and on the 
eve of the usurpation, his subjects employed the very latest 
hour of liberty they were permitted to enjoy, before being 
crushed by foreign force, in accjaiming him as the best of 
sovereigns, who should rule for ever in their hearts. What 
pretext did such a ruler give for invasion ? What was there 
in such a monarch that he should be driven by strangers 
from his throne ? 

But great as have been the glories of his reign, they pale 
before the sacred splendours of his marvellous pontificate. 
The annals of the Church hold up for our admiration very 
many among the Roman Pontiffs whose names shall live for 
ever in history, on account of the striking and noble qualities 
that distinguished them even among the greatest on earth. 
A far-seeing wisdom, which enabled them in troubled times to 
understand where lay the true interests of the Church and of 
society ; surpassing ability in choosing and directing the 
measures to promote those interests ; and a loftiness of per- 
sonal character which made their exertions successful, while it 
commanded the respect even of their enemies ; these are the 
gifts that seem hereditary in the great line of Popes who have 
rilled the Apostolic See. But it may be questioned if on that 
long and brilliant roll of Pontiffs there be found even one to 
surpass Pius IX., either in the fulness with which these great 
gifts were possessed, or in the measure of benefits conferred 
on the Church by the exercise of them. How often has it 
been our pleasing duty to describe to you the great things he 
has accomplished for the Church, and which mark with in- 
creasing glory each succeeding year of his pontificate. He 
has extended the tabernacles of the Church, by erecting so 
many new episcopal Sees in the remotest regions ; he has 
restored to Churches wasted by heresy the freshness and 
vigour of a second youth ; he has preserved the young from 
the ravages of infidelity, by condemning evil systems of edu- 
cation ; he has preached, to an age that worships only brute 
force, in season and out of season, the eternal principles of 
truth and justice ; he has protected society against the licence 
that saps morality, and the false philosophy which would per- 
vert the rights of reason, and thereby degrade man from his 
high dignity as an intelligent being. Never can Catholic hearts 
forget how, by defining the doctrine of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, Pius IX. gave joy to the whole world, and new glory 
to the Mother of God ; how by canonising so many saints he 

A nd Bishops of Ireland to their Flocks. 5 1 

multiplied for us intercessors in heaven, and models of holy 
living on earth ; how by celebrating the centenary of SS. Peter 
and Paul he taught the world that persecution does but end 
in the triumph of the Church. And have not we ourselves 
lately seen him, in the full majesty of his sacerdotal holiness 
and power, presiding over the General Council of the Vatican, 
which he convoked that the voice of God speaking through 
his infallible Church might be heard above the turmoil and 
discord of the earth, teaching the truth, and summoning to 
the bosom of Catholic unity the souls whom error had led 
astray. And it was at this solemn moment, when the Catholic 
episcopate was gathered together to treat of the most im- 
portant subjects that can occupy men upon earth, that a blow 
was struck at the visible head of the Church, and through 
him at the entire mystic body of Christ. 

Passing in review, then, the whole glorious Pontificate of 
Pius IX., are we not fully warranted in asserting, beloved 
brethren, that it is not for any fault or shortcoming of his that 
wicked men have risen against the Vicar of Christ ? No, it 
is the absence of any fault in him that has stirred their indig- 
nation against him. Like the wicked men spoken of in the 
book of Wisdom, they have conspired, saying : " Let us lie 
in wait for the just man, because he is not for our turn, and 
he is contrary to our doings, and upbraided us with transgres- 
sions of the law, and divulgeth against us the sins of our life. 
He is become a censurer of our thoughts. He is grievous unto 
us even to behold, for his life is not like other men's, and his 
ways are very different. We are esteemed by him as trifiers, 
and he abstaineth from our ways as from filthiness, and he fre- 
ferreth the latter end of the just, and glorieth that he hath God 
for his fattier. Let us then examine him by outrages and 
tortures." 1 

And truly, beloved brethren, they have accomplished their 
wicked deed, adding to it every circumstance of indignity and 
outrage that can well be conceived. Without declaration of 
war, after having bound themselves by a solemn convention 
to respect the temporal independence of the Holy See, with 
hypocritical professions of veneration on their lips, the Flo- 
rentine Government despatched their troops to invade and 
occupy the remnant of papal territory hitherto spared by 
them. Neither the justice of the Pope's cause, nor the 
absence of provocation, nor his solemn* protest, nor their own 
pledges, nor the thought that they were outraging the feelings 
of more than 200,000,000 of Catholics, nor the fear of the 
crime of sacrilege, or of its punishment, could restrain these 

1 Wisdom, ii. 1219. 

5 2 Letter of the A rchbishops 

perverse men from assaulting the capital of the Christian 
world, and violating the holy soil of the Eternal City. They 
constituted brute force alone as the law of justice, for that 
which is feeble is found to be nothing worth. 1 In vain have 
they since sought to colour their outrages by a mock appeal 
to the voice of the people into whose city they had 
opened for themselves a way by a destructive cannonade. 
History shall record that this monstrous usurpation is nothing 
else than a triumph of brute force over justice ; of hypo- 
crisy over honesty ; of revolution over social order ; of infide- 
lity over the interests of the Christian religion. 

Therefore, we feel it due to ourselves and to you, and to 
our fellow Catholics throughout the world, to publish our 
solemn protest against this act of unparelleled injustice, and to 
this protest here published we call the attention of all. 

1. Believing that the Pope is the Vicar of Christ, the infal- 
lible teacher of Christian truth, to whom, in blessed Peter, 
has been given the supreme power of feeding, ruling, and 
governing the whole Church, we protest against the sacrile- 
gious insults recently offered by the usurping power to the 
reigning Pontiff, Pius IX., and in his person to Christ himself, 
whose representative he is on earth. 

2. Convinced that the full, perfect, and complete discharge 
of his Apostolic office requires as its necessary condition the 
freedom of the Roman Pontiff from the control of other 
temporal princes, we protest, in the name of 200,000,000 of 
Catholics, against the usurpation which has deprived their 
spiritual chief of his temporal dominions, necessary for the 
exercise of his liberty, and thereby subjected him to the 
caprice of hostile powers. 

3. Persuaded that, in the ways of Providence, the temporal 
sovereignty of the Holy See has been ordained for the com- 
mon good of all Christendom, and that Rome and the Papal 
territory belong to the Catholic world, we protest against the 
sacrilegious invasion of both, as a violation of the sacred 
rights of the whole Catholic world. 

4. Regarding as subversive of social order the appeal made 
to revolutionary passions by the usurping power, against the 
oldest, and most legitimate sovereignty in the world ; and 
indignant at the hypocrisy which sought to mask a brutal 
attack under the profession of Catholic loyalty and kingly 
honour, we protest against the means, so scandalous and 
immoral, employed to accomplish this most unjust usurpa- 

5. Recognising with gratitude the benefits conferred upon 

1 Wisdom, ii. II. 

A tid Bis ftops of Ireland to tJteir Flocks. 5 3 

the world by the noble use the Roman Pontiffs have made of 
their temporal dominion, and the splendid example they have 
set to the sovereigns of Christendom by the mildness of their 
rule, their patronage of arts and letters, their tender care of 
the weak and poor, and their love of justice, we protest against 
the attempt to extinguish, and by means so unholy, an insti- 
tution that has deserved so well of civilized society all over 
the world. 

6. We protest also against the threatened devastation of 
the venerable sanctuaries of Rome, against the plundering of 
its shrines, the suppression of its religious communities devoted 
to prayer and good works, and the closing of its numerous 
schools and colleges, where so many students of our own and 
other countries are trained in piety and learning. 

7. And, since the invasion of Rome has been undertaken 
and accomplished at a time when a General Council was being 
held therein, under the presidency of the Supreme Pontiff, we 
protest against the violence that has interrupted its delibera- 
tions, and we hold the Florentine Government responsible for 
the outrage offered to the assembled bishops of the universe, 
and for the injury done to the faithful by depriving them, 
for an indefinite time, of the blessings the Council was cal- 
culated to confer. 

It now remains for you, beloved brethren, by taking prac- 
tical steps to relieve the Holy Father, to give effect to this 
protest. First of all, it is your duty to have recourse to the 
powerful arm of prayer. When St. Peter was thrown into 
prison by Herod, the entire Church prayed without ceasing 
for his safety (Acts, xiii. 5). The united prayers of the Chris- 
tian people, offered to God in the spirit of humility and with 
contrite hearts, through the hands of the Immaculate Mother 
of our Lord, will produce the most wonderful results. 

And since, in the terrible events that are now passing in 
Europe the enlightened eye of faith recognises the hand of an 
angry God, punishing the world for its overflowing iniquities, 
we should endeavour to banish from among us that monster 
of sin that maketh nations miserable) 

We therefore implore of you all, that, by worthily approach- 
ing the Holy Sacraments of Penance and of the Eucharist, 
you may prepare yourselves to ask, with more confidence, 
grace and mercy from the Lord. And let your prayers, 
proceeding from pure hearts, ever be the fruitful source of 
good works. Fasting, acts of mortification, alms-deeds, spiri- 
tual and corporal works of charity to the poor, these should 

1 Pro*, xiv. 34. 

54 L cttcr of the A rchbishops 

accompany your prayers to render them more powerful with 

Secondly. In addition to these spiritual weapons, it is 
desirable that Catholics should unite to protest against the 
insults which have been heaped on the Vicar of Christ, and 
against the violation of justice and right, on the part of those 
who have seized on Rome, the common property of the 
Catholic world. These protests, to have weight, should be 
made in writing, and, when recommended by your pastors, at 
meetings, to be placed in the hands of those who represent 
us in parliament, so that they may be laid before the 
public authorities of this country. We have a full right 
to ask from those who rule Catholic nations that they 
should secure from a control which cannot be other than 
than capricious or tyrannical, the Pontiff whose authority 
guides the conscience of millions of their subjects. The 
enemies of the Holy Father are most industrious in misre- 
presenting the feelings of Catholics, and in describing their 
own evil deeds as the necessary result of public opinion and 
of national aspirations, in the hope that they may pervert 
men's judgments, and thereby hinder them from taking effec- 
tual means for the relief of the Holy Father. Let it be our 
business to prove that their lies have not deceived anyone, 
and that Catholic Ireland will joyfully take her place among 
the nations who will emulate one another in assisting by their 
prayers and alms, the Vicar of Christ in this his hour of sore 

For the rest, beloved brethren, be not disturbed by the 
violence, nor scandalized by the momentary success that has 
attended the designs of the wicked. " Tiiese things they 
thought" says the Holy Ghost of those who conspired against 
the just man ; " these things ttiey thought, and were deceived ; 
for tJieir own malice blinded them. A nd tJicy knew not the secrets 
of God, nor hoped for tJie wages of justice, nor esteemed the 
honour of holy souls-." 1 But the multiplied brood of the wicked 
shall not thrive and if ttiey flourish in branches for a time, 
yet standing not fast, they shall be sliaken with tJie wind, and 
tJiroiigh the force of 'winds they shall be rooted out" z "A mighty 
wind shall stand up against tlum, and as a whirlwind shall 
divide them ;" and although, by permission of an outraged 
Providence, it may come to pass that "tJieir iniquity sliall 
bring all the earth into a desert, and their wickedness overthrow 
the thrones of tJie mighty," yet in God's good time truth and 
virtue shall have their triumph, and being rescued from the 

1 Wisdom, ii. 21, 22. ' Ibid. iv. 3, 4. 

A nd Bishops of Ireland to their Flocks. 5 5 

hands of their enemies, " the just shall sing to thy holy name, 
O Lord? and s/tall praise with on* accord thy victorious 
May the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. 

Dublin, igth October, 1870. 

PAUL CARDINAL CULLEN, Archbishop of Dublin. 

DANIEL M'GETTIGAN, Archbishop of Armagh. 
JOHN McHALE, Archbishop of Tuam. 

PATRICK LEAHY, Archbishop of Cashel. 

THOMAS FEENY, Bishop of Killala. 

E. WALSHE, Bishop of Ossory. 

WILLIAM DELANY, Bishop of Cork. 

FRANCIS KELLY, Bishop of Deny. 

WILLIAM KEANE, Bishop of Cloyne. 

P. DURCAN, Bishop of Achonry. 

DAVID MORIARTY, Bishop of Kerry. 

JOHN P. LEAHY, Bishop of Dromore. 

D. O'BRIEN, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore. 

JAMES WALSHE, Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin. 

LAURENCE GILLOOLY, Bishop of Elphin. 

THOMAS FURLONG, Bishop of Ferns. 

JOHN McEviLLY, Bishop of Galway, &c., &c. 

M. O'HEA, Bishop of Ross. 

P. DORRIAN, Bishop of Down and Connor. 

GEORGE BUTLER, Bishop of Limerick. 

NICHOLAS CONATY, Bishop of Kilmore. 

THOMAS NULTY, Bishop of Meath. 

JAMES DONNELLY, Bishop of Clogher. 

NICHOLAS POWER, Coadjutor Bishop of Killaloe. 

J AMES LYNCH,CoadjutorBishopofKildareand Leighlin 

W. J. WHELAN, Bishop of Aureliopolis. 

DAN IEL MURPHY, Bishop of Hobartown, in Australia. 
9 THOMAS GRIMLEY, Vic. Ap. of Capetown, South Africa, 

TIMOTHY O'MAHONY, Bishop of Armidale, Australia. 
PETER DAWSON, Vic-Cap. Ardagh. 

1 Wisdom, z. 10. 



Early fame of Hugh Ward : Dempster's piracy of Irish 
Saints : Traditional minstrelsy in Ward's family : 
Letters of F. Patrick Fleming: He visits Clairvaux : 
Memorials of St. Ma tacky in France: Ward guardian of 
St. Anthony's: Researches of Fr. Michael O'Clery: Letters 
of David Rot he, Lcssing, Bollandus, &c. : Colgaris MS. 
notes on the life of St. Dyinpna : The life of St. Rumold, &c. 

IT was in 1623 that Father Hugh Ward, O.S.F., arrived at 
the Convent of St. Anthony de Padua, in Louvain. He had 
many years before embraced the Franciscan rule at Sala- 
manca, where he pursued his studies of philosophy and 
theology, and acquired considerable fame for acuteness of 
mind and depth of research. Father Pontius, a distinguished 
professor of the Order in Rome, publicly eulogized him in 
after times as surpassing the most famous Franciscan pro- 
fessors of that age 1 in scolastic subtlety. Father O'Sheerin 
gives him no less praise : " deformed in body, he was en- 
dowed with every accomplishment of mind ; he was affable 
in his words, which sparkled with wit and humour ; being of 
holy conversation, and spotless life, he was, at the same time, 
endowed with brilliant genius, and was profoundly versed in 
philosophical and theological science." 2 

From Salamanca he proceeded to Paris, as companion to 
Father Francis de Arraba, confessor of the Queen of France, 
and there he enjoyed abundant leisure to peruse his favorite 
studies, and explore the rich literary treasures of that great 
capital. It was at this time that the Scottish historian, 
Dempster, published his famous work on the Saints of Scot- 
land, 3 in which he appropriated to his native calendar, most 
of the holy men who adorned our country by their sanctity in 
the first ages of our faith. It has been said of him that " he 
was as well inclined to believe a lie as any man in his time, and 
as well qualified to put it into a pretty dress of poetry." 4 He 

1 " Scholastica subtilitate anteivisse doctissimos quosque quos norat, et sane hi 
multi fuerunt et celebres, sui Institute et regni professores. Vita S. Kumoldi, 
praefat. Sirini. 

* " Vultus invenustus, venustissimi mores, &c." Ibid. 

*" Menologium Scotticum (Bologna, 1619); which work being put on the in- 
dex of prohibited books in Rome, was somewhat altered and republished in 
Bologna, in 1627, under the name " Historia Ecclesiastica gentis Scottorum." 

4 Irish Hist. Library, by Nicholson, page 73. Usher has been equally severe in 
his Britt. Etcl. Antiq. " Tarn suspectae fidei hominem ilium fuisse comperimus, 
et toties tesseram fregisse, ut oculatos nos esse oporteat, et nisi quod videmus, 
uihil ab eo acceptum credere." Cap. xvi. 

Irish Historical Studies. 57 

was, however, a man of extensive reading, and he must be 
pardoned, if, writing in the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
he assumed, as a matter of course, that in the olden records 
the names Scotus and Scotia, referred to modern Scotland. 
His piracy of Irish Saints awakened the energy and zeal of 
our exiled countrymen, and we will have occasion hereafter 
to refer to the tracts which were published soon after by 
David Rothe, Messingham, Fitzsimon, and others, refuting 
Dempster's groundless but attractive statements. Ward en- 
listed with ardour in this controversy, and thenceforward each 
hour at his disposal was devoted to explore the records of 
the past, and search out new monuments illustrative of the 
history of the Saints of Ireland. 

Indeed this study of the antiquities of our country was 
nothing new in the family of Hugh Ward. He belonged to 
that branch of the family that gave name to Ballymac- Ward, 
in Donegal. His ancestors had been for centuries the heredi- 
tary bards of the O'Donnells, princes of Tirconnell,and in poetry 
and minstrelsy had often borne away the palm from the chief 
poets of Ireland. In the Annals of the Four Masters, in 1541, 
we find recorded that " MacWard, ollamh to O'Donnell in 
poetry, a superintendent of schools, and a man not excelled 
in poetry and other arts, who had founded and maintained 
a house of general hospitality, died on the 2Oth of December, 
after unction and penance." In 1550 it is again recorded: 
" MacWard of Tirconnell, a learned poet, a superintendent of 
schools, and a man of great name and renown throughout 
Ireland in his time, who kept a house of general hospitality, 
died." Also in 1576, we meet the entry : " William Oge Mac 
Ward, ollamh to O'Donnell in poetry, a president of schools, 
illustrious for his learning and knowledge, a patron and sup- 
porter of the learned and the teachers, died at Druimmor (in 
Donegal), on the 22nd of February." Owen MacWard, 
brother of our Franciscan Hugh, was the last of these here- 
ditary bards, and died in 1609 : " Owen MacWard, ollamh to 
O'Donnell in poetry, an intelligent ingenious man, who kept 
an open house of general hospitality, died at an advanced 
age, after the victory of penance." 1 He was one of those 
who shared the perils of the flight and exile of the Earls in 
1607. On the death of O'Donnell, in Rome, the following 
year, he composed a beautiful Irish Elegiac Poem, addressed 
to Nuala, the sister of the deceased Earl, and in it she 
is introduced as weeping alone on St. Peter's hill, over the 
tomb of the illustrious dead : 

1 CP Donovan's " Annals of the Four Masters." 

58 Irish Historical Studies 

" O, woman of the piercing wail 

Who mournest o'er yon mound of clay, 

With sigh and groan ; 
Would God thou wert among the Gael ! 
Thou wouldst not then from day to day 
Weep thus alone. 

'Twere long before, around a grave 
In green Tirconnell, one could find 

This loneliness ; 

Near where Beann-Boirche's banners wave, 
Such grief as thine could ne'er have pined 

Red would have been our warriors' eyes, 

Had Roderick found on Sligo's field 

A gory grave; 

No northern chief would soon arise, 
So sage to guide, so strong to shield, 

So swift to save. 

Long would Leith-Cuinn have wept, if Hugh 
Had met the death he oft' had dealt 

Among the foe ; 
But had our Roderick fallen too, 
All Erin must, alas ! have felt 

The deadly blow. 

What do I say ? Ah ! woe is me ! 
Already we bewail in vain 

Their fatal fall ! 
And Erin, once the great and free, 

Now vainly mourns her breakless chain 
And iron thrall ! 

Thn, daughter of O'Donnell ! dry 
Thine overflowing eyes, and turn 

Thy heart aside ; 
For Adam's race is born to die, 
And sternly the sepulchral urn 

Mocks human pride. 

And Thou, O, mighty Lord, whose ways 
Are far above our feeble minds 

To understand, 

Sustain us in these doleful days, 
And render light the chain that binds 
Our fallen land ! 

//; the Swentccnth Century. 59 

Look down upon our dreary state, 
And through the ages that may still 
Roll sadly on, 

Watch Thou o'er hapless Erin's fate, 
And shield, at least, from darker ill 
The blood of Conn I" 1 

I may here be allowed to remark that, like the subject of 
this chapter, most of the religious of St. Anthony's of Lou- 
vain, who rendered such services to the history of Ireland 
were linked by some personal ties with the princely families 
of Tirconnell and Tyrone. Thus it was with Father Mooney, 
who, whilst Guardian of St. Anthony's, discharged the duties 
of Tutor to the youthful earls. Thus, too, MacCaghwell, 
whose name will be mentioned more than once in the follow- 
ing pages ; he had fought under the banner of the earls in 
the wars against Elizabeth, and was subsequently their 
faithful companion in exile ; also O'Sheerin was closely allied 
by blood with the same princely families of Ulster. 

It was in Paris, in 1623, that Father Hugh Ward contracted 
a close friendship with another member of his order, Father 
Patrick Fleming. The same ideas that quickened the ener- 
gies of Ward, had already found an echo in the heart of 
Fleming, and when the former made known his project of 
laying the foundations of Irish hagiology by collecting 
together all the original acts of the Irish saints, and the 
other monuments connected with the history of his native 
land, Father Fleming at once promised to lend his earnest 
co-operation in thus promoting the hallowed glory of 

Father Fleming was at this time journeying on to Rome, 
companion of Father MacCaghwell, who was visitator of 
the order. They travelled, for the most part, on foot, and 
chose for their resting place, at each stage of their journey, 
some house of their own order, or, when none such could be 
found, some friendly monastery, where by their prayers and 
learned conversation, they repaid the charitable hospitality 
which was shown them. The monastery of Clairvaux, re- 
nowned for its memories of St. Bernard, our own St. Malachy, 
and so many other illustrious ornaments of the Church, was 
one of the asylums thus visited by ourtravellers. Before continu- 
ing his journey, Father Fleming thus wrote to Hugh Ward : 

1 Eight other Irish poems written by Owen Mac ua Bhaird, all of an historical 
character, are mentioned by O'Reilly in Irish Writers, p. clxi. Several other 
writers of the Ward family, and their poems, are commemorated in the same work, 
p. cxlvii., cxllx. , clix., &c. 

60 Irish Historical Studies 


" I arrived at last at this sanctuary of my desire, 
this holy Clairvaux, where, would to God, I could remain 
at least five days, that thus I might be able to glean some- 
thing from the many manuscripts which enrich it. But we 
have barely stopped two days here, and hence you can expect 
but little from me. I did all that I could, however, in the 
short time that was allowed me, and I wrote what I now 


" Veni tandem mei ad locum desiderii ad Clara vallem sanctam in qua 
utinam vel quinque saltern diebus mihi liceret remorari, ut vel sicaliquid colligerem 
ex tot manuscriptis quae hie sunt. Sed vix duobus mansinuis diebus ac proinde 
pauciora a me nunc expectabis. Feci tamen pro brevitate temporis quae potui et 
haec quae vides scripsi. reliquorum mittendorum si quae sunt cura fideh amico 
relicla. Archivium monasterii nondum vidi nee videbo, nempe hora 5 eras dis- 
cessurus in quo tamen sperabam me reperturum epistolas S. Malachiae et Cogani 
Abbatis. Plura de S. Malachia scire non potui vestro operi convenientia. Agedum 
pater chare habebis quae Claravallis habet tuo usui opportuna. Nam hie post me re- 
linquo alterum meipsum nempe Dnum. Joannem Cantwell Monachum Hybernum 
Sacerdotem magnae apud Abbatem fidei et authoritatis quern Abbas nuper con- 
stituere volebat Priorem in quodam Monasterio prope Parisios, sed forte, Domini 
dispensatione, non est missus nee demittet curam quam hie habet Vir est ejusdem 
nobiscum zeli et desiderii qui pariter disponendis libris monasterii praeest, sunt 
enim omnes ita confusi et dispersi ut nihil invenire potuerim cum tamen diu 
multos volvissem. Ipse autem reperit dum eos disponeret ante aliquot dies librum 
aliquem cui titulus ' Monachus quidam Hybernus in Regulam S. Benedicti,' ubi 
multa hinc inde de Hybernia miscet : non vidi librum quia aliquis fratrum ad 
cellam ipsum secum tulit. Vidi autem ipse aliquani historiam Brittanicam nun- 
quam editam ubi aliqua sunt de Hybernia, sed tuo usui non serviunt : sunt etiam 
vaticinia quantum coljigo Merlin! : pervolvi grandia volumina quae habentur de 
vitis sanctorum in quibus inter caetera reperi vitam S. Deicoli Abb. prolixissime, 
historiam certe pulcherrimam quam tibi descriptam transmittet praefatus Joannes 
infra paucos dies. Ipse autem Deicola in ilia historia se Scotigenam vocat ex 
quo patet Anglum eum non esse ac proinde Scoto-Hibernum cum nulli ipsum 
Scotobritannum adstruant. Miracula item Columbani quae non alia credens esse 
ab iis quae D. Messingham habet nolui curare ut scriberentur. Vita S. Mansueti 
Episcopi Tullensis conscripta jam a quodam Priore Anglo praelum subiit: ipsam 
vidit et legit dictus D. Joannes, cujus potissimum impulsu Anglus id opens arri- 
puit: probat autem prolixe eum Hybernum esse, et aliquoties digreditur expatians 
in laudibus Hyberniae. Episcopus Tullensis jam imaginem S. Mansueti erexit sub- 
scriptam ' S. Afansiietus Hyberntis,' etc. ; ni obstitisset Anglus, posuisset Status. 
D. Joannes Cantwell, vitam brevi habebit ab Anglo tibique quam primum mittet, 
promisitque mihi se imposterum in hoc nostro negotio diligentissimum fore rnisu- 
rumque se tibi omnia quae feperiet quod bene potest nam habebit hie qui pro ipso 
integros tractatus exscriberent si ita vellet; praetereaest.hic novitius Hybernus qui 
nihil recusabit, sed nee audebit quidem quia et Magister novitiorum secundarius 
Hybernus est qui ipsum compelletsi ipsumrecusare laborem contingeret. Rogavitme 
praedictus D. Joannes cum ipse sit (ut ipse loquebatur) materia et tu forma, ego 
inter vos absentes essem unit), qua vos per epistolas vestras invicem vinculo charitatis 
jungemini, quapropter rogo vos obnixe ut ipsum frequentibus litteris conveniatis 
certi interim ipsum diligentissimum fore in rebus nostris colligendis, quae hie si ullibi 
abundant : cupit autem quam maxime opera habere Scoti a P. Cavello impressa, 
quae magni hie fierent cum ab Hyberno sunt edita. Tanto in Hybernos monachi 
hujus alinae domus feruntur affcctu ut ipse Dominus Abbas catalogum SS. Hy- 
berniae coram se in loco orationis suae nunc habeat. Rogo ergo quantum possum 
humiliter ut ipsi praefato Domino opera Scoti mittatis tarn ad decorem Biblio- 
thecae quam ipsius privatum usum, quo facto ipsum multum obligasti. 

" Litteras tuas mittas cum procuratore Claravallensi qui ibi habitat in collegio 

In tht Seventeenth Century. 61 

send, leaving the charge to a faithful friend to forward the 
remaining monuments to you should any such be found 
there. I have not seen the archives of the monastery, 
nor can I see them, for we leave this to-morrow at 
five o'clock in the morning. I was in hopes to find 
here the letters of St Malachy as well as those of 
Abbot Cogan. I could not learn anything new about 
St. Malachy that would be important for your work. But 
have courage, my dear Father, you will get everything that 
Clairvaux has useful for your purpose. For I leave here 
after me another myself in the person of the monk John 
Cantwell, an Irish priest of great credit and authority, with 
the Abbot. It was the desire of the Abbot that he should 
be prior in another monastery near Paris, but, by chance, 
through the mercy of God, he was not sent thither, and he 
will not resign his present post. He is a man having the 
same zeal and desire as ourselves ; he has the charge to 
arrange the books of the library, which are now all in con- 
fusion and scattered about, so that I could find nothing 
although I turned over several of them. He, however, 
found, a few days ago, when putting the books in order, 
one work with the title ' Commentary of a certain Irish 
Monk on the Rule of St. Benedict/ in which many things 
are introduced here and there about Ireland. I did not see 
the book because one of the religious had brought it to his 
cell. I saw, however, an unpublished history of Britain, in 
which there are some things about Ireland, but which are of 
no importance for your work. There are also some prophecies, 
I suppose those of Merlin. I glanced over large volumes of 
the ' Lives of the Saints,' among which I found a very full 
life of the Abbot St. Dichuil ; it is indeed a most beautiful life, 
and the above-mentioned John will have it copied for you 

Bemardinorum, nihil ipsi interim de tuis revelans quia dicitur minus in nostros 
affectus qnam alii: cum scribis sequent! vice promitte ipsi Scotum et librum Patris 
Cavelli de statutis ordinis existente ibi generali editum: cum his scribet tibi qua via 
poteris commode hue ad ipsum litteras dirigere. Plura nunc prae festinatione 
nequeo, vix haec ipsa scribere potui. Animose pater charissime alacriter perge, 
quia, ut spero non est qui de manu tua possit cruere quominus omnia tibi necessaria 
mittantur. Caeterum, mihi si quid in isto negotio imprudenter gessi parce, et dis- 
cedentem ex hoc Paradise terresti, oratione prosequere. Vellem ad haec invenire 
ante me Lugduni responsum quod rogo mittas cum proximo eo prefecture, non 
quod de Domino Joanne quidquam dubitem quern totaliter, ut puto, ad hoc negotium 
traxi, ut tu ex epistolis ems ad te brevi perspicies. Vale in Domino et pro me ora. 
" In festo S. Marci, 1623, " Tuus ut nosti, 


" P.S. DIcit mihi nihil essi periculi quod mittas Scotum quamprimum cum pro- 
curatorc Claravallensi qui ibi est apud Beraardinos. 
" Venerando Patri fr. Hugoni Vardeo, 

" Socio Confcssarii Reginae Christianissimae Parisiis." Ex. Arckrv. S. 
Isidori, Romae. 

62 Irish Historical Studies 

within a few days. St. Dichuil, in this life, styles himself a 
Scot, from which it is certain that he was not an Englishman, 
and hence, as the British-Scots do not claim him, he must, 
of course, be an Irish-Scot 

" I saw also the Miracles of St. Columbanus, but believing it 
to be the same work that Messingham has, I did not give 
any instructions to have it copied. The Life of St. Man- 
suetus, Bishop of Tulle, from the pen of some English prior, 
has been published. It was read and examined by Father 
Cantwell, at whose request that work was undertaken ; it 
proves at great length that St Mansuetus was an Irishman, 
and it often expatiates at great length on the praises of 
Ireland. The Bishop of Tulle has already erected a statue 
of St. Mansuetus, with the inscription Sanctus Mansuetus 
Hibernus (St. Mansuetus, native of Ireland) : were it not for the 
English Prior he would have styled him a Scot. Father 
Cantwell will soon have a copy of this work from his English 
friend, and will send it to you, and he has promised me that 
henceforward he will be most diligent in our business, and 
that he will send to you everything that he finds. This he 
can easily effect, for he has persons here who if he so wishes 
will copy whole treatises for him. Moreover there is an Irish 
novice here who will not refuse such work ; indeed he dare 
not refuse it, for the assistant master of novices is also an 
Irishman, who will oblige him to do this work if he shows 
any difficulty about it. 

" Father Cantwell has asked me, since, as he says, he is the 
matter and you the form, that I should be the bond of union, 
requesting you to open_a mutual and frequent correspon- 
dence. I am sure he will be most diligent in collecting the 
desired materials, which, if anywhere, are here most abun- 
dant. He is most anxious to have the works of Scotus, edited 
by Father MacCaghwell, which will be highly prized here on 
account of being edited by an Irishman. The Religious of 
this parent monastery are so devotedly attached to the Irish 
that the Lord Abbot himself now keeps a catalogue of the 
saints of Ireland in his own private oratory. I therefore 
earnestly and humbly request you to send the wished-for 
works of Scotus, as well for the ornament of the library as 
for the private use of Father Cantwell, and thus he will feel 
greatly indebted to you. 

"You may send your letters through the Procurator of 
Claifvaux, who lives in Paris, in the College of the Bernar- 
dines, but do not disclose any of your projects to him, as he 
is supposed not to be so favorable to us as others. When you 
write to Father Cantwell promise to send the Scotus and also 

/* tJu Seventeenth Century. 63 

the work of Father Caghwell on the rules of the order, pub- 
lished under the present General. He himself will send 
instructions with this letter how you may most readily com- 
municate with him. 

" My courageous and dearest Father, proceed in your work 
with earnestness, for, as I hope, there is no one who can keep 
from your hands all the materials that are necessary for you. 
For the rest, pardon me if I have acted with any imprudence 
in this business, and whilst I depart from this terrestrial Pa- 
radise, accompany me with your prayers. I would wish to 
find before me in Lyons your reply to this letter. Farewell 
in the Lord, and pray for me. 

"The feast of St. Mark, 1623. 


On his arrival in Lyons he again wrote to Father Ward, 
adding interesting details regarding the various Memorials of 
St. Malachy, preserved in some of the great French Cister- 
cian Monasteries : 

1 " I wrote to you from Clairvaux, in the hope of getting an 
answer from you. As this has not come to hand I fear my letter 
may not have reached you, and thus it will be necessary for 
you to write to that effect to Father John Cantwell, an Irish 

monk in Clairvaux Ask him about the Lives of SS. Di- 

chuil and Mansuetus, and the Letters of St. Malachy, though 
these have not been found as yet. Ask him also about the 
Mitre of St. Malachy, which, according to tradition, was 
placed upon the head of that holy Bishop by Pope Innocent, 
and about the Chalice of St. Malachy, which I myself used 


"Scripsi tibi ex Claravalle de nostro negotio quae scribcnda videbantur 
cum spe ad ea responsum recipiendi quod cum factum non sit timeo meos ad te 
non pervenisse ac proinde opus crit iterum Dominum Joannem Cantwell mona- 
chum Claravallensem Hibernum (cui ejns negotii comisi curam) monere per epis- 
tolam. quod ipse facere poteris mittens litteras per Procuratorem Claravallensem 
qui habitat in Collegio S. Bemardi 1'aiisiis. Interroga ipsum de vita S. Deicoli, 
Mansueti et epistolis S. Malachiae (licet nondum inventis) de quibus tibi scripsi 
ex Claravalle. Item de mitra S. Malachiae ipsius, ut tradunt, capiti ab Innocentio 
suinmo Pontiftce imposita, de calice S. Malachiae quocum ipse celebravi. Kpitaphia 
ip>ius tibi cum litteris misi. Aliucl aclinic S. Malachiae monumentum vidimus in 
monasterio de Obrier decem vel circiter leucis a Claravalle distante, nempe cvphum 
quo usus fuerat ipse quemquc secum ex llibernia tulerat, ex quo bili.mus. Kst 
autem ligneus, et co<>|x;rculum seu bursa cjus ipso praetiosior est, ex corio multis 
nodis et pressuris varie incisa more Ilybcrnico, in vaginis oblongorum cultrorum 
curiose decorandis servari solito ; quod tibi scripsi quia notatu dignum judicavit 
Pr. Cavellus. Ex eo autem omnes religiosi bibunt in fcsto S. Malachiae tantum. 
Utere tua dlscretione in hoc ad cjus vitam apponenendo. 

" Caeterum nihil adhuc reperi quia nee quaerere tempus fuit ; nam per monas- 
tcriuin Cisterciense vehimus, et crastina ejus diei quo appulimus recessimus et ita 

64 Irish Historical Studies 

when offering the Holy Sacrifice. The inscriptions on his 
monument were sent to you enclosed in my former letter. 
We met another Memorial of St. Malachy in the Monastery of 
Obrier, which is about ten leagues distant from Clairvaux, 
that is, the cup which he brought with him from Ireland, and 
from which we had the privilege of drinking. It is made of 
wood, and its cover or case is more precious than itself, being 
of leather, wonderfully embossed and adorned with intertwin- 
ings, according to the Irish style (more Hibernico) of singular 
ornamentation, generally used on the sheaths of oblong instru- 
ments. I write this to you, as Father Caghwell thinks it may 
be interesting to you to know it. All the Religious drink 
from this cup only on the feast day of St. Malachy. Use 
your own discretion as to adding this when writing the Saint's 

" As yet I have not found any MSS., because there was 
no time for searching for them. We stopped at the Cistercian 
Monastery, but on the day after our arrival we again started 
on our journey, so that I was not able to see the celebrated 
Library of that house, much more valuable, as I hear, than 
that of Clairvaux ; and this I readily believe, as it is con- 
sidered the first and Mother House of the Cistercian 
Order, and its Abbot should be, by right, the general Superior 
of the whole order. As for the remainder of the journey I 
despair of being able to transmit anything to you, unless it 
may please God to arrange matters otherwise than at present. 

nem mihi licuit videre celebrem illam Bibliothecam ejus domus multo ut audivi 
Claravallensi praestantiorem, quod facile credo, cum ordinis Cisterciensis prima 
domus et mater habeatur, ibique semper Abbas totius ordinis jure generalis esse 
debeat gubernator. Quod reliquum viae spectat despero pene me tibi quidquam 
posse transmittere nisi Dominus aliter disponere dignetur quam hactenus. Ego 
certe nihil de meo fervore remitto, nihilominus tamen timeo me parum hoc itinere 
praestiturum quod te parum movere debet quia spero Romae me reperturum quae 
in via non potui quaerere. 

" Lege supplementum chronicorum Philippi Bergomensis ubi de Hibernia agit 
et te in nomenclatura forte juvabit, si tamen ibi de nostra Hibemia loquitur. Di- 
rige tuas litteras quamprimum Romam ad P. Lucam quia spero nos ibi futurum 
antequam ipsa venerint. Quaeso scribe plenius de processu hue usque operis ; 
et Dominum Messingham, quern obnixe saluto. roga ut alacriter pergat ad gloriam 
sanctorum et honorem patriae sanctae suae. Me precibus fratrum commendatum 
habe, de tuis nolo dubitare. Plura non habeo pro nunc. Haec ipsa non rei urgentis 
sed ofiicii debiti ratio scribere compelliL Det Deus ut bene legas quae calamus 
tarn stupidus exaravit. Vale in Christo pater chare et tui memoris esto memor. 

"Lugduni, 8 Maii, 1623. Tuus ut nosti, 


" Reverendo in Christo Patri, Fr. Hugoni Vardeo, 
" Socio Confessarii Reginae Christianissimae, 

" In Conventu Cordigerorum, Parisiis." (Ex. Archrv. S. hid.) 

/;/ the Seventeenth Century. 65 

For my part I have lost nothing of my fervour ; nevertheless 
I fear this my journey will add but little to your store, but 
this should not disturb you, for I hope to find in Rome what 
I am unable to search for on the road thither. 

" Read the Supplement to the Chronicle of Philip of Ber- 
gamo, where he treats about Ireland, and you will find some- 
thing useful, perhaps, on the question of the nomenclature, if, 
however, it is our Ireland that he speaks of. Direct your 
letters to Rome, to the care of Father Luke Wadding, for I 
hope we will arrive there before your letters can reach. I pray 
you to send all details about the progress of your work ; and 
I lovingly salute Messingham, who, I trust, earnestly continues 
to labour for the glory of our Saints and the honour of our 

" I commend myself to the prayers of the fathers ; as for 
yours, I feel quite assured of them. I shall write no more ; 
and even all this I have written, not as a matter of any 
urgency, but merely to discharge my duty towards you. God 
grant that you may be able to read what my stupid pen has 
written. Farewell in Christ, my dear Father, and be not for- 
getful of one who is ever mindful of you. 

" Lyons, 8th May, 1623. 


Before the month of September, 1623, Father Hugh Ward 
proceeded to Louvain to teach Theology in the College of St. 
Anthony. A little later he was chosen guardian of that Con- 
vent, and thus a wider field was opened to him for promoting 
his cherished object of the glory of the Saints of Ireland. 
During his sojourn in France he had visited the libraries of 
Paris, of Rouen, of Harfleur, and of Nantes. In Belgium 
he also gathered in a rich literary store, but it was in Ireland 
principally that researches should be made for the surviving 
monuments of her early history. Here Providence came to 
his aid. " Whilst he was guardian of Louvain," writes Father 
de Buck, "there came to the gates of St. Anthony's a man 
advanced in years, who knew no Latin, but asked to be ad- 
mitted to the habit of the lay-brothers of the Franciscan 
Order. This was Michael O'Clery, whose name will be for 
ever dear to the Archaeologists and historians of Ireland. Born 
about the year 1580, in the County of Donegal; he was an 
Antiquarian by profession, and ranked among his colleagues 
as one of the most skilled in Celtic Archaeology. Father 
Ward asked permission to have O'Clery appointed his own 
assistant, and the permission was readily accorded. He soon 
saw that Ireland would be a better field of labour for one so 


66 Irish Historical Studies 

skilled in Irish literature than Belgium. The Superiors of the 
Order came to a like decision, and soon the Antiquarian Bro- 
ther was sent back to his country, commissioned to search 
out and transcribe the lives of the Irish Saints, and all other 
documents connected with the history of the kingdom. As 
many of these records of our early ages were written in the 
ancient Gaelic, no one was better suited for such a task than 
brother Michael." 1 

We will have occasion hereafter to speak at greater length 
of the labours of O'Clery ; for the present it will suffice to cite 
a few passages of a letter of Dr. Rothe, Bishop of Ossory, giving 
some details connected with that learned explorer of our 
early monuments. It is addressed to Father Hugh Ward as 
follows : 


" I need not make any relation of the trivial occurrents 
now current in this poor realm, nor particularize anything 
touching myself, but remit you to the bearer, who will punctu- 
ally inform you of all. As I was teaching at Cashel, upon 
your patron's festival day, there I met your brother Clery, who 
made a collection of more than three or four hundred lives. I 
gave him the few lives I had collected, and sent him to 
Ormond, part of my diocese, to write there for a time, from 
whence he promised to come to Chewmond, (i.e. Thomond,) 
where I undertook to get many things for him, but he came 
not since ; soon I do expect his coming, he shall be welcome 
truly to me. I have some little alms to be sent to your house, 
but can find no way this year to convey the same to you, or 
send any supply to my brother, because the ways are stopped. 
I understood by one of your letters, written long ago, that 
some false informations were given of me, for my partiality 
against religious orders, which was most calumnious, as ex- 
perience taught, and will ever teach, during my life ; .but I 
cannot sufficiently give you thanks for your advice and care 
of me and mine, assuring you your will was and will always 
be done in that behalf, as you will see in time. 

"I commend the bearer to you, who is my special friend, 
and one of yours, worthy, for his parentage and behaviour, of 
any furtherance. Remember my love and humble service to 
the two noble gentlemen of Barnewall and M'Frihill. I am 
informed a priest who died there called John O'Duohy, of my 
diocese, spoke somewhat sinisterly of me, whose ground was 
because I refused to give him licence celebrandi in meo dis- 

1 LArcheologit Irlandaise, <&Y. par le R. P. V. de Buck, S J., Paris, l869,page 5. 

/// the Seventeenth Century. 67 

" I hear many arc suitors for my place, and I pray God to 
rid me of the pains thereof if it will tend to his own glory, 
and the common good, otherwise, benedicta ejus in omnibus 

fiat voluntas I long to hear from yourself, and when 

you intend to come for Ireland. I know you heard long ago 
from Mr. Francis Brian how Mr. William Kelly died of late, 
to my grief. " I rest without end, 

" Yours to be commanded, 

" The 30th of Jan., 1628. " DAVID ROTHE. 1 

" To the worthy and much respected friend, 
Mr. HEAGH WARDE, Louvain." 

However the libraries of France, Italy, and Ireland did not 
satisfy this indefatigable man. He wished also to be enriched 
with the spoils of Germany, as we learn from the following 
letter of the celebrated Benedictine, Lessing, who thus writes 
to Ward from the monastery of St. Hubert, on the 23rd 
of August, 1629 : 

" The peace of Xt 


" When two of your religious lately made a pilgrimage 
to our monastery of St. Hubert, one of them requested me to 
have some lives of saints copied. by one of our brothers from 
a MS. of the monastery. This copy, faithfully and accurately 
made from the said MS. (which is entitled Vitae Sanctorum ,) 
I now send to you. I trust your reverence may accept my 
good will, and cause the holy sacrifice to be offered up by your 
religious for the good of our order, and may God grant his 
protection and blessing to you. 

" Your servant in Xt., 

" The Monastery of St. Hubert, 

"The i oth of the Calends of September, 1629." 

1 Ex. Archh. S. Itidori Romat. 

t " Tax Xti. 


" Cum duo ex vestris nuper ad nostrum monasterium S. Huberti, pere- 
grinationem instituissent unus eorum me rogaverat quatenus ab aliquo e nostris 
vitas quorumdam SS. ex codice MS. transcribi curarem. Copiam ergo ex eodem 
MS. intitulato Vitat Sanctorum fideliter ct ad verbum exscriptam ab uno ex prae- 
fatis transmitto. Aequi bonique cpnsulat V.R. et Deum si placet per se et per 
suos pro bono religionis nostrae deprecetur qui paterniUUem suam servet et salvet. 
"V. R. 

' Servus in Xto., 

" In Monast. Andiano, 
" 10 Calendarum, Scptembris, 1639." Ex. Arthrv. S. Itid . Romat. 

68 Irish Historical Studies 

A marginal note adds, that the lives of Saints Fursey, 
Brigid, and Cad roe, with a fragment of a life of St. Patrick, 
accompanied this letter. All these lives were subsequently 
made use of by Colgan, in his Acta Sanctorum, and this 
greatest of our hagiologists regarded as singularly important 
and venerable for its antiquity, the valuable manuscript from 
which they were transcribed. 

Whilst Ward was thus occupied enlisting the services of 
skilful and devoted men to collect the scattered monuments of 
Irish History, he himself was busily engaged in preparing for 
the press several works which were all closely connected with 
the same subject. The following treatises on which he was 
engaged are mentioned by O'Sheerin : 

1. On the ancient names of Ireland (De nomenclatura Hi- 

2. On the condition and political development of Society 
in Ireland (De static tt Processu veteris in Hibernia reipublicae). 

3. On the Privileges of St Patrick (Anagraphe mirabilium 
Sancti Patricii). 

4. An Inquiry concerning the pilgrimage of St. Ursula (In- 
vestigatio expeditionis Ursulanae). 

5. An Hyberno-Latin Martyrology, compiled from the 
ancient Martyrologies of Ireland (Martyrologium ex muttit 
vetustis Latino-Hibtrnicum). 

6. The Life of St. Rumold, Bishop of Mechlin (Sancti 
Rumoldi Vita). 

The fame of Father Hugh Ward was soon widespread 
throughout Belgium. Letters were addressed to him from all 
parts, proposing queries connected with the Saints of Ireland ; 
and among his correspondents we find the renowned Father 
Bollandus, from whom the great Jesuit collection of the Lives 
of the Saints derives its name. 1 



" Cum nuper ad Rev. Vram. scriberem, excidit mihi quaerere de 
operibus S. Columbani an apud vos ea sint etiamnum. R. Petrus F'ranciscus 
Chiffletius desideraret sibi ex epistola quadam ejus describi quae de cyclo Pas- 
chali 84 annorum habet. Ad haec rogat ut si quid in vitis sanctorum Hibcrniae 
de eodem 84 annorum cyclo occurrat sibi communicemus. Ego praeterqam in 
Bedaet vita S. Columbae nihil de ea controversia reperio : si extaret S. Adamnani 
Huensis vita non dubito quin plusculum de ea re reperiretur cum pro cyclo Ro- 
mano sive Uionysiano plurimum ille laboravit. Quaesivit idem non semel an de 
S -Anatolio Scoto niliil legisscm. Nihil legi. Colitur in Burgundia. An est Reve- 
rentiae vestrae notus ? 

" Commendo me sanctis Rev. Vrae. Sacrificiis et praecibus. 

" Rev. Vrae., 

" Servus in Xto., 

" Antwerpia, a6Julii, 1634. "JOANNES BOULANDUS. 

" Revdo. Patri in Xto., P. Hugoni Vardaeo, O.S.F., Lovanii." 

/// t/ie Sei'cnteenth Century. 69 

One of the letters thus addressed to him is particularly 
interesting; it was written by Father Augustine Wichmann, of 
the Premonstratensian Order, and dated from Tungerloo, 
the Feast of St. Waldetrude, in 1628. It is addressed to 
Father Hugh Ward, Order of St. Francis, Guardian of the 
College of St. Anthony in Louvain : 

" With both hands 1 have received, and then I have lovingly 
kissed the bundle of your most learned remarks on the Life of 
St. Dympna. Our people of Brabant will be astounded, as 
well as I, when they will receive, through your kindness, these 
wonderful details in the Life of St. Dympna. And, would to 
Heaven ! that those manuscripts, regarding her deeds, which 
are preserved in your nation, should soon be placed within 
our reach. Oh, Dympna ! hear my prayer, for it is directed 
to promote thy glory : and thou Oh, Angel ! who art named 
Accelera, hasten this boon for me." 

He then propounds some of his own views about the Life of 
St. Dympna ; and among other things, remarks that she could 
not have been the superior of a Convent, as according to the tra- 
dition of Gheel, she was only fifteen years of age at the time 
she suffered martyrdom. " Therefore," he thus continues, 
" your conjecture seems to me to be the most probable, that 
is, that her staff, which is preserved, is not an Abbatial cro- 
zier, but a staff of pilgrimage, like that of St. Oda, which 
was brought from Mount Garganum, as her Life, which we 
possess, records, for she passed by that mountain when jour- 
neying from your country to Rome." 

From other remarks of Father Wichmans, we glean that 
it was Ward's opinion that St. Dympna made a pilgrimage 
to Rome ; that her martyrdom took place about the year 480, 
and that the name of Gheel was derived from the two Gaelic 
Saints, SS. Dympna and Gerabern, who rendered that spot 
so illustrious by miracles, that a city soon sprung up round 
their shrines. He adds, " I have nothing to oppose to your 
explanation of the name Gheel, but I would wish to learn 
from you can any similar explanation be given to the name 
Zammale, by which the town is called, where they resided 
before their martyrdom." 

He further gives the following interesting particulars re- 
garding St. Oda and her companion, St. Hilvaris : " I don't 
know whether your Reverence has ever verified from other 
sources the statement made by Gazet in his Ecclesiastical 
History of Belgium, written in French, wherein, in the chap- 
ter-on the Saints of Bois-le-Duc, he writes, regarding the 
Irish Saint, St. Hilvaris : St. Hilvaris, virgin, the companion 
of St. Oda, founded a Collegiate Church in the town of Btca, 

70 Irish Historical Studies 

which, from her, is called Hilvaris-Bcca. This is also the 
constant tradition there. The town is situated in the middle 
of our Campania, which was the native place of the late fa- 
mous Theologian, Martin Becanus." ] 

Twelve years later Father Wichmans again wrote to Lou- 
vain, seeking further details about St. Dympna. His letter 
was no longer addressed to Hugh Ward, who had passed to 
his reward, but to Father John Colgan, the worthy successor 
of Ward, as Irish hagiologist in St. Anthony's. He states in 
this letter that the life of St. Dympna, by F. Cameracensis, 
was the most ancient preserved in Gheel, and was compiled 
in the 1 3th century, from the tradition of the inhabitants, and 
from paintings and various monuments collected in several 
places. There is fortunately preserved among the Colgan 
fragments at St. Isidore's in Rome, a fly-sheet containing 
a rough draft of a portion of Colgan's letter in answer to the 
above, and dated i8th September, 1640. It adds not a 
little to our scanty information regarding that great saint 
and martyr of our early church. He first remarks that the 
Father of St. Dympna should not be styled Monarch of all 
Ireland, but rather Dynast, or inferior prince, many of whom 
received the title of kings, and some of whom it is probable 
persevered for a time in their pagan vices and superstitions. 
He then continues as follows: 2 

"That the matter may be more accurately illustrated, 
I premise four remarks: 

" 1st That Dympna, orDimhna, is generally written Damh- 
nad in Irish, although, according to the origin of the word, we 
should rather write it Damhna, according to what I have 
already remarked in my notes above, number 3. 

1 " Manipulum doctissimarum Adnotationum in vitam S- Dimphnae nuper 
utraque manu recepi et pleno ore exosculatus sum. . . . Stupebunt mecum 
Brabantini nostri dum stupenda ilia, audita nunquam, ex vobis audient cum bene- 
volentia, in vita S. Dimphnae. Et O si 1 manuscripta ilia quae apud gentem ves- 
tram latent de ejusdem gestis per inanum vestram brevi recipiam. Audi votum 
O Dimphna ! quia ad honorem tuum illud emitto ; tuque imprimis, cui nomen 
Ac cetera, idem mihi accelera 

" Nescio autem utrum a R. V. alibi animadversum sit quod habit Gazetius in 
Hist, sua Eccles. Belgica, gallico idiomate edita, capite de SS. Dioeces. Silvae- 
ducensis in quo haec de S. Hilvare Hiberna : S. Hilvaris virgo, pedissequa S. 
Odte, fundatrix fuit Ecclesiae Collegiatae in pago Becensi qiu ab ea nomen traxit 
Hilvaris- Beca.' Estque ea constans ibidem traditio: ager autem est in medio nostrae 
Campaniae, patriae magni illius nuper Theologi Martini Becani." 

1 Pro veritate melins eruenda praemitto quatuor : 

1. Dimhnam Hibernice passim vocari Damhnad, licet ex prim a yocis origine 
Damhna potius videatur dicta juxta ea quae fusius notavi supra in notis n. ^ 

2. Extare in Orgiellia Ultoniae in Hibernia perampla regione celebre et in magno 
praetio et veneratione habitum, in hujus virginis memoriam, monumentum quod 
b.uhull-damhnad id est baculus S. Dimhnae appellatur. Quando enjm non solum 
dynastae et nobiles illius regionis sed et plebci volunt aliquid jurejurando affir- 

In the Seventeenth Century. 71 

" 2nd That in Oirghialla, which is a very large district in 
Ulster, in Ireland, there is still preserved, through reverence for 
this saint, a celebrated memorial called Bachull-Damhnad, i.e., 
Staff of St. Dympna, which is held in the highest honour 
and veneration, and when anyone of this territory, whether 
he be prince or peasant, wishes to affirm anything on oath, 
he is invariably sworn on this Bachull as a most inviolable 
tessera of truth. It is uncertain whether it was used as a 
pastoral staff of Abbess, or as a staff of pilgrimage to foreign 
parts, but now it is covered with gems and gold, and held in 
the highest honour. 

" 3rd That in different parts of Ireland there still remain 
four churches dedicated to one or more saints of the name of 
Dympna. The first and principal church is situated in the 
aforesaid province of Oirghialla, in the district of Sliabh-Beatha ; 
it is called Teagh-Damhnad, i.e., the house of St. Dympna, and 
was formerly the burial-place of the princes and dynasts of 
Oirghialla (who in olden times were called by the generic name 
of kings) and in it to our own times was preserved the above 

mare per hunc baculum tamquam certum veritatis asserendae sacramentura solent 
jurare. Et sive in officio abbatissae, sive in sua peregrinatione extra patriam, 
fuerit, ejus baculus est gemmis et auro coelatus et in magno praetio semper 

3. Quod hoclie extant in Hiberniae diversis regionibus ecclesiae quatuor sive uni 
sive diversis hujus nominis virginibus dicatae. Prima, et praecipua, in praedicta 
oirgiellia provincia in regione de Sliabh-Beatha, quae Teagh-Damhnad id est 
aedes S. Dimhnae appellatur, in qua olim erat et sepultura principum et dynas- 
tarum orgielliae qui temporibus priscis absolute rcgcs vocabantur.juxta moxdicenda, 
et in hac usque ad nostros dies servabatur praedictus S. Dymhnae baculus et in ea 
insuper celebratur solemniier fcslum S. Dymhnae tamquam non solum loci sed et 
totius regionis patronae non tamcn die 15 Mali, ut (Ihelae, sed 13 Junii quo et 
publicae ibi majoris solemnitatis gratia servantur nundinae. Sccunda, quinque 
circiter miliaribus a prima distans est in eadem regione latere mentis Betha alia 
ecclesia .... Atchumairce appellata ; et quia pars non exigua hujus uia^ni 
montis spectabat olim ad liauc ecclcsi.un hinc ipsa vitgo dcnominationcm ab ipso 
monte accepisse videtur qua solet Damhna de monte Betha appellari. Tertia est 
viginti circiter hide miliaribus distans in comitatu el oppulo Luthensi et regione de 
machaire orgiell,id est, planitic orgelliae cui adjacet alia capella ad jactuin bombar- 
dae,S.Gerelx:rnoutti-adilioliabetciicaUi:fi'ruuteiiim in ilia cella S.Dymhnam fuisse a 
S. Gerel>emo litteris et pietale inslructam. Quarta. est Kill-Alga nppellata in 
regione Mediae et media inter oppida de baile Athtruim, et baile-Athbuidhe, ab 
utroque tribus circiler distans miliaribus ; quo die aulem servetur S. Dymhnae fes- 
tum in hisce ecclesiis mi hi nondum constat. 

4. Quartum quod praempnendum duxi est quod duae, nisi tres, hujus nominis 
memorantur a nostns hagiologis aliisque historicis virgines vitae sanctimonia et 
natalibus clarae. Prima, S. Dymhna patre S. Ronano Nennedii filio et matre 
Dublacha, orta de celeberrima onellorum familia de qua ejusque aliis sororibus 
vide plura in notis ad vitam S. Lassarae sororis ejus ad 13 Novemb., sed quia Ro- 
nanus harum virginum pater non fuit paganussed a puero Christianus et postea vir 
sanctus et post mortem uxoris episcopus, miraculis clams ante filiarum ejus 
obitum ut habetur in citata S. Lassarae vita, non potest Dimhna nostra Gelensis a 
patre impio et pagano capite truncata fuisse ejus filia. Seeuitda, est S. Dimhna de 
monte Beatha de cujus familia paterna, matre et sanctissimis fratribus melius con- 
stat quam ic ipso patre cujus nomen ab authoribus non exphmitur." 

7 2 Irish Historical Studies 

staff of St. Dympna. In it also the festival of St. Dympna 
is celebrated with the greatest solemnity, as the feast of the 
patron not only of that place, but of the whole province ; it is 
not kept, however, on the 1 5th of May, as in Gheel, but on 
the 1 3th of June, on which day a public fair is held as an 
occasion of special celebration. The second church is about 
five miles distant from the former, and is situated in the same 
district, on the side of Mount Beatha, and is called Atchumairc, 
i.e., the ford of refuge; and as a large portion of the mountain 
formerly belonged to this church, the Saint seemsto have derived 
from it her characteristic designation, for she is generally 
known as " St. Dympna of Mount Beatha." The third church 
is situated at a distance of about twenty miles thence in the 
county and town of Louth, in the district of Maghera Oirgh- 
ialla, i.e., the plain of Oirghialla, and at a short distance from 
this church there is another chapel which, according to tradi- 
tion, was dedicated to saint Gerebern ; and tradition has it 
that it was there St. Gerebern instructed our St. Dympna 
in science and in religion. The fourth church is that called 
Kill-Alga, in the county Meath, half-way between Trim and 
Athboy, being distant about three miles from each of these 
towns. I have not as yet been able to discover on what 
day the feast of the Saint is kept in these churches. 

"4. The fourth point to be held in mind is this, that two if 
not three holy Virgins of the name of Dympna, are comme- 
morated by our Hagiologists and other historians as renowned 
for their birth and sanctity. The first St. Dympna had, for 
her father, St. Ronan, the son of Nennedh, and for mother, 
Dublacha, who was descended from the celebrated family of 
the O'Neils ; about her and her sisters, see at the I3th of 
November, the notes on the Life of St. Lassair, who was her 
sister. As, however, Ronan, the father of these holy virgins 
was not a Pagan, but was a Christian from his infancy, and 
as he advanced in years was remarkable for his sanctity, and 
after the death of his wife was chosen Bishop, and was cele- 
brated for miracles during the lifetime of his daughters, as 
appears from the life of St. Lassair, it is manifest that St. 
Dympna of Gheel, who was beheaded by her Pagan and 
impious father, cannot have been St. Ronan's daughter. The 
second St. Dympna is called St. Dympna, of Mount Beatha, 
of whose father's family, as well as of her mother and holy 
brothers, we are better informed than of her father himself, 
whose name is passed over in silence by our writers." 

After this important passage another short paragraph is 
added (which however is in great part erased), as follows : 
" Her mother's name was Bronach, the daughter pf Milcho, 

/;/ the Scvtntccnth Century. 73 

with whom St. Patrick lived as a slave for many years. See 
Aengus Keledeus." 

This is all that is preserved of the letter of Colgan. The 
Mount Beatha here referred to is the modern Slicve Beagh, 
which is situated in the County Tyrone, near its junction with 
Fermanagh and Monaghan. Near it, to the south-east, is the 
ancient Teach Damhnat, giving name to the modern parish of 
Tedavnet The bachull of St. Dympna is spoken of by Petrie 
as forming part of his valuable collection, and the ornamental 
work is described by him as not later thaui the tenth century. 
He gives two illustrations from it in his Round Towers, page 
318. As regards the tqwn and whole district of Louth, 
special devotion seems to have been there shown to St. 
Dympna even to a late period. In the i6th century as 
Hanmer writes in his chronicle, 1 her memory was vividly 
cherished there, and it was supposed that her father had been 
some dynast of that territory. Colgan also writes in the 
printed volume of his Acta Sanctorum, page 713, that "a 
most celebrated virgin of the name Damhna sprung from 
Oirghialla, is venerated to the present day as the common 
patron of all the territory of Orighialla." The Kill- Alga 
mentioned above is now known as Kildalkey. It still gives 
name to a parish situated at a few miles from Trim. Mr. 
Donovan, who examined this district in connexion with the 
Ordnance Survey, reported that St. Damhnat, i.e., Dympna, 
was its patron saint. In the Annals of the "Four Masters," he 
thus writes : " Kill-dealga, anglicized Kildalkey, was the 
name of an old church, now totally destroyed, giving name to 
a parish situated between the parish of Trim, in East Meath, 
and the boundary of Westmeath," (page 320). He adds that 
the festival of the saint was formerly kept there on the I5th 
of May. Though no vestige' remains of the ancient church, 
a holy well near the site still retains the name of Tobar-Dam- 
hnata, i.e., St. Dympna's well. 

As an appendix to Hugh Ward's "Life of St. Rumold" 
some scattered poems were inserted, composed by him at 
leisure intervals, in honour of his "special patrons. Two of 
these short poems are in praise of St. Dympna, and one of 
them, which we choose as a specimen, will sufficiently prove 
that even in Latin verse our distinguished countryman was 
true to his name, and reflected no dishonour on the traditional 
glory of his family : 

" Dymphna peregrina superans mortalia forma 

Indiges inter abit Daphnea virgo Deas, 
Pacta pudicitia regnum patriamque patremque, 
Cuncta tenet fugiens quae fugiendo manet. 

1 Chronicle of Ireland, page 143. 

74 Irish Historical Studies 

Quern dedit Angelicum genitrix speciosa decorem, 

Plus decorat maculis dextra sinistra patris. 
Non onus est, sed honor, species laesura ferentes ; 

Quam gemina integro palma pudore manet. 
Haud demit, geminat patricida machaera coronam ; 

De saevo agna Lupo bina trophaea refert. 
Purpurat Augustam Dignam 1 cruor; almaque sceptrum 

Lilia dant ; addit gemmea serta Deus. 
Cumque baud digna forent Digna terrena sepulchra, 

Coelica coelicolae mausolea struunt. 
Jam septena Ghelae cedunt miracula mundi ; 

Pluria namque uno haec una dat urna die." 

The Life of St. RumolcP is the only published work of 
Hugh Ward, and it was not till many years after his death 
that even this was given to the press by his friend and com- 
panion, O'Sheerin. Nevertheless it is justly described by the 
learned Bollandist, De Buck, as " indisputably one of the most 
erudite books for which we are indebted to Irish Archaelogy." 5 
Hugh Ward engaged in this work at the request of the 
Archbishop of Mechlin, who, with his clergy, was most desi- 
rous of having the details of the life of the great patron of 
that See illustrated by one so well versed in the antiquities of 
Ireland. It was completed in the year 1631, but its publica- 
tion was deferred, in the hope that some further particulars 
connected with St. Rumold might be gleaned from the docu- 
ments which were then so zealously sought for by O'Clery 
and other members of the Order in Ireland. Ward, however, 
was cut off by death before these documents could betransmitted 
to Louvain. It was the intention of Colgan to insert the whole 
work, with additional notes, in his Acta Sanctorum on the 1st 
of July, but he, too, was summoned to his reward before ac- 
complishing his design. Hence it was that O'Sheerin, on 
being appointed hagiologist of the Order, resolved to begin 
his labours by the publication of this work of Ward, lest, as 
he writes in the preface, " he should be forgotten who had be- 

1 The Latin Digna corresponds with the pronunciation of the name of our saint 
in Belgium. In the Palatium Spirituale, or Life of St. Begga, published at 
Antwerp, in 1632, by R. P. Elias, a S. Teresa, St. Dympna is commemorated on 
the 1 5th of May as " Sancla Digna, virgo et martyr." 

* Sancti Rumoldi martyris inclyti, Archiepiscopi Dublinifnsis, Mechliniensium 
Apostoli &*c. Acta, Martyrium, Liturgia antiqua et Patria : ex antiqttissimis cum 
tnanu, turn prelo editis harum rerum Scriptoribns, summa fide collccta, notis illns- 
trata; et aucta Disquisitione /listonca, seu investigutioiie getiuinae Scotiae S. Rumoldi 
et contribulium Sanctorum per R. P. F. Hugonem Vardaeum Hibemum olim in 
Lovaniensi Collegio S. Antonii &c. de Padua guardianum, S. Theol. Professorem, 
t Hagiographum." Lovanii, 1662. 

8 V Archaeologie Irlandaise, p. 44. 

In the Seven teen t/t Century. 75 

gun these studies, and had collected a great deal of matter 
with much toil and industry, or lest it should be supposed that 
nothing had been achieved by all his toil." 

The few and unfinished remarks made by Ward regarding 
the family of St. Rumold, show how accurate was his know- 
ledge of the antiquities of our country. He conjectures that 
the Latinized name Rumoldus corresponds with the Celtic 
Knmond, which is often met with in the Annals of Ireland : 
thus Rumond Duagh is commemorated as connected by blood 
with St. Kieran of Saigher, and as the father of many saints : 
Rumond O Haedhagain, Abbot of Clonmacnoise, is mentioned 
in 978: Rumond mac Catkusach, Bishop of Clonard, in 919: 
another Rumond, "exceedingly versed in chronology and 
poetry," in 742, at which time, indeed, the patron of Mechlin 
also flourished ; but Ward adds, that this entry of our annals 
probably refers to another St. Rumond who lived at that 
time, and is referred to by St. ./Engus in his Tract on the 
" The Mothers of the Saints of Erin," where Funechta is styled 
" the mother of St. Cormac, Bishop of Athtruim, and of SS. 
Baithellach, Ossan, and Rumond" 

In the ancient life, St. Rumold is said to have been born 
in a city called Guervia. This gives occasion to Ward to 
remark that the Scottish writers were unable to find any 
place in Scotland corresponding with this name, but in Ire- 
land, he adds, we have Sliebh-Guaire in Breffny, " which was 
formerly part of Connaught, but is now a county in Ulster ;" 
also the more celebrated Durlas-Guaire, i.e. the fortress of 
Guaire, King of Connaught, situated nine miles from Galway 
and four miles from the see of Kilmacduagh, the royal 
palace of Prince Guaire, who was renowned for his munifi- 
cence and hospitality, formerly marked this spot ; then again, 
Gort-insi-Guairc, the hereditary propertyof the O'Shaugnessys, 
only two or three miles distant from Durlas-Guaire ; a fourth 
town situated between Dublin and Wexford (thirty-three 
miles from the former and twenty-three from the latter), in 
the townland of Kilmantan, is still called Guaire-an-Ri, i.e. 
" Royal Guaire" 1 it was formerly the residence of the Dublin 
princes, and is now the seat of Viscount Esmond ; in fine, 
Rath-Giiaire, a village of Wcstmeath, situated twenty-five 
miles from Dublin and five miles from Mullingar; "it was 
once a noble palace as its ruins still attest." It is not easy 
to decide which of these places is the city mentioned in the 
life of St. Rumold, but as it states that the royal residence of 
the father of the saint was situated there, we may, with 

1 This gives us the origin of the modern name Corey. 

76 Irish Historical Studies 

some probability look to Guaire-an-Ri as the birth-place of 
St. Rumold. It is worthy of remark that in the beginning of 
the eighth century our annals mention a prince of the Hy- 
Kinnsellagh called Dathi, which, as Ward fully proves, was 
the name of the father of our saint. 

The most important part, however, of the work of Ward 
is an Essay on the Ancient SCOTIA, in which he displays the 
greatest learning, and proves that that name originally be- 
longed solely to Ireland, and that it was only at a com- 
paratively recent date it became appropriated to the northern 
part of Britain. In this. essay he shows himself intimately 
acquainted with all the then accessible materials of Irish 
history, and he brings forward many passages from MS. lives 
of our early saints. In his incidental references, he remarks 
that the hymn in honour of St. Columbanus, beginning " Nostri 
solemnis sacculi" which by some is attributed to Jonas, and 
by others to Notker Balbulus, is marked in the ancient MS. 
of Bobbio, as composed by St. Gall, the holy companion of 
St. Columbanus. 1 At page 152 he states that in the sacristy 
of Namur was preserved the inscription, " St. Forannan, an 
Irish archbishop and first abbot of the monastery of Walcio- 
dorum, is enshrined there, illustrious by his many miracles," 
and, after a few other remarks, he adds, " these things I 
myself copied in Walciodorum in 1626." Treating of the 
religious rule followed by the Irish saints, he writes (p. 64) 
that there were at least twelve great monastic founders in 
our early Church, each of whom composed a rule for his 
disciples ; " I myself have fragments," he adds, " of these 
various rules, and they are referred to in the lives of our 
saints written in the earliest times. Thus, the ancient nar- 
rative of St. Molua's life, makes mention of his rule, which 
was brought to St. Gregory the Great by the holy abbot 
Dagan, and it was so admired by that great Pontiff that he 
exclaimed : ' Molua has raised even unto heaven a safe bar- 
rier for his followers, to preserve them from every assault of 
worldly wickedness." At page 105, speaking of the beautiful 
discourse of Vernulaeus on the Irish saints in Belgium, he 
states that it was delivered on the occasion of the conse- 
cration of Dr. Fleming, Archbishop of Dublin, in 1623, in the 
public Academy of Lou vain, in the presence of four arch- 
bishops, and of a select number of academicians, who, in their 
poems and various compositions, declared that " Belgium 
was indebted to Ireland, and particularly to Dublin, for St. 
Rumold and other saints, but now repaid in part this debt 

1 Page 122., See this hymn in Messingham " Florilegium,'* p. 220. 

In the Seventeenth Century. 77 

by sending to Dublin as Archbishop, the Superior and Lecturer 
of Theology at St. Anthony's." At page 299 he also men- 
tions that Edward Geraldine, connected with the noble families 
of Kildare and Desmond, and born in Ireland, held the post 
of Sergeant-Major in the Irish Legion in Belgium, and sub- 
sequently attained the rank of Colonel and Count of the Holy 
Empire in Germany, but died at Heydelberg in 1626, and 
was interred in the Franciscan church of that town. These 
few instances will suffice to show how important, even in 
its incidental references, is the " Life of St. Rumold." 

The last event that we meet with connected with Father 
Ward's life is the visitation of the houses of his order in 
the province of St. Andrew, in Belgium, which he held in 
1633 by special authority from the Papal Nuncio, 1 as well 
as by commission from the Franciscan-General. The Archives 
of St. Isidore's preserve some minutes of his report on the 
various allegations that were made to him, and on the true 
causes which created disturbance among the brethren of 
that province. From it we learn that he proceeded to Lisle 
on the 1st of July, 1633, held a consultation with the Nuncio 
at Brussels, on the 28th of the same month ; returned a 
second time to Lisle on the 6th August, and finally com- 
municated the result of his investigation to the Nuncio on 
the 1 8th of September, 1633, and two days later to the 
Commissary-General of his order. This was one of the last 
important missions entrusted to Hugh Ward. 3 

Two years later a tedious and painful disease brought his 
earthly career to a premature close, on the 8th of November, 


1 The patent of the Nuncio styles him " R. P. Fr. Hugonem Vardaeum ejusdem 
professions ex Provincia Hibemiae religiosum et Sac. Theologiae Lectorem quern 
ad id muneris idoneum noscimus." Archiv. S. Isidori, 

1 \[ 'adding in " Scriptores Ord. Min.." pat;e 179. gives the following sketch of 
the life of Ward: " HugoWardaeus, HiWrnus Ultoniensis, provinciae S. Jacobi 
alumnus, quern ego in Coventu Salmanticensi anno i6i6,curavi ad ordinemadmitti. 
Acris et perspicui vir ingenii, Lovanium missus jn Collegio S. Antonii FF. Min. 
Hib. Lectoris et Guardiani functus muneribus. Cum admirabili facilitate et 
singular! peritia linguam callerct Hibernicam, se totum convertit ad monumenta 
patriae colligenda, ea praescrtim quae ad vitas spectabant sanctorum, parabatque 
praelu : Plurimas Santtorum Ilibirnorum ritas et a vetustis Biographis Latine 
com posit as et multas alias patrio sermonc scriptas cum diversis Martyrologiis et 
Hapographis eodem idiomate compilatas quas Joannes Colganus ejusdem instituti 
et Collegii, de quo infra, nuper ediderat. Multa reliquit historiarum fragmenta 
et illustrata Veterum Martyrologia. Obiit Lovanii anno 1635, die 8 Novembris." 



return again to the subject of the Claims of the Irish 
College, Paris, on the British Government. We have already 
devoted two articles to the matter, and we have still some- 
thing more to say about it. 

In our last article, we commented on the judgment pro- 
nounced by Sir John Leach, on behalf of the Privy Council, 
in repudiation of the appeal made to that tribunal by the 
Very Rev. Dr. McSweeny, President of the Irish College, and 
Universal Administrator of the Irish Foundations in France, 
in 1832 ; and our observations conducted us to the following 
conclusions : 

ist. That Sir John Leach was in error in repudiating the 
individual or personal rights as regards the burses of the 

2nd. That he was in error in the community view he took 
of the College, and in his allegation of its being a French 

3rd. That he was entirely at fault in invoking a precedent, 
the precedent of the Douay and other English Colleges in 
France, which had no relevancy to the case. 

4th. That the precedent of the Canadian institutions, which 
was exactly in point, should have led him to an opposite con- 

5th. That it was dishonest of the British Commissioners 
to withhold compensation, or withholding it, not to return 
the money to France, which they had received for the pur- 
pose of such compensation, in order that France might 
herself make compensation for the losses and injuries the 
College had suffered at her hands. 

In the present article we purpose occupying ourselves with 
the question : 

What is become of the Indemnity Fund out of which the 
Irish College should have received its compensation ? 

This is a grave and delicate question, and we feel all its 
gravity and delicacy. But it is thrust upon us. 

The British Treasury, in making a return to an address of 
the House of Lords, dated 9th of May, 1870, in pursuance of 
a motion of the Most Honorable the Marquis of Clanricarde, 
"for copies of tJie award made in the case of the Ra'. P. ul 
Long, as Administrator General of the Irish College, Paris, 

Claims of the Irish College, Paris. 79 

by the Commissioners appointed for liquidation of British 
Claims out of the funds received from the French Government, 
and of the judgment of the English Privy Council, 1832, on 
the appeal frcm that award: Also a copy of the judgment in 
1825, in the Appeal Case of the English College, Douay ," accom- 
panied this return with a further return "of Unsettled De- 
mands on the funds provided by the Government of France 
for liquidating the claims of British subjects, and the balance 
which remains unappropriated to the liquidation of such 
claims, including interest thereon" This latter return comes 
before us as a wind-up account of the Indemnity Fund in 
question, and results in the statement that " there no longer 
exists a balance which remains unappropriated to the liquida- 
tion of unsettled demands" 

This statement of the British Treasury must be understood, 
under the circumstances, as a reply beforehand to the appeal 
which the friends of the Irish College are about making to 
the Imperial Parliament, and it would, in fact, say to them, 
" You are come too late. The Indemnity Fund, from which 
you are seeking compensation, has been long since entirely 
appropriated and expended, and nothing remains to meet 
your claim." Hence, as we have said, the question is thrust 
upon us : What is become of the Indemnity Fund out of which 
the Irish College should have received its compensation ? But, 
before entering on the investigation to which this question 
challenges us, we desire to return for a moment or two to the 
judgment of Sir John Leach, on which we commented in our 
preceding article. For the more we consider the judicial treat- 
ment to which the claims of the I rish College have been subjected, 
the more we see the flagrant injustice which has been dealt to 
this venerable National Institution, by the Government of 
Great Britain, or, what amounts to the same thing, by the 
Commissioners acting in her name, and on her behalf, to give 
effect to treaties between her and France. 

Sir John in his judgment says : " Now W are bound, of 
course^ by the judgment in the Douay case" This is the 
strong position within which he entrenches himself the pre- 
cedent of the Douay case. Hence, we must look back on 
the precedent, to see how it applies. The case of the Douay 
College, with the other English Colleges in France, was 
brought, in the first place, before the Commissioners appointed 
to administer the treaties for the liquidation of the claims of 
British subjects, and was rejected. But let us note particularly 
the ground of rejection. It was, to use the words of the Com- 
missioners, because " these establishments had lost their cor- 
porate character by the laws of France ; so that in consequence 

8o Claims of the Irish College, Paris, 

of the dissolution of the ancient charter, and the creation 
of a new one for similar purposes, the claimants were not at the 
time the real members composing such a new corporation, and 
not entitled in their individual capacity to claim the property 
which belonged to the ancient Corporations." 

Let him who can, understand this decision. To us it appears 
to be the veriest illustration of a causa sine causd a reason 
that is no reason. But let us pass on. In virtue of the act 
of 1819, the right of appeal was allowed to claimants from 
the Commissioners to the King in Council. ThPrepresenta- 
tives of the English College, availing themselves of this right, 
appealed to the Privy Council in 1825. They appealed in 
vain. But did the Privy Council sanction the ground of re- 
jection relied upon by the Commissioners ? By no means. 
They saw the futility of that ground ; it should, therefore, 
as an Appellate Tribunal, have sent back the case, for recon- 
sideration, to the Commissioners. Instead of doing so, how- 
ever, they took up the cause as de integro, and adjudicated 
it on grounds that seemed good to themselves. These are 
their words : " Now the Institution, on behalf of which the 
claims are made, although their members were British sub- 
jects, and their property derived from funds constituted by 
British subjects, were in the nature of French corporations; 
they were locally established in a foreign territory because 
they could not be so employed in England ; their end and 
object were not authorized by, but were directly opposed to, 
British law, and the funds dedicated to their maintenance 
were employed to that purpose in France, because they could 
not be so employed in England ; and if other circumstances 
were wanting to fix their character, it appears that these 
establishments, as well as their revenues, were subject to 
the control of the French Government, and the conduct of 
that Government, since the restoration of the monarchy, shows, 
that if all had- been suffered to remain entire during the 
period of the revolution, the monarchical Government would 
have taken the whole under its superintendence and manage- 
ment. We think therefore that they must be deemed French 
Establishments. Then, are such Establishments, though 
represented by British subjects, entitled to claim under the 
treaties ? Treaties, like other compacts, are to be con- 
strued according to the intention of the contracting parties, 
and, looking at the occasion and object of these treaties, we 
think it was not, and could not have been, in the contem- 
plation of the contracting parties that the British Govern- 
ment should demand, nor the French Government grant, 
compensation /or property held in trust for Establishments 

On the British Government. Si 

in France, and for purposes inconsistent with British laws, 
and which were subject to the control of the French Govern- 
ment We therefore think, that having regard to the nature 
and character of the Establishments which the claimants 
allege themselves to represent, and to the purpose to 
which the property in respect whereof compensation is 
claimed, was dedicated, the claimants have not brought their 
case within the meaning or spirit of the treaties." 

We have now before us the whole of the Douay case, and 
this is Sir John Leach's precedent for deciding the Irish Col- 
lege case. We must therefore ask, in what does the pre- 
cedent hold ? Not surely in the reason alleged by the Com- 
missioners, namely : " that it (the Douay College) had lost 
its corporate character by the laws of France, so that in 
consequence of the dissolution of the ancient charter and the 
creation of a new one for a similar purpose, the claimants 
were not, at the time, the real members comprising such a 
new Corporation, and not entitled in their individual capacity 
to claim the property which belonged to the ancient Corpo- 
ration." Evidently the Douay case is no precedent for the 
Irish College case, in \ti\s pronouncement of the Commissioners, 
and, indeed, to do Sir John justice, he does not urge it. He 
seems equally impressed as the Privy Council, speaking 
through Lord Gifford, with the futility of the allegation put 
forth. At all events, in the case of the Irish College, there 
was no question of an old charter dissolved or a new charter 
created, even if there was any sense in such a reason. The 
Irish College maintained its existence and character as a 
National Institution of Ireland in all the troubles and pertur- 
bations of France. 

But Sir John's chief reliance is on the decision of the 
Privy Council in the Douay case, and therefore he quotes 
Lord Gifford as giving two reasons for that decision ; one, 
that the Establishments (the Douay and other English Col- 
leges) were opposed to the law of England ; //// other, that 
they were French Establishments, founded, as he says, under 
the authority and by the permission of the King of France, 
and that therefore they could not be considered within the 
meaning of the term " British subjects." 

In quoting these two reasons, the learned gentleman ad- 
mits that the first does not apply to the Irish College, in 
consequence of the different state of British Law with regard 
to the Catholic Religion and its institutions in Ireland. There- 
fore, he relies solely upon the second reason. Here we must 
tell him that he leans upon a broken reed. He must be very 
wanting in logical acumen, not to observe that Lord Gifford 
voi. vii. 6 

83 Claims of t)u Irish College, Paris, 

does not rely upon either, separately, of the two reasons he 
assigns for his decision. He combines both, and rests his 
decision on both together. Nay, reading his judgment, it is 
plain to any one to see that he relies, chiefly, on the first 
reason, and attaches little weight to the second. Therefore, 
on the admission of Sir John himself, who allows this first 
reason not to apply to the Irish College case, his argument 
for the Douay precedent completely breaks down. 

But he attaches much importance to what Lord Gifford 
says of the " control of the French Government over the 
English Establishments and their revenues," and he would 
argue, that the French Government having exercised a con- 
trol also over the Irish College, the precedent of the Douay 
College is, so far, relevant and in point. And then he goes 
on to say, " We first find the control of the Convention : 
we next find the control of the Consulate ; we next find 
the control of the Empire ; and lastly, we find the control 
of the monarchy in the edicts of Louis XVIII. This case, 
comes, therefore, plainly," he adds, " within the reasons 
given by Lord Gifford for the prior decision." 

We must here take Sir John Leach's logic to task. The 
gentleman may have, indeed, possessed the radical power of 
reasoning, but his talents seem to have been whetted very 
badly indeed for logical discernment. 

We must therefore make good the deficiency. 

" Control" is a word, as every one knows, of very ample 
and various signification, so that one kind of control may 
be very unlike another. Now this is actually the case as 
between the control exercised by the French Government 
over the English Establishments and their revenues, on the 
one side, and the Irish College on the other. With regard 
to the English Establishments, France abrogated their char- 
ter, as the Commissioners assert in their judgment on their 
claims, and revived it anew as it would have done with any 
similar French Establishment. But with regard to the Irish 
College, the control which the French Government exercised 
was quite of an opposite character. It was a control to mark 
a distinction between it and French Ecclesiastical Institu- 
tions, and to maintain for it uniformly, and in all the phases 
through which the country passed, its special character and 
status as an Irish Establishment. Thus, if the Convention 
exercised a control respecting it, it was to take it out of the 
category of French Seminaries, and to exempt it from the 
decree of confiscation with which they were smitten. Thus, 
again, if the Consulate exercised any control, it was to give 
more* prominence to it as an Irish National Establishment, 

On the British Government. 83 

and to secure for it a certain proportion of its own revenues. 
Thus, also, if the Empire exercised any control, it was to 
continue and confirm what the Consulate had previously done. 
Thus, in fine, if the monarchy exercised any control after 
the Restoration, it was to give it the position it at present 
occupies as an Irish Institution, as much so as it is possible 
for any institution to have such a position in a foreign country. 

On speaking of the control of the French Government 
in reference to the Irish College, or any foreign establish- 
ment locally situated in France, be that establishment a 
college, an orphanage, an hospital, or a joint-stock company 
for any purpose of trade, it would be impossible for any 
such establishment to obtain existence, or continue to exist, 
without some control on the part of the French Govern- 
ment or Legislature in its regard. Now what we contend 
for respecting this control, is, that no foreign institution could 
have less of it than the Irish College, and that, existing in 
France it could not be less French nor more Irish than it is, 
and has been at all times. Therefore, we arrive at this con- 
clusion, that Sir John Leach must either say that it is impos- 
sible for an Irish Establishment to be in France and remain 
Irish, a proposition which no man in his senses will assert, 
or he must allow the Irish College to be an Irish and not a 
French Establishment. 

But Lord Gifford, speaking of the English Colleges, said, 
on the part of the Privy Council, that they were French Es- 
tablishments, therefore Sir John Leach would say, a pari, 
that the Irish College was a French Establishment also. 
Here again we are dealing with an expression of large and 
various meaning. Hence, we must be precise in understanding 
what Lord Gifford intends to convey by the expression 
" French Establishments." His Lordship's meaning is to be 
ascertained from his reasoning on the case. To put his ob- 
servations in technical form, according to his reasoning, he 
would say " the Establishments in question are either English 
or French. But they cannot be 'English, therefore they 
must be French." He sustains the minor proposition, viz. : 
that they cannot be English, by referring to the " nature and 
character of the Establishments, and to the purpose to which 
the property, in respect of which compensation is claimed, 
was dedicated," all which he insisted to be " directly opposed 
to British Law." Now the direct contrary was the case of 
the Irish College, which was in strict accordance with British 
Law, so that Sir John's argument a pari completely breaks 
down, and, instead of being similar, the two cases are in ab- 
solute contrast with each other. 

84 Claitns of tlu Irish College, Paris, 

But Lord Gifford observes that the funds of the English 
Establishments were " held in trust" by the French Govern- 
ment. Yes ; he makes the observation, but takes no inference 
from it against the appeal. The inference is logically in an 
opposite direction, trust, being incompatible in the same 
hands with ownership. Say you are trustee for any funds, 
you declare thereby you are not the owner. The ownership 
is elsewhere. Thus, if Sir John Leach wishes to remark, that 
the Irish College funds were in the trust-keeping of the 
French Government, his remark points to the inference that 
the ownership belonged to the College itself, as a National 
Institution of Ireland. 

We have been longer than we intended on this point, 
because we wished to expose the futility of the ground taken 
by Sir John Leach, speaking for the Privy Council, in the 
clap-trap pretension of the Irish College being a French 
Establishment. And from all we have said it is manifest that 
no foreign institution could be less French on French soil, 
than is the Irish College, nor could it be more Irish. Even 
though words should be silent on the subject, the College 
itself proclaims the fact Let any one approach it by the 
street "Rue des Irlandais" in which it is situated, and entering 
the building, let him inspect the national emblems of Ireland, 
the Irish cross, the Irish harp, the Irish round towers, the 
Irish wolf-dog, the titles of the Irish dioceses, the statues and 
pictures of the titular saints of Ireland, the Irish mottoes, 
&c., &c., and then, let him mingle with the professors and 
students who are exclusively Irish if the visiter be an Irish- 
man, he forgets, for the moment, that he is in France, and 
feels as if he were at home in old Ireland, or if he be a 
Frenchman, he feels as if he had gone out of his native land, 
and as if treading upon foreign soil. So little is the Irish 
College a French Establishment ; so completely is it, and has 
it always been an "Irish Institution. 

A parting word with Lord Gifford, and his reasons for 
rejecting the Appeal in the case of the English Colleges. We 
are not pleading the cause of these establishments. But when 
we quote his Lordship in connexion with the Irish College, 
we feel bound to dissent from the principle he lays down as 
warranting his decision in the Douay appeal case. That prin- 
ciple, generalized and carried to its logical result, would mean 
that British subjects in a foreign country, for any object and 
purpose not in accordance with British law at home in Eng- 
land, are not entitled to British protection, and that the 
British Government may abandon them to any violence to 
which they may be exposed, in person or property. We 

On the British Government. 85 

protest against such doctrine, and we know it to be contrary 
to the practise of Great Britain with respect to her subjects 
in foreign lands. On the contrary, 'tis her boast, and her proud 
boast, that as under the Roman Empire, " Civis Romanus 
sum" was an appeal which secured protection of life and pro- 
perty for the citizen of the great empire throughout the world, 
so " / am a British subject " are words to secure the same 
protection for the subject of the British Crown, in whatever 
region he may require it. 

It is now time to return to our question, which we have 
already laid down in the beginning of this paper, viz., Wliat 
is become of the indemnity fund out of which the Irish College 
should have received its compensation f 

We feel that entering on so grave and delicate an investi- 
gation we must proceed with cautious and steady steps. 
Fortunately we have safe guides upon whom we could rely to 
pass even through a labyrinth. 

Our first guide is Monsieur Le Baron, a living authority. 
He was an officer of the General Staff under the first Napo- 
leon, and a Barrister of the Court of Appeal of Paris. He 
says of himself, " Young, I defended the honor of my country 
with my sword, for I made the campaigns of 1812 in Russia, 
of 1813 at the seige of Dantzic, and of 1815 in the army of 
the Rhine. Afterwards, the Emperor having been exiled to 
St. Helena, I broke my sword in despair, and returned to the 
desk in order to give myself up to the special study of 
international law. Having grown old I defended the interests 
of my country with my pen, for I spent nigh a quarter of a 
century in London, to collect all the documents relative to 
the debt due by England to France." This debt is no other 
than the surplus of the indemnity fund given by France to 
England, to make compensation to British subjects who had 
suffered injuries and losses during the French Revolution and 
subsequent wars the fund out of which we claim compen- 
sation for the Irish College. During his long years in 
London, M. Le Baron sought out all sorts of documents 
bearing on the subject, treaties, conventions, diplomatic cor- 
respondence, parliamentary papers, &c, and he puts the 
result of his investigations and labours into an elaborate 
brochure, which now lies before us. 

As the groundwork of his pleading in this brochure, he 
quotes the treaties of 1815 and 1818. By the former, there 
was an annual revenue of 3,500,000 francs inscribed on the 
Great Book of the public debt of France, as a security for the 
claimants under the treaty. And it was further provided 
that in case this sum should not be sufficient, additional funds 

86 Claims of the Irish College, Paris, 

would be provided ; accordingly, as the Commissioners 
appointed to administer the treaty proceeded with their work, 
they considered that the above-named sum would be inade- 
quate, and they called for a new inscription of 3,000,000 of 
francs, which was granted under an additional treaty, bearing 
date 25th April, 1818. Both treaties stipulated, that when 
all the claims would be satisfied, the residue, with its accumu- 
lations of interest, should be refunded to France. They fur- 
ther provided that the claimants should be paid interest, even 
compound interest, on their claims, from the 22nd March, igi6. 
M. Le Baron then follows the Commissioners in their 
operations up to 24th July, 1826, when they announced their 
mission as closed, and there remained an annual revenue of 
700,000 francs, representing a capital of 14,000,000 francs, 
or 5 60,000. They furnished a report to this effect to the 
House of Commons at the time, taking credit very modestly 
therein, for an additional year's salary by way of gratuity. 
Gratuity no doubt it was ; for what could be more spon- 
taneous or less opposed to their best good wishes in their 
own regard ? 

M. Le Baron contests the accuracy of this report, and having 
found access to the half-yearly accounts, which, according to 
the eighteenth article of the statute, 59 George III., chapter 
31, the Commissioners were bound to present to Parliament, 
he makes out an account in detail, by which he finds, in- 
stead of the surplus 14,000,000 francs, a surplus of 64,776,132 
francs, 61 centimes, or 2, 5 96,000 odd. 

How are we to account for this enormous discrepancy? 
M. Le Baron is startled at it and leaves it so, to bear its 
own comment. Perhaps however we shall find some clue to 
it in the strange section No. 17 of the Act 1819, to which we 
have referred above, and which conferred upon the Commis- 
sioners the powers of disposing of such an immense fund, ex- 
pressly enacting, however, " that the said Commissioners shall 
not, nor shall any such Commissioners be deemed public 
accountants, in respect of any such sums." 

The Commissioners have fully availed themselves of this 
indulgence. Hence it does not appear that they kept any 
regular accounts, such as could be submitted to any com- 
mercial firm or business-like board of audit. We are therefore 
prepared, in advance, for the revelations we will have further 
on to bring to light. 

For the present, we shall take leave of M. Le Baron, and 
commit ourselves to the safe guidance of another French 
authority, M. L. Belmontet. Like M. Le Baron, M. Bel- 
montet devoted long years of application to tiie study of 

On the British Government. 87 

the question which engages us. He had recourse to all sorts 
of authorities, accumulating proofs upon proofs ; and so pene- 
trated was he with the conviction that the surplus of the 
fund in question should be restored to the French treasury, 
that being a member of the "Corps Legisiatif," he presen- 
ted a resolution to that effect in the session of 1867. The 
resolution consists of several propositions, from which we 
extract only as much as bears on our purpose. 

The resolution says, " in virtue of the peace treaties of 
1814, 1815, and 1818, France confided successively to England 
an annual revenue (une rente) of 6,500,000 francs, to wit, 
3,500,000 by article IX. of the convention No. 7, of the 3Oth 
November, 1815, and 3,000,000 by article I. of the convention 
of 25th April, 1818, these two revenues representing a capital 
of 130,000,000 francs, to indemnify the English subjects whose 
properties, moveable and immoveable, in France, had been 
confiscated and sold, in execution of its revolutionary laws." 

He then speaks of the surplus remaining, and appeals to 
the half-yearly and authentic accounts presented by the 
Commissioners to the House of Commons from 1820 to 1826, 
and he continues : 

" From these official accounts it results that after the portion 
of the revenue applied and assigned to indemnify the Eng- 
lish subjects, the surplus remaining amounts to the sum of 
64,776,132 francs, 61 centimes." 

He further adds " this unemployed surplus has been loudly 
and publicly proclaimed in the English Parliament in the 
sittings of the I4th June, 1852 ; ist August, 1853 ; and 5th June, 
1 86 1." 

It is a striking fact that M. Belmontet exactly coincides 
with M. Le Baron, these two gentlemen giving thereby 
mutual support to the conclusions at which they have res- 
pectively arrived. 

M. Belmontet's resolution was seconded by a M. Martel, 
who, amongst other things, spoke as follows : 

" I understand how delicate this question is for the Govern- 
ment, and I should not wish to say anything to embarrass 
it. . . c But I have examined the question, and I have es- 
pecially seen what has taken place in the bosom of the Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain. I can assure you that in this Parliament 
the most honourable men, Lord Lyndhurst, Lord Truro, Lord 
Monteagle, and others, rose up to say that there was a point 
of honour therein for England ; that there were sums which 
had been remitted to her in order to indemnify the English 
subjects who had suffered losses caused by the French Re- 
volution, and that a part of these sums had been diverted 

88 Claims of the Irish College, Paris, 

from their destination. ... If the Chamber wish I shall lay 
before their eyes two or three speeches delivered in the Par- 
liament of Great Britain, and it (the Chamber) will see the 
language that was used by these great men." 

Continuing, he quoted the very words of Lord Lyndhurst, 
Lord Fitzwilliam, Lord Truro, and others, some of which we 
shall take occasion to produce later on. 

We shall now return to M. Le Baron. He presented, as 
it will be recollected, the sum of 2,596,000 as a residue in 
1826 of the 'British Subjects' Indemnity Fund' the fund out 
of which the Irish College should have received its compen- 
sation. What has become of the residue ? M. Le Baron will 
throw some light upon it. After the Commissioners first ap- 
pointed had closed their labours in 1826, a new Commission 
was appointed in the same year, in order to take account of 
claims that had been long since set down as forfeited, A 
second Commission was appointed under date, 8th June, 1830, 
in order to call up for payment claims that had been long 
extinct. A third was appointed on the 5th March, 1833, for 
the purpose of submitting for settlement new claims set down 
as forfeited, and presented since 2nd May, 1826, as also to 
receive for payment other claims extinct since 1818. In fine, 
a fourth Commission dated 5th June, 1849, was created in 
order to make a rateable distribution of a sum of 16,067 
that remained in the Fund, amongst claimants named in the 
minute of the 5th March, 1833. 

M. Le Baron follows up the operations of these several 
Commissions, and presents to us, amongst others, the following 
remarkable disbursements : 

250,000 for the improvement of Buckingham Palace. 
With regard to this sum, he allows that it was paid back in 
various instalments extending over a number of years, but 
the interest thereon 34,822 IOT. remained to be accounted 

60,000 paid on the I9th December, 1824, to a French 
company of the East Indies. 

130,000 for the Coronation of George IV. 

50,000 for the relief of manufacturing districts in England. 

23,700 to pay Mr. Labedat, &c. 

In quoting these sums, M. Le Baron gives his authorities 
as he goes along. 

Now let us ask the question again, what has become of 
the fund from which the Irish College should have received 
its compensation ? The above figures answer the question, 
showing that whilst the College is denied justice, the fund 
responsible for its claims has been dissipated, being applied 

On the British Government. 89 

to purposes foreign to the end and object for which it was 
granted by France, and accepted by England, under treaties 
guaranteed by the Great Powers. But it is not in France alone, 
that virtuous voices were raised against this abuse of this fund, 
diverting it so strangely from its appointed destination. The 
English Parliament resounded with denunciations against it. 
We will specially refer to a remarkable debate in the House 
of Lords, on the 1st August, 1853, on the subject. In that 
debate we have Lord Lyndhurst expressing himself in indig- 
nant tones to the following effect I- 
We quote from the Times of next morning 
" He has been asked what has become of this money, and 
it was asserted that all the money had been distributed 
according to the terms of the convention. Now he had such 
confidence in the love of justice of his noble and learned 
friend, the Lord Chancellor, that if he could satisfy him the 
money had not been appropriated according to the terms of 
the convention, he was sure he would have the support of his 
noble and learned friend. The jury found that a balance of 
482,000 remained after satisfying the claims strictly due. 
That sum, with its accumulations, amounted to 566,000, and 
that sum had been paid by the Commissioners into the treasury. 
Applications were then made by the individuals who had 
claimed compensation for claims which had not been preferred 
within a limited time. These claims amounted to 196,000, 
and that sum was ultimately awarded. But these claims 
certainly ought not to have been compensated at the expense 
of those who were strictly with the terms of the convention. 
Other sums of 23,000 and 232,000 were paid by the Govern- 
ment to the French Government for claims arising out of the 
maintenance of French prisoners and the Bordeaux tariff, 
respectively, and thus a sum of 255,000 was appropriated 
to the public service, and out of the balance in discharge of 
debts due from the Government to the French Government 
for the purposes of compensation. There was a further sum 
of 68,000 of which no account could be given, and all that 
could be said of it was, that it was not applicable to the dis- 
charge of these claims." So far Lord Lyndhurst. 

We shall now cite Lord Truro, from the Times also of the 
same date. Speaking on the same subject, and denouncing the 
misapplications disclosed by Lord Lyndhurst, his Lordship 
said : 

" He did not deny the power of Parliament to do what it 
had done in the matter. Parliament, it was said, could do 
anything except make a man a woman. But Parliament had 
no power, in one sense, to apply the money of which they 

9O Claims of tht Irish College, Paris. 

were the trustees to other purposes than those for which that 

money had been handed over to us The 

French Government paid over certain sums of money to this 
country, the sums to be paid to one class of claimants being 
wholly distinct from that which was to be paid to another, 
and these trust funds the Parliament was bound by con- 
tract with the French Government to apply according to the 
condition on which they were given. This however they have 
not done. They appropriated the money to other purposes. 

We find that the subject was taken up likewise in the 
House of Commons, on the 2Oth June, 1854, and elicited the 
strongest denunciations. Amongst others, Mr. Montague 
Chambers does not hesitate to declare, that " as to the fund 
being duly appropriated or entirely expended, the misappli- 
cations, as appears from authentic returns, were startling and 
notorious ; and he goes on to cite the cases we have already 
mentioned, of Mr. Labedat, of the Bordeaux claimants, and 
of the additional year's salary to which the Commissioners 
helped themselves at the close of their mission. 

A Mr. Munz, member for Bermingham, was also amongst 
the speakers, and said " the question was to know who had 
the Funds. It was proved that the English Government 
had them, it should therefore give them up." 

As a matter of course, the subject occupied the public press, 
and besides the reports of the debates spoken of, and the com- 
ments upon them at the time, we would refer to The Spectator 
of the 2ist of April, 1860, The Morning Star, of the 7th May, 
1 860, and The Morning Chronicle of the 4th August, 1 860. 

Our readers now see what is become of the fund from 
which the Irish College should have received compensation 
for its injuries and losses, and they will agree with us, that it 
is no answer for the Treasury of Great Britain to say to it, 
" You have come too late, the fund is long since entirely 
expended and applied." The College is entitled to say, "You 
have misappropriated and misapplied the money you 
received to pay us. Restitution is an obligation of a public 
department abusing a trust, as well as of an individual. In 
the name of justice, therefore, and on the plainest principles 
of moral obligation, we demand restitution." 

We purposed going into the inquiry, upon what authority 
the Treasury made the disbursements outside the provisions 
and stipulations of the treaties, and we hoped to throw 
additional light from this source on the claims of the 
College. Our article, however, has expanded beyond the 
dimensions we anticipated, and we must reserve this branch 
of the subject for our next. 

Document. 91 

Therefore, to sum up, we have seen 

1st. How Sir John Leach in pronouncing the judgment 
of the Privy Council on the claims of the Irish College, and 
in making the judgment of Lord Gifford in the case of the 
Douay College a precedent, distorted and misapplied his 
Lordship's judgment, and that the cases, so far from being 
alike, are opposed in all essential particulars. 

2nd. How the Fund from which the College should have 
received compensation more than fifty years ago, has been 
misappropriated and spoliated. 

3rd. That if the fund be expended on other purposes 
belonging to the public service, the Treasury is bound to 
provide restitution from the public revenues in its custody. 

P.S. We would earnestly recommend to the Public, and more especially mem- 
bers of Parliament, the perusal of a pamphlet entitled The Case and Claims on the 
British Government of the Irish College, at Paris, under the Treaties with France. 
London : James Duffy, 22, Paternoster-row, and 15, Wellington-quay, Dublin, 

The author gives proof of deep study and patient research in every part of his 
production, and sustains himself as he goes along by authentic references. 

On this account it cannot fail to be highly useful, with a view to the considera- 
tion of the subject in the next session of Parliament, when it is expected that on a 
Petition of the Irish Bishops the judgment of the Privy Council will be reviewed 
and considered. 





Postquam Dei munere Oecumenici Vaticani Concilii cele- 
brationem inire anno proxime superiori Nobis datum est, 
vidimus sapientia virtute ac sollicitudine Patrum qui ex 
omnibus orbis terrarum partibus frequentissimi convenerant 
maxime adnitente, ita res gravissimi hujus et sanctissimi 
operis procedere, ut spes certa Npbis affulgeret eos fructus 
quos vehementer optabamus, in Religionis bonum et Ecclesiae 
Dei humanaeque societatis utilitatem ex illo fore feliciter pre- 
fectures. Et sane jam quatuor publicis ac solemnibus sessioni- 
bus habitis salutares atque opportunae in causa fidei Con- 
stitutiones a Nobis eodem sacro approbante Concilio editae 
ac promulgatae fuerunt, aliaque turn causam fidei turn ecclesi- 
asticae disciplinae spectantia ad examen a Patribus revocata, 
quae supremadocentisEcclesiaeauctoritatebrevi sanciri ac pro- 
mulgari possent. Confidebamus istiusmodi labores communi 

92 Document. 

exitum facili prosperoque cursu perduci posse ; sed sacrilega 
repente invasio huius AlmaeUrbis, SedisNostrae,etreliquarum 
temporalisNostraeditionisregionum,qua contra omnefascivilis 
Nostriet Apostolicae Sedis Principatus inconcussa jura incredi- 
bili perfidiaet audaciaviolatasunt, in earn Nos rerum condition- 
em conjecit, ut sub hostili dominatione et potestate, Deo sic 
permittente ob imperscrutabilia judicia sua, penitus constituti 
simus. In hac luctuosa rerum conditione, cum nos a libero 
expeditoque usu supremae auctoritatis nobis divinitus collatae 
multis modis impediamur, cumque probe intelligamus minime 
ipsis Vaticani Concilii Patribus in hac Alma Urbe praedicto 
rerum statu manente, necessariam libertatem securitatem 
tranquillitatem suppetere et constare posse ad res Ecclesiae 
Nobiscum rite pertractandas, cumque praeterea necessitates 
Fidelium, in tantis iisque notissimis Europae calamitatibus 
et motibus, tot Pastores a suis Ecclesiis abesse baud patiantur; 
idcirco Nos, eo res adductas magno cum animi Nostri moerore 
perspicientes ut Vaticanum Concillium tali in tempore cursum 
suum omnino tenere non possit, praevia matura deliberatione, 
motu proprio eiusdem Vaticani Oecumenici Concilii cele- 
brationem usque ad aliud opportunius et commodius tempus 
per hanc Sanctam sedem declarandum, Apostolica auctoritate 
tenore praesentium suspendimus, et suspensam esse nunciamus, 
Deum adprecantes auctorem et vindicem Ecclesiae Suae, ut 
submotis tandem impedimentis omnibus sponsae suae fidel- 
issimae ocius restituat libertatem ac pacem. Quoniam vero 
quo pluribus et gravioribus periculis malisque vexatur Ecclesia 
eo magis instandum est obsecrationibus et orationibus nocte 
ac die apud Deum et Patrem Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, 
Patrem misericordiarum et Deum totius consolationis, volumus 
ac mandamus, ut ea quae in apostolicis litteris die 1 1 aprilis 
anno proxime superiori datis, quibus indulgentiam plenariam 
in forma Jubilaei occasione Oecumenici Concilii omnibus 
Christifidelibus cpncessimus, a Nobis disposita ac statuta 
sunt, iuxta modum et rationem iisdem litteris praescriptam 
in sua vi firmitate et vigore permaneant, perinde ac si ipsius 
Concilii celebratio procederet. Haec statuimus nunciamus 
volumus mandamus, contrariis non obstantibusquibuscumque ; 
irritum et inane decernentes si secus super his a quoquam 
quavis auctoritate scienter vel ignoranter contigerit attentari. 
Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam Nostrorum 
suspensionis nunciationis voluntatis mandati ac decreti infrin- 
gere vel ei ausu temerario contraire, si quis autcm hoc attentare 
praesumpserit, indignationem Omnipotentis Dei et Beatorum 
Petri ac Paulli Apostolorum Eius se noverit incursurum. Ut 
autem eaedem praesentes litterae omnibus qugrum interest 

Notices of Books. 93 

innotescant, volumus illas seu earumexempla ad valvas Eccles- 
iae Lateranensis et Basilicae Principis Apostolorum nee non 
S. Mariae Maioris de Urbe affigi et publicari eique publicatas 
et affixas omnes et singulos quos illae concernunt perinde 
arctare, ac si unicuique eorum nominatim et personaliter 
intimatae fuissent 

Datum Romae apud, S. Petrum sub anulo Piscatoris die 20 
Octobris Anno MDCCCLXX. 

Pontificatus Nostri Anno vigesimoquinto. 



I. Hortus Animate; or, Garden of the SouL II. TJie Scale of 
Perfection; by WALTER HILTON. London: John Philp. 

Like all of Mr. Philp's publications, these two most recent 
additions to his catalogue ate brought out with great taste 
and care. The Hortus Animates an Edition du luxe of the old 
familiar Garden of t/ie Soul. The revival of the Pre-Refor- 
mation title, besides distinguishing this from ordinary editions, 
is justified by the circumstance that all the prayers for which 
a Latin original exists, are here given side by side in Latin 
and English. So also, the Epistles and Gospels for all the 
Sundays and chief festivals of the year, the Office of the 
Blessed Virgin, and the Vespers for Sundays and feasts. 
The Hortus Animae is thus a Missal and Vesperal, as well 
as a Prayer-book ; and evidently no pains have been spared 
to make it as complete as possible. The bulk of the volume 
has, nevertheless, been kept within convenient limits for prac- 
tical use. The Illustrated Calendar is very beautiful. Be- 
sides four or five large engravings, the initial letters in every 
page are in themselves works of art. 

The Scale of Perfection is a reprint of an old spiritual Trea- 
tise, by Walter Hilton, Canon of Thurgarton (not a Carthu- 
sian monk), who died in 1395. The language is, of course, 
quaint, but of much beauty and simplicity. Many, however, 
will find the Introductory Essay on the Spiritual Life of 
Mediaeval England more pleasant reading. It is from the 
pen of Father Dalgairns, of the Oratory, who presents his 
curious and interesting data in a very vivid manner. His style 
has only improved, and his historical knowledge ripened, since 
the time when his contributions made themselves remarkable 
even amongst the series of English Saints edited by Dr. New- 
man. It is a pity that the pious old Canon's pithy chapters 
have no index or table of contents to guide us through them. 





[N.B. Thetextof the "Monasticon" is taken verbatim from Archdall : the notes 
marked with numbers are added by the Editors.] 


forsaken the world, and dedicated himself solely to God, died 
in this abbey. 6 

1026. Cellach O'Selbac, 'comorb of St. Barr, and esteemed 
chief among the sages in Munster, died this year in his pil- 

1027. Died Neil O'Mailduibh, comorb of St. Barr.* 

1028. Died Airtri Sairt, coraorb of St. Barr. h 
1034. Died Cahal, the comorb. 1 

1057. Mugron O'Mutan, comorb of St. Barr, was murdered 
in the night by his own people.* 

1080. The town was destroyed by fire. 1 

1089. Dermot, the son of Toirdhealbhach O'Brien, spoiled 
and plundered the town of Cork, and carried away the re- 
liques of St. Barr. m 

1107. Died Maclothod O'Hailgenen, comorb of St. Barr. n 

II 1 1. Died Patrick O'Selbac, comorb also. 

1134. This abbey was refounded, for regular canons follow- 
ing the rule of St. Augustin, under the invocation of St. John 
the Baptist, by Cormac, King of Munster, or, as some write, 
King of Desmond.? Some of our annals place this founda- 
tion three years later/* The son of the founder tells us, that 
his father built this abbey for the strangers from Connaught, 
who were the countrymen of St. Barr. r 

1152. Gilla^Eda O'Mugin, the abbot, assisted at the famous 
synod of Kells held this year. He was justly esteemed for 
his piety, and died in 1172. From him this house acquired 
the name of Gill abbey. 8 

1174. About this time Dermot, King of Munster, who was 
son to the founder, confirmed the grant made to his father, 
and made additions thereto. Donat, abbot of Maig ; Gregory 

Annal. Innisfal. f War. Sish. p. 556. 'Id. h /</. ^Ann. Ulst. *War. Bish. 
p. 557. Annal. Inufal. \Annal. Inisfal. Id. M. "Id. *War. Man. 
334. '/</.,/. 336. *War. Bithop*,p. $57. 

County of Cork. 95 

of Cunuga ; and Eugene, of Ardmore, were subscribing wit- 
nesses to this charter.* , 

1192. Gilbert O'Brogy was abbot, but was deposed ; licence 
was granted to the convent, dated April the 2ist, to pro- 
ceed to an election. 11 

1248. The abbot paid into the exchequer the sum of 20, 
being the amount of a fine imposed on him. w 

1300. The abbot was indicted at Cork for receiving and 
protecting thieves and felons; but he pleaded that he had 
formerly paid a considerable fine for that offence before John 
Wogan, Chief Justice of Ireland, and that he had not been 
guilty since ; the jury acquitted him.* 

1303. On the 2nd of May a licence was granted to this 
convent to elect an abbot in the room of G - , lately de- 

1338. Thomas, the abbot, indicted John Fitz-Walter and 
others for cutting down a number of trees in his wood at 
Cloghan, in this county, to the value of lOOr. and carrying 
away the same by force of arms. 8 

1357. Thomas O'Fin, the canon of this house, was elected 
abbot, and the temporalities were restored to him on loth 
of October,* 

1359. Maurice was abbot, who resigned in same year, and 
the temporalities were seized from the ist of July to the 
1st of September following, when they were restored to 
William, the newly-elected abbot. b12 

Inquisition 1 2th January, 33rd Queen Elizabeth, finds that 
Knocknyleyny, in county Cork, containing half a carucate of 
land, annual value 4^. 6d. t was parcel of the possessions of 
this house. bb 

*King t p. 336. *Pryn. t vol. 3-,/. 573. * King, p. 336. *Id. 
/. 1017. Xing, p. 337. /</. *Id. ^ChiefRememb. 

'Pryn., vol. 3., 

11 In addition to the facts connected with the monastery of Cork given in the 
text, we may mention the following : 

A.D. 680. Died Suibne, son of Maoluva, successor of St. Barr. 

A.D. 759. Died the abbot Donait, the son of Tohence. 

A.D. 767. Died the abbot Sealbach MacConalta. 

AtD. 795. Died Commach MacDonat, abbot of Corca mor. 

A.D. 812. Died the abbot Commach, son of Donat. 

A.D. 821. Died the abbot Forbasach. 

A.D. 833. Died the abbot Dunlaing. 

A.D. 835. Dunlaing. son of Cathasach, successor of Barra, of Corcach, died. 

A.D. 850. Colam MacAireachtach, abbot of Corcach, died. 

A.D. 866. Reachtabra, son of Murchad, abbot of Corca mor, died. 

A.D. 891. Soerbreathach, son of Comadh, scribe, wise man, bishop, and abbot 
of Corcach, died. 

A.D. 892. Airgetan, son of Forandan, was abbot of Cork. 

A.D. 894. Died the abbot Airgetan. 

A.D. 903. Ailioll, son of Eogan, abbot of TrUn Corcftighe, wa lain in the 

96 Ancient Monasteries of Ireland. 

Inquisition 2/th March, James I., finds that a great devas- 
tation, amounting to the sum of one hundred marks, sterling, 
was made on this abbey within the three preceding years, and 
particularly on the mill and weir of the said abbey; and 
Thomas Smith inhabited and held the said abbey during that 

This abbey, containing two acres, with a church and the 
appurtenances, also six gardens and third part of a water- 
mill; with the tithes of the same, parcel of the possessions 
of this house, were granted to Cormac M'Teige M'Carthy. 
See Inislounaght, in county of Tipperary ; and 26th June, 
33rd of same Queen, the said abbey containing four acres, was 
re-granted to Sir Richard Greneville, Knt., together with sixty 
acres called Ballygagin ; Kilnoony, in county of Kerry, con- 
taining two hundred and sixty acres ; Killynecanana, lying 
ftorth-east of Cork- water, and containing sixty acres; Far- 
renduffe fifteen acres; the island of Insiquiny, with three 
acres of unprofitable, and a chief rent out of the island of 
Cloghaule, parcel of the possessions of said house, to hold to 
him and his heirs, at the annual rent of .15 ^s. 6d., Irish 
money. bbb 

Ware supposes this to be the abbey which St. Bernard calls 
Monasterium Ibracense, but Allemande is more inclined to 
think that Begery, in county of Wexford, is that monastery. 

The monks of this abbey erected the first salmon weirs 
on the river Lee, near the city of Cork. The remains of 
this building were totally demolished about the year 1745. 

bW M</. Gen. 

same battle in which Cormac Mac Cuillenain, Archbishop and King of Munster, 
met his melancholy fate. 

A.D. 907. Died the abbot Flann Mac Laoige. 

A. D. 926. Fonnachta was abbot in spirituals, he directed the greater part of 

A.D. 949. Ailill, son of Core, was abbot. 

A,D. 987. Colum Airchinneach, of Corcach, died. 

A.D. 1000. Flaithemh, abbot of Corcach, died. 

A.D. 1036. Died Aengus, son of Cathan, abbot of Corcach, died. 

A.D. 1057. Dubhdaletha Ua Cineadha, Airchinneach of Corcach, died. 

A.D. 1085. Clereach Ua Sealbhaigh, chief succeisor of Bairri, the glory and 
wisdom of Desmond, completed his life in this world. 

A.D. 1096. Ua Cochlain, a learned bishop and successor of Bairre, died. 

A D. 1 106. Mac Beatha Ua Hailgheanain, comorb of St. Barra, died. 

A.D. 1116. Cork was destroyed by fire. 

A.D. 1126. Corcach mor, of Munster, with its church, was burned. 

A.D. 1152. Finar, grandson of Celechar Ua Ceinneidigh, successor of Colum, 
son of Crimtthann [of Tir-da-ghlas], and who had been successor of Ban for a 
time, died. 

A.D. 1157. Gillaphadraig, son of Donnchadh Mac Carthaigh, successor of Barr 
of Corca, died. 

(To be continued.) 




DECEMBER, 1870. 



HERE is a portion of the great question of Education in 
Ireland which does not seem to occupy that share of 
public attention which it merits : we mean Middle-class or 
Intermediate Education. 

In 1854 a Royal Commission was appointed "to inquire 
into the endowments, funds, and actual condition of all schools 
endowed for the purposes of education, and the nature and 
extent of the instruction given in such schools, and to report 
their opinion thereon ;" and in the following July, an Act was 
passed (18 and 19 Vic., Cap. 59), "to facilitate inquiries of 
Commissioners of Endowed Schools in Ireland." By this Act 
it was declared, that " Endowed Schools " should " mean and 
include all schools of royal foundation in Ireland, the 'schools 
on the foundation of Erasmus Smith, the Charter Schools and 
Diocesan Schools, and all schools endowed on charitable or 
public foundations in Ireland." It is in this sense also that 
we wish to treat of the Endowed Schools in the present article. 

The importance of the subject, especially in the present posi- 
tion of the Education question, can scarcely be over estimated. 
The Endowed Schools referred to are engaged in middle-class 
or intermediate education ; that is to say, in that portion of 
education which immediately concerns the middle-classes of 
Ireland those classes which, in truth, constitute the bone 
and sinew of our people ; those classes which, more than any 
other, will affect for good or evil, the future of our country ; 
those classes, in fine, which by their spirit of religion and 
by their intelligence, will maintain and increase the fair 
name of the "fnsu/a Sanctorum ct Doctorum." In these days, 
more than ever, all that we have enumerated, and much 

1 An Inaugural Discourse read by the Rector of the Catholic University at the 
Academical Commencements, December 1st, 1870. 

VOL. vii. 7 

98 TJte Endowed Schools of Ireland. 

more, depends on our professional men, and on the respect- 
able farmers of our country districts, and shop-keepers of our 
towns and cities, and as education is now-a-days the key to all 
social advancement, on the education which they give to their 
children must in a great measure depend their influence for 
good in future generations. Hence, on the one hand, the im- 
portance, or rather necessity, that the system of education 
under which the youth of our middle-classes is reared, should 
be Christian, that is, Catholic ; othenvise their learning will 
" be falsi nominis scientia" " knowledge falsely so called," 
against which St. Paul warned his disciple Timothy : learning 
which, instead of being a blessing to themselves, to their 
country, and to society, will be a curse to all. And hence, 
on the other hand, the flagrant violation of distributive justice 
involved in confining to one section of the community public 
educational advantages from which others are excluded, in 
giving to Protestants, and Protestant institutions, public 
endowments for intermediate education, while Catholics of 
the middle-classes are left totally unassisted in their efforts 
to obtain for their children the like benefits. 

Intermediate education holds a middle place between the 
university and primary schools. The latter regard the great 
masses of a people which cannot aspire to the higher branches 
of education : intermediate schools are the foundation of the 
university, which is the summit of a nation's education. Now, 
Irish Catholics have rights with respect to them, as well as with 
respect to the university and to primary education. Hitherto 
those rights have been denied to Catholics, while the educa- 
tional interests of members of the Established Church have 
been fostered at enormous cost to the country. We allude to 
the royal and other schools mentioned above, which have been 
and are still endowed for intermediate education at the public 
expense. The benefits of these numerous institutions and 
of their large endowments are almost exclusively monopolized 
by members of the late Established Church. Our Bishops, in 
the Maynooth Resolutions of August, 1869, declared, "that the 
Catholics of Ireland are justly entitled to their due proportion 
of the public funds hitherto set apart for education in the 
Royal and other Endowed Schools." 

The Royal Commission appointed in 1854, reported on this 
important subject of Endowed Schools on the 1st February, 
1858. Three of the five Commissioners reported in favour 
of extending the " mixed" system to those public institutions 
which were then, and still are, Protestant. Two of these 
three gentlemen were the present Protestant Bishop of Lime- 
rick, who was at that time a Fellow of Trinity College, and 

The Endowed Schools of Ireland. 99 

the Vice-President of the Queen's College, Belfast. We quote 
the following extracts from the excellent letter which H. G. 
Hughes, Esq., Q.C. now Baron Hughes, the only Catholic 
on the Commission addressed to his brother commissioners. 
These extracts will show how different are the views of Catho- 
lics on this most important question : 

" We all concurred in opinion," says Baron Hughes, " that 
the demand in Ireland for ' intermediate' education is con- 
siderable. I believe that it is not only considerable, but that 
the demand is rapidly increasing, while the means of supply- 
ing it are diminishing. ... I cannot concur in a Report 
which proposes to establish a system which I believe to be 
wrong in principle and impossible in practice ; and it is there- 
fore right that I should state the reasons which induced me 
to opp9se the adoption of the principle of ' mixed' education, 
and which now induce me to decline to concur in your pro- 
posed Report . . . In the year 1811, Mr. Leslie Foster, 
then a member of the Board of Education, addressed a letter 
to the Secretary of the Board, in which he stated : ' That 
whatever plan may appear to this Board most eligible, it should 
be laid before the heads of the Roman Catholic clergy previous 
to our Report No person,' he adds, ' acquainted with the 
discipline of the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland can doubt, 
that on the sentiments of the Bishops will depend the degree 
of resistance or co-operation which such a plan would receive 
from the subordinates of their religion.' I believe," continues 
Mr. Hughes, "that the same discipline still exists, and that 
the same results would inevitably follow. The sentiments of 
the R. C. Bishops on the subject of ' mixed' education are 
beyond doubt. Their views on that subject are not peculiar 
either to their order or to their religion. Similar views have 
been entertained by the most eminent divines of the Protes- 
tant Church, and have been advocated by the most distin- 
guished statesmen in the British Senate. 

" I am convinced that the ' mixed' system is wrong in 
principle, and cannot, even if right, be carried out in Ireland. 
I believe that the separate system is sound in principle, and 
if that is doubted, I think it is worthy of being submitted to 
a fair trial, as the only alternative the State can adopt, if it 
proposes to legislate for the education of the middle classes." 

Now, any arrangement of the University question, to be at 
all satisfactory to the middle classes of Irish Catholics, must 
be coupled with a re-distribution of the public endowments 
for intermediate education. It has been frequently stated, and 
with good reason, that the Legislature in establishing and 
endowing the Queen's Colleges committed a great mistake, by 

ioo The Endowed Schools of Ireland. 

endeavouring to found a University without subsidiary schools 
to supply it with students. It was believed at the time, that 
the Endowed Schools' Commission of 1854 was issued in 
the hope that, by reporting in favour of mixed intermediate 
schools, it would prepare the way to the supplying of the defi- 
ciency. But, thanks in a great measure to the clear and bold 
enunciation of the principles of Catholics by Mr. Baron 
Hughes, and by the great meeting of the county and city of 
Cork, nothing was done for the extension to intermediate 
schools of the system of mixed education. Still, the want of 
good middle-class schools exists, although the Catholic schools 
and colleges, created by the piety and love of learning inhe- 
rent in the Irish heart, have done, and are doing much. The 
Endowed Schools' Commissioners appended to their report a 
list of 91 " towns having above 2,000 inhabitants, according 
to the census of 1851, and in which there is situate no gram- 
mar or superior English school, which is in operation, and 
included in tables of schools and endowments." Some of the 
towns mentioned in the list have classical schools under Catholic 
management; but the list shows how many centres of popu- 
lation receive no public assistance for the important work of 
intermediate education. 

The following towns have grammar schools in operation, 
endowed to the amount of 250 a year,and upwards. All these 
Schools are exclusively, or almost exclusively, Protestant. 




Kilkenny, Kilkenny Grammar School, ... ^291 2 o 

Drogheda, Erasmus Smith's School, ... 254 6 8 

Navan, Navan Endowed School, ... 309 I 9 

Ennis, Erasmus Smith's School, ... 362 17 9 

Midleton, Cork, Midleton Endowed School, ... 265 I 5 

Clonmel, Clonmel Endowed School, ... 564 o o 

Tipperary, Erasmus Smith's School, ... 373 7 o 

Belfast, Royal Academical Institution, ... 589 o 3 

Armagh, Royal Free School, ... 1520 17 9 

Cavan, do. ... 729 19 6 

Raphoe, do. ... 575 17 4 

Enniskillen, do. ... 2286 6 2 

Londonderry, Diocesan Free School, ... 899 10 o 

Dungannon, Royal Free School, ... 1545 10 I 

Galway, Erasmus Smith's School, ... 472 18 o 

Exhibitions attached to Erasmus Smith's Schools, 360 o o 

11,399 15 8 

The Endowed Schools of Ireland. 101 

But the extent of the endowments enjoyed by the Royal 
Schools and other Endowed Schools, which came under the 
consideration of the Royal Commission of 1854-58, may be 
best known from the following facts, which we also take from 
their report. 

Extracts from Report of Commissioners on Endowed Schools, 
Ireland. (1858.; 

From Report of J. W. Murland, Esq., Inspector of Estates. 

A. R. P. 

DUNGANNON, 6 townlands 3,890 3 12 1,651 16 7 
ARMAGH, 6 do. 1,514 i 31 M89 5 7 

ENNISKILLEN 41 do. over 5,5660 2 2,262 13 8 
CAVAN, 4 do. & over 923 i 26 637 9 o 

RAPHOE, 12 do. & over 1,855 3 2 O 

of which are 495 1 1 1 1 

mountain, 6,960 i 21) 
CARYSFORT, I townlandand 305 I 34 \ 6 

mountain, 284 3 31 j" 
BANAGHER, 2 townlands and 1 

over 387 3 8 > about 2 50 o o 

and deep bog 211 i 8) 

72 townlands 14,443 3 
mountain,&c. 7,456 \ 20 

21,900 I 34 

It would seem that CLOGHER and DERRY are entitled to 400 
acres not mentioned in this list 


A. R. p. 

LIMERICK ESTATES, 4,343 2 19 4,017 12 3 

TIPPERARY do. 3,037 2 28 1,813 5 8 

GALWAY do. 2,738 o 17 2,602 5 o 

WESTMEATH do. 767 2 32 413 7 4 

SLIGO do. 284 o 7 279 9 o 

and mountain, 1,942 o 29 147 o o 

KING'S Co. do. about 300 o o 23 i 6 

13,413 i 12 9,296 o 9 

IO3 The Endowed Schools of Ireland. 

CHARTER SCHOOLS Endowments, partly public, and partly 


Gross rental... 7,771 10 5 
Deductions 1,768 19 i 

Net rental, 6,002 114 

The total acreage of endowments in operation is 75,600 acres 

Estimated annual value of school-premises, 14,615 9 7 

Annual income from land (net) 37.564 4 2 

Do. from trust funds 16,391 2 7 

68,570 16 4 

Endowments not in operation, 7,170 us. \\d. per annum. 
Endowments lost or expired, acreage: i,3i4A. 2R. 31?. 
Income from lands and trust-funds, 2,574 i8.r. tyd. per annum. 

From the preceding table it appears that the estate of 
the Royal School of Armagh consists of six townlands, and 
contains 1,514 acres; while the Royal School, Enniskillen, 
is endowed with 5,566 acres, comprising 41 townlands, chiefly 
the confiscated estates of the Maguires of Fermanagh. The 
head master of the latter institution enjoys, free of rent, the 
lands of Portora, comprising over 53 acres. 

A considerable portion of these endowments is devoted 
to the maintenance of the schools, the payment of teachers, 
&c. There is no valid reason why Catholics should not have 
for their schools and colleges a fair share, either of this 
annual income, or of the bulk sum which would accrue from 
its capitalization. Justice demands that these funds, as far 
as they have been given by the State, should be made 
available by the legislature for the benefit of the nation. 
Nor would this be done by applying to existing Protestant 
institutions the principle of " mixed education." For, as 
Baron Hughes remarked in the letter we have already quoted, 
neither the present, nor the "mixed" system, meets the 
educational wants of Catholics; and hence either "only provides 
for the education of the fewer and the richer, at the expense 
of the many and the poorer." 

Another portion of the existing endowments is devoted to 
assist deserving students, by exhibitions and burses, either in 
the schools themselves or in Trinity College. In Trinity 
College, Dublin, there are 153 such exhibitions, varying from 
50 a-year downwards, and tenable in general for five years. 

There is no reason why these rewards and helps to learning 
should not be open to the competition of Catholics, to be 

The Endowed Schools of Ireland. 103 

enjoyed by them in institutions congenial to their religious 
principles, either in Catholic schools and colleges, or should 
they wish to pursue higher studies, in the Catholic University. 

Justice, and the principles of religious equality embodied 
in the recent Irish Church Act, require that those immense 
educational endowments should be re-distributed and made 
available for the benefit of Catholics and of Catholic insti- 
tutions, as well as of Protestant and mixed schools and col- 
leges, saving, of course, all private rights and life interests. 

It may be said that these schools are open to Catholics 
as well as to Protestants. The Endowed Schools' Commis- 
sioners (p. 53 of their Report) quote from the Report of a 
previous committee on Foundation Schools, A.D. 1838 : 
" The Committee reported," they say, that " though the course 
pursued in the instance of diocesan schools of appointing 
masters from the Church of England, and generally clergy- 
men, prevailed also in the case of the Royal Schools, it does 
not rest on any law. The Lord Lieutenant, as in the case 
of the diocesan, has the appointment solely in his own hands, 
unshackled by any limitation of a religious exclusive character 
The assistants also are usually Protestants, but chosen from 
the laity. The Royal Schools have at all times been con- 
sidered open to all religious persuasions." 

That the appearance of liberality put forward in the fore- 
going sentences is only a delusion, is evident, first because 
although thirty-two years have elapsed since that Report 
was presented to the House of Commons, nothing has been 
done to correct the acknowledged injustice ; the schools con- 
tinue as exclusively Protestant as ever in their teaching, their staff, 
and theirgeneral management; secondly because theadmission 
of a few Catholics to those institutions would not render them 
less objectionable to Catholics generally, who, it is well 
known, object to mixed education, as much as to teaching 
based on Protestantism and impregnated with its peculiar 
tenets ; thirdly because during the long period which has 
intervened thirty-two years representing an entire genera- 
tion, although the Catholics of Ireland, in the midst of the 
greatestdiffkulticsandsufferings.of afaminealmost unexampled 
in its severity, of an emigration which still continues to drain our 
country of some of its best blood, of numberless calls upon their 
limited resources, have made prodigious efforts to advance 
the interests of education r no help has been extended to 
them by the State in this matter of intermediate education 
While Protestants of the middle classes enjoy at the public 
expense all the advantages we have enumerated, Catholics 
of the same social grade are, as far as the State is concerned, 

IO4 The Endowed Schools of Ireland. 

in the same position they occupied fifty or one hundred years 
ago nay, in the worst days of the penal laws, when the rich 
endowments given by our fathers for Catholic education 
were confiscated or diverted to the maintenance and propa- 
gation of the dominant religion. 

It may be said that some of the endowments in question 
are private gifts. As far as they are private property, of 
course we do not intend our remarks to apply to them ; but 
by far the largest part of these abundant endowments are 
derived from the crown and legislature, and, assuredly, that 
which the state gave, it has a right to re-distribute on more 
equitable principles. We ought to mention in particular the 
Erasmus Smith's Schools. The Commissioners appointed 
under the act of the Irish Parliament of 1791, stated with 
respect to th'em, that the income of the Governors had in- 
creased from the ^"300 a-year mentioned in the charter to 
upwards of 4,200 a-year. And they observed, that the 
Erasmus Smith's foundation, though originating in the inten- 
tions of a private individual, might, nevertheless, from the 
repeated interpositions of the Legislature and the crown, be 
considered as a public institution ( Vide Report of Endowed 
Schools' Commission, p. 65). 

But after making all reasonable deductions, the endowments 
in questionwould still, under proper management, furnish alarge 
national fund, which might, if necessary, be supplemented 
from other sources ; and the Catholic schools and colleges, 
which the piety and the love of learning inherent in the Irish 
heart have created, when aided out of that national fund in 
proportion to the wants of Irish Catholics, would become most 
efficient institutions, in which Catholics, without offering violence 
to their religious principles could prepare for public examina- 
tions,andfor the cultivationof higher literary or scientific studies 
or the prosecution of professional studies in the Catholic Univer- 
sity College. It is thus the Royal and other Endowed Schools 
prepare Protestants for the Protestant University. Thus would 
a suitable foundation be laid for a National University in which 
Catholics would be on a footing of educational equality, with 
their Protestant fellow-countrymen. Thus would be abolished 
the system of Protestant educational ascendency which still 
remains as a relic of the Ecclesiastical Ascendency, now hap- 
pily no more ; and all Irishmen would have the same encour- 
agement from the State to cultivate the intellectual powers 
which they have received from the Almighty Giver of all good 




[HE fame of St. Enda's austere holiness, and of the 
angelical life which so many were leading in Aran under his 
guidance, soon spread far and wide throughout the land. 
The sweet odour of Christ, diffused from the lonely island in 
the Atlantic, penetrated to every part of Ireland, and where- 
ever it reached, its gracious message stirred with joy the 
hearts of the noblest and best among the servants of God. 
It told them of a spot where men led a life of higher sanctity, 
and of more thorough severance from fleshly ties than was 
known elsewhere ; and to souls hungering and thirsting after 
perfection, to hear of the spiritual treasures stored up in 
Aran, was to long for the wings of the dove to fly thither, 
to be made happy sharers in its graces. Hence, soon, the 
Galway fishermen, whom St. Enda had blessed, found 
day after day their coracJis crowded with strangers reli- 
gious men, of meek eye and gentle face seeking to cross 
over to the island ; and so frequently was the journey made, 
that the words of the prophet seemed verified, and even in 
that trackless sea "a path and a way was there, and it was called 
the holy way." 1 The pilgrims were men of every period of 
life, some in the spring of their youth, flying from the plea- 
sures that wooed their senses, and the earthly loves that laid 
snares for their hearts ; others in the vigour of healthful 
manhood ; and others aged and infirm, who came to close in 
religious peace the remnant of their days, which at their 
best they had accounted as few and evil. And thus Aran 
gradually came to be as the writer of the life of St. Kieran of 
Clonmacnoise describes it, the home of a multitude of holy 
men, and the sanctuary where repose the relics of countless 
saints, whose names are known only to the Almighty God. 8 
"Great indeed is that island," exclaims another ancient writer, 
" and it is the land of the saints, for no one, save God alone, 
knows how many holy men lie buried therein." 3 

But, although it is not possible to learn the names of all the 
saints who were formed to holiness by St. Enda in Aran, our 
ancient records have preserved the names of a few at least 

1 Isaias xxxv, 71. 

1 " In qua multitude sanctorum virorum manet, et innumerabiles sancti, omnibus 
incogniti nisi soli Deo Omnipotent!, ibi jacent." Colgan, Acta SS. 

* " Magna est ilia insula, et est terra sanctorum ; quia nemo scit numerum 
sanctorum qui sepulti sunt ibi, nisi solus Deus." Vita S. Albei. Colgan, Acta SS. 

106 A Visit to the Aran-More of St. Enda. 

out of that blessed multitude. Among them we find almost 
every name of note that appears in the second part of the well- 
known list of the saints of Ireland, drawn up by some author 
who flourished not later than the middle of the eighth century, 
and in addition to these, many others of great celebrity, who 
are not included in that catalogue. This second order of 
saints lasted from about the middle of the sixth to the begin- 
ning of the seventh century. 

The history of these men is the history of St. Enda's work 
on Aran. 

First among St. Enda's disciples must be ranked St. 
Kieran, the founder of Clonmacnoise, who has been styled by 
Alcuin the glory of the Irish race. St. Kieran came to 
Aran in his youth, and for seven years lived faithfully in the 
service of God, under the direction of St. Enda. His youth 
and strength fitted him in an especial manner for the active 
duties, which were by no means inconsiderable in so large a 
community, and in a place where the toil spent on an 
ungrateful soil was so scantily repaid. "During these seven 
years," says the ancient life of our saint, 1 "Kieran so diligently 
discharged the duties of grinding the corn, that grain in 
quantity sufficient to make a heap never was found in 
the granary of the island." Upon these humble labours 
the light of the future greatness of the founder of Clonmac- 
noise was allowed to shine in visions. St. Kieran had a 
vision, which he faithfully narrated to his master, St. Enda. 
He dreamed that on the bank of a great river, which is called 
the Shannon, he saw a mighty tree laden with leaves and 
fruits, which covered with its shade the entire island of Erin. 
This dream he narrated to St. Enda, who said, "the tree 
laden with fruit, thou art thyself, for thou shalt be great 
before God and man, and shalt bring forth sweetest fruits of 
good works, and shalt be honoured throughout all Ireland. 
Proceed therefore, at once, and in obedience to the will of 
God, build thou there a monastery." Upon this, St. Kieran, 
prepared himself for the building of the monastery of Clon- 
macnoise. His first step was to receive the priesthood. But 
he could not bring himself to sever the happy ties that bound 
him to his abbot. He still longed to be under his guidance, 
and when recommending himself to the prayers of his 
brethren he said to St. Enda, in the presence of all, 
" O father, take me and my charge under thy protection, that 
all my disciples may be thine likewise." " Not so," answered 
Enda, "for it is not the will of God that you should all live 
under my care in this scanty island ; but to thee, for thine 
J Colgan, Vita S. End. , page 709. 

A Visit to the Aran-More of St. Enda. 107 

admirable humility and perfect charity, will Christ the Lord 
grant the half of Ireland as the portion of thine inheritance." 
And when they had thus spoken, a cross was set up in the 
place, in sign of the brotherhood they had contracted between 
themselves, and those who were to come after them ; and 
they said : " whosoever in after times shall break the loving 
bond of this our brotherhood, shall not have share in our love 
on earth, nor in our company in heaven." 

The love which St. Enda bore towards his holy pupil, for 
his many and wonderful virtues, made their parting singularly 
painful to them both. For a time the holy abbot felt as if the 
Angels of God were leaving Aran with Kieran,and he could find 
no relief for his anguish but in prayer. The sternness of religious 
discipline had not crushed but chastened the tenderness of 
an affectionate disposition in St. Enda, any more than in St. 
Bernard, whose writings are the truest expression of the best 
feelings of the religious heart. And as St. Bernard deplored 
the loss of his brother Gerard, in whom the active and con- 
templative virtues were admirably united, so might St. Enda 
have spoken of Kieran. "Whom now shall I consult in 
doubtful matters? Who will bear my burdens? His wise 
and gentle speech saved me from secular conversation, and gave 
me to the silence which I loved. O diligent man! O faithful 
friend ! He plunged himself in cares that I might be spared 
them, but in this he sought not for his own advantage, for he 
expected (such was his humility) more profit from my leisure 
than from his own. Who more strict than he in the preserva- 
tion of discipline ? Who more stern in- the chastening of his 
body ? Who more rapt or more sublime in contemplation ? l 

The last hours spent by St. Kieran on Aran, as described 
in the ancient life of St. Enda, are full of touching incidents, 
which reveal the tender and simple affectionateness of those 
mortified religious. 

The entire community of the island shared the sorrow that 
had come on their venerable abbot. When the moment of 
departure was at hand, and the boat that was to bear him from 
Aran was spreading its sails to the breeze, Kieran came slowly 
down to the shore, walking between St. Enda and St. Finnian, and 
followed by the entire brotherhood. His tears flowed fast as he 
moved along,andthosewhoaccompanied him mingled their tears 
with his. Peter de Blois, when leaving the Abbey of Croy- 
land to return to his own country, stayed his steps seven 
times to look back and contemplate once again the place where 
he had been so happy ; so, too, did Kieran's gaze linger with 
tenderness upon the dark hills of Aran and on the oratories 

1 St. Bernard, Serm. in mort. Gcrardi. Op. torn. I, Col. 1354. 

io8 A Visit to the A ran- More of St. Enda. 

where he had learned to love God, and to feel how good and 
joyous a thing it is to dwell with brethren whose hearts are at 
one with each other in God. And when the shore was reached, 
again he knelt to ask his father's blessing ; and, entering the 
boat, was carried away from the Aran that he was never to see 
again. The monastic group stayed for a while on the rocks 
to follow with longing eyes the bark that was bearing from 
them him they loved ; and when at length, bending their steps 
homewards, they had gone some distance from the shore, St 
Enda's tears once more began to flow. " O my brethren," 
cried he, " good reason have I to weep, for this day has our 
island lost the flower and strength of religious observance." 
What was loss to Aran, however, was gain to Clonmacnoise, 
and through Clonmacnoise to the entire Irish Church, to which 
the venerable monastery on the Shannon was the source of 
so many blessings and of so much glory. Those who admire it 
even now in its ruins, should not forget that its splendours are 
reflected back upon the rocky Aran, where St. Enda formed 
the spirit of its founder, and fostered with his blessing the work 
he had undertaken to accomplish. 

St. Kieran died at Clonmacnoise in the year 549, in the prime 
of life, having governed his monastery for the short space of a 
single year. 

Next among the saints of Aran comes St. Brendan. 1 
The life of this illustrious saint narrates "how the man 
of God went westward with fourteen brethren to a certain 
Island called Aran, where dwelt St. Enda with his bre- 
thren. With these the servant of God, Brendan, remained for 
three days and three nights, after which, having received the 
blessing of St. Enda, and of his holy monks, he set out with 
his companions for Kerry." This visit of St. Brendan to Aran 
has been described by one of our poets 2 as follows : 

Hearing how blessed Enda lived apart, 

Amid the sacred cares of Ara-Mhor ; 
And how, beneath his eye, spread like a chart, 

Lay all the isles of that remotest shore ; 
And how he had collected in his mind 

All that was known to man of the old sea, 
I left the hill of miracles behind, 

And sailed from out the shallow sandy Leigh. 

Again I sailed, and crossed the stormy sound 
That lies beneath Binn-Aite's rocky height, 

1 In codice Insulensi. See Colgan, p. 712. 

*Tfit Bell-Founder and other Potms, by D. F. MacCarthy, page 1 80, sqq. 

A Visit to the Ar an- More of St. Enda. 109 

And there, upon the shore, the saint I found 
Waiting my coming through the tardy night. 

He led me to his home beside the wave, 

Where, with his monks, the pious father dwelled ; 

And to my listening ear he freely gave 

The sacred knowledge that his bosom held. 

When I proclaimed the project that I nursed, 

How 'twas for this that I his blessing sought, 
An irrepressible cry of joy outburst 

From his pure lips, that blessed me for the thought. 
He said, that Jie, too, had in visions strayed 

O'er the untrack'd ocean's billowing foam ; 
Bid me have hope, that God would give me aid, 

And bring me safe back to my native home. 

Thus, having sought for knowledge and for strength, 

For the unheard-of voyage that I planned, 
I left these myriad isles, and turned at length 

Southward my bark, and sought my native land. 
There I made all things ready, day by day ; 

The wicker boat, with ox-skins cover'd over, 
Chose the good monks, companions of my way, 

And waited for the wind to leave the shore. 

St. Finnian of Moville is also mentioned in the ancient life 1 of 
our saint as oneof St. Enda's disciples at Aran. This remarkable 
man was first placed under the care of St. Colman of Dromore, 
who flourished about the year 510. It is expressly mentioned 
in the life just quoted, that it was from Aran he set out on his 
pilgrimage to Rome. This was probably his first visit to the 
Apostolic See. Being of an active temperament, he there de- 
voted himself with great ardour for several years to the study of 
the ecclesiastical and apostolical traditions. He then returned 
to Ireland, after having received the pontifical benediction, 
and carrying with him a rich store of relics of the saints given 
him by the Pope, and the penitential canons, which, in his bio- 
grapher's time, were still called the canons of St. Finnian. He 
also brought to Ireland, the earliest copy of the Hieronymian 
translation of the Gospel : a treasure of such value in the es- 
timation of his ecclesiastical contemporaries, that the records 
of the period very frequently refer to St. Finnian's Gospels. 

In 540, he founded the great monastery of Moville, where 
St. Columba spent portion of his youth. After labouring 
with energy for many years in Ireland, St. Finnian 

1 Colgan, Act. SS. page 708. 

no A Visit to tJie Aran-More of St. Enda. 

returned to Italy, where, according to the best author- 
ities, he was made Bishop of Lucca, in Tuscany, in which 
church he is venerated under the name of St. Frigidian, or 
Fridian. The Italian annals give 588 as the year of his death ; 
the annals of Ulster and Tigernach 589. 

The Irish life of St. Columbkille makes mention of the 
sojourn of that great saint on Aran. The traditions still 
current on the island confirm this statement. The deep love 
of St. Columba for Aran, the sorrow with which he quitted its 
shores for lona, the spiritual excellencies which he had therein 
discovered, are expressed with singular warmth of religious 
feeling in a poem, written by him on his deparure, 
of which Mr. Aubrey De Vere 1 has given the following 
spirited version : 

Farewell to Aran Isle, farewell ! 

I steer for Hy ; my heart is sore : 
The breakers burst, the billows swell 

'Twixt Aran Isle and Alba's shore. 

Thus spoke the Son of God, " Depart !" 

Aran Isle, God's will be done ! 
By angels thronged this hour thou art ; 

1 sit within my bark alone. 

O Modan, well for thee the while! 

Fair falls thy lot, and well art thou ! 
Thy seat is set in Aran Isle : 

Eastward to Alba turns my prow. 


O Aran, sun of all the west ! 

My heart is thine ! As sweet to close 
Our dying eyes in thee as rest, 

Where Peter and where Paul repose. 

O Aran, son of all the west ! 

My heart in thee its grave hath found. 
He walks in regions of the blest 

The man that hears thy church-bells sound. 

1 De Vere's " Irish Odes and other Poems," page 274-275. 

A Visit to the Aran-More of St. Enda. \ 1 1 


O Aran blest ! O Aran blest ! 

Accursed the man that loves not thee ! 
The dead man cradled in thy breast 

No demon scares him well is he. 

Each Sunday Gabriel from on high 

(For so did Christ the Lord ordain) 
Thy Masses comes to sanctify, 
With fifty Angels in his train. 

Each Monday Michael issues forth 

To bless anew each sacred fane : 
Each Tuesday cometh Raphael, 

To bless pure hearth and golden grain. 

Each Wednesday cometh Uriel, 

Each Thursday Sariel, fresh from God; 
Each Friday cometh Ramael 

To bless thy stones and bless thy sod. 


Each Saturday comes Mary, 

Comes Babe on arm, 'mid heavenly hosts! 
! Aran, near to heaven is he 

That hears God's Angels bless thy coasts! 

The stanzas which in the original Irish correspond to 
the fourth verse of Mr. De Vere's translation, have been 
rendered as follows by Dr. O'Donovan, who remarks that 
O'Flanagan's translation is here defective. 

The Son of the King O ! the Son of the living God, 

It is he who sent me to lona ; 
It is he who gave to Enna great the prosperity, 

Aran, the Rome of the pilgrims. 
Aran thou sun O ! Aran thou sun ! 

My affection lies with thee westward ; 
Alike to be under her pure earth interred, 

As under the earth of Peter and Paul. 

The ancient life of St. Enda also reckons among the inha- 
bitants of Aran, St. Finnian the elder, the founder of the great 

112 A Visit to the Aran- More of St. Enda. 

school of Clonard, who died in the second half of the sixth 
century ; St. Jarlath, the founder of the see of Tuam ; St. Mac 
Creiche, of the race of the men of Corcomroe, who were in 
possession of Aran when St.' Enda first went thither. The 
Martyrology of Donegal makes mention of St. Guigneus ; the 
Martyrology of Aengus adds St. Papeus, St. Kevin of Glenda- 
loch, St. Carthage of Lismore, St. Lonan Kerr, St Nechatus 
or Nechanus, and St. Libeus, brother of St. Enda. In the 
midst of this holy brotherhood St. Enda died in 540 or 543. 

Among the saints to whom, as we shall soon see, churches were 
dedicated on the island, we find St. Benignus of Armagh, who 
also most probably resided in Aran, and St. Caradoc, or 
Carantoc, whose name recalls his British origin. These two 
men may fairly be taken as representatives of the native and 
foreign elements which at that period went to make up the Irish 
Church. It is remarkable to find that on Aran, which seems 
to have been a common centre for the saints of the second 
order, these two elements are found in harmony, and most 
closely connected with each other. These facts contrast 
strangely with what we read in a late writer, that " the second 
order of saints do not appear to have had any connection 
with Armagh, or the institutions of St. Patrick," and that 
" they were connected with the British Church, and not with 
the Church of St. Patrick." 1 The history of Aran and of its 
monuments forbids these attempts to disparage the unity of 
the ancient Irish Church. 

The sight of Aran peopled by this host of saints forcibly 
recalls to mind that other island, where, in an age of wild 
and fierce passions, the arts of peace, religious learning, and 
the highest Christian virtues, found a sanctuary. At the 
beginning of the sixth century, Aran may, with, truth, be 
styled the Lerins of the northern seas. True, its bare flags and 
cold grey landscape contrast sadly with " the gushing streams, 
the green meadows, the luxuriant wealth of vines, the fair 
valleys, and the fragrant scents which," according to St. 
Eucherius, " made Lerins the paradise of those who dwelled 
thereon. 2 " However its very wildness did but make it richer in 
those attractions so well described by St. Ambrose, which made 
the outlying islands so dear to the religious men of that time. 8 
They loved those islands, "which, as a necklace of pearls, 
God has set upon the bosom of the sea, and in which those 
who would fly from the irregular pleasures of the world, may 
find a refuge wherein to practise austerity and save them- 

1 Todd's St. Patrick, page 95-96. 

1 S. Eucherius de laude Eremi, 442. 

3 Hexatmeron, lib. 3, c. 5. . 

A Visit to the Aran- More of St. Enda. 1 1 3 

selves from the snares of this life. The sea that enfolds them 
becomes, as it were, a veil to hide from mortal eye their deeds 
of penance; it aids them to acquire perfect continence; it 
feeds grave and sober thought ; it has the secret of peace ; 
and repels all the fierce passions of earth. In it these faithful 
and pious men find incentives to devotion. The mysterious 
sound of the billows calls for the answering sound of sacred 
psalmody ; and the peaceful voices of holy men, mingled with 
the gentle murmur of the waves breaking softly on the shore, 
rise in unison to the heavens." It must have been one of these 
men, whose island home had shut out all sights of earth save 
that of the .altar, of the sea, and of the wild birds disporting 
along the sunny shore, who, in an ancient Irish treatise 1 
on the mass vestments, warns the priest that his " heart 
should be chaste and shining, and his mind like the foam of 
the wave, or the chalk on the gable of an oratory, or like the 
colour of the swan in sunshine, that is, without any particle 
of sin, great or small, resting in his heart." 

At Aran, too, as at Lerins, while men sought after eternal 
happiness, they found that earthly happiness pure and with- 
out alloy was poured into their hearts. In their religious 
brotherhood they met with the hundredfold return which God 
has promised to those who make sacrifices for Him. Oh ! how 
joyous was the life of that blessed company of the saints of 
Aran, where the nobly born Enda and Kevin proved their 
kingly descent by the regal fulness of their virtues as well as 
by the grace and dignity of their manners ; where Columba 
could gratify his scholarly passion for fair manuscripts, and 
Kieran find fresh treasures of ecclesiastical lore to acquire ; 
where Brendan could learn all that man knew of the ocean 
and its mysteries, and Mochuda evermore delight in the 
sacred harmonies that first had won his young heart to the 
religion of Christ: where the highest form of oriental asceticism 
was happily united with the fire of the active energy of the 
west. No wonder that Kieran wept to leave the beloved 
shore ! No wonder that through the farewell wail of the 
exiled Columba, there runs such an- intensity of almost pas- 
sionate sorrow, that a thousand years have not been able to 
efface it ! 

Thus far we have endeavoured to give a faint outline of 
the result of the spiritual labours of St. Enda. It is now time 
to describe the material traces of his presence which came 
under our observation at Aran. And first as to the churches. 

Dr. Malachy Keely, Archbishop of Tuam a man dis- 
tinguished for his zeal in religion, and endowed with every 

i Curry's Lectures on the MS. Materials of Irish Historj, vol. I, p. 376. 
VOL. VII. 8 

H4 ^ Visit to the Aran-More of St. Enda. 

virtue compiled in 1645, or shortly before, a description of 
the churches then existing in Aran, which has been pre- 
served by Colgan. The following is his list of churches in 
Aranmore : 

1. The parish church, commonly called Kill-Enda, lies in 
the County of Galway, and half barony of Aran, and in it St. 
Endeus, or St. Enna, is venerated as patron, on the 2ist of 

2. The church called Teglach-Enda, to which is annexed 
a cemetery, wherein is the sepulchre of St. Endeus, with one 
hundred and twenty-seven other sepulchres, wherein none but 
saints were ever buried. 

3. The church called Tempull Mac Longa, dedicated to St. 
Mac Longius, is situated near the parish church, which is 
called sometimes Kill-Enda, that is, the cella or cell of St. 
Endeus, and sometimes Tempull mor Enda, or the great 
church of Endeus. 

4. The church called Tempull Mic Canonn, near the aforesaid 
parish church. 

5. The church called of St. Mary, not far from the same parish 

6. The church which is named Tempull Benain, or the 
temple of St. Benignus. 

7. The church called Mainistir Connachtach, that is, the 
Connaught Monastery, in place of which, being afterwards 
demolished, was built a chapel to St. Kieran. 

8. The church called Kill-na-manach, that is, the church or 
cell of the monks, which was dedicated to St. Cathradochus, 
or Caradoc, the monk, surnamed Garbh, or the rough. 

9. The church Tempull Assurnuidhe (or, perhaps, Esserni* 
nus), and this church is held in the greatest veneration among 
the islanders. 

10. The church called Tempull an cheathruir aluinn, or the 
church of the four beautiful (saints), who were SS. Fursey, 
Brendan of Birr, Conall, and Berchann, whose bodies are also 
said to be buried in the same tomb, lying in the cemetery of 
the same church. 

1 1. The church called Tempull-mic-Duach, or the church of 
St. Mac Duagh, (who is also called Colmanus, surnamed Mac 
Duagh), which is a handsome church dedicated to that saint 

12. The handsome, and formerly parochial church, called 
Tempull Breccain, or the church of Brecan, in which also his 
feast is celebrated on the 22nd of May. 

13. The church near the aforesaid church of St. Brecan. 
which is commonly called Tempull a Pkuill. 

Several of these edifices have long since perished ; and of 

A Visit to the Atan-More o/ St. Enda. 115 

those yet remaining, some, as not being immediately connected 
with St. Enda, do not come within the scope of this paper. 
For this reason, we make no mention of the ecclesiastical es- 
tablishment of St. Brecan, 1 with its seven churches, and its in- 
scribed stones marking the graves of St Brecan, of the seven 
Roman strangers, and of the monks. But among the buildings 
visited by us which directly concern our present purpose, we were 
fortunate in meeting with samples of almost every class of the 
ecclesiastical structures in use among our Christian forefathers 
in Ireland. We found within short distance of St. Enda's 
tomb, what we may safely style representative specimens of 
the primitive Irish churches, as well of those known as daim- 
hliagS) as of those called duirtcaclis ; the remains of a round 
tower, and several early stone houses, of divers kinds. Before 
we conduct our reader through those variously interesting re- 
mains, we ask his attention to Dr. Petrie's 2 description of the 
architectural peculiarities of the primitive Irish churches, which 
description we here present in a condensed form. 

The ancient Irish churches are almost invariably of small 
size, being usually not more than sixty feet in length. In their 
general form, they closely follow that of the Roman basilica, 
and they are even called by this name in the oldest writers ; 
but they never present the semicircular absis at the east end so 
usual in Roman churches, and the smaller churches are merely 
simple oblong quadrangles. In addition to this quadrangle, 
the larger churches present a second oblong of smaller dimen- 
sions extending to the east, and constituting the chancel or 
sanctuary, in which the altar was placed, and which is connec- 
ted with the nave by a triumphal arch of semicircular form. 
These churches have rarely more than a single entrance, which 
is placed in the centre of the west end ; and they are very im- 
perfectly lighted by small windows splaying inwards, which do 
not appear to have been even glazed. The chancel has usually 
two or three windows, one of which is always in the centre of 
the east wall, and another in the south wall ; the windows in 
the nave are also usually placed in the south wall, and rarely 
exceed two in number. The windows are frequently trian- 
gular headed, but more usually arched semicircularly, while the 
doorway, on the contrary, is almost universally covered by a 
horizontal lintel, consisting of a single stone. In all cases, the 
sides of the doorways and windows incline, like the doorways in 
the oldest cyclopean buildings, to which they bear a striking 
resemblance. The doorways and windows rarely exhibit 

1 Petrie's Inquiry into theorigin and uses of the Round Towers of Ireland, p 139- 
* Ibid. p. 158, sq. 

1 1 6 A Visit to the Aran-More of St. Enda. 

ornaments of any kind. The walls are generally formed of very 
large polygonal stones carefully adjusted to each other, both 
on the inner and outer faces, while their interior is filled up 
with rubble and grouting. In the smaller churches the roof 
was frequently formed of stone, but in the larger ones always 
of wood, covered with shingles, straw, or reeds. These larger 
churches are designated in Irish writings by the names damJi- 
liag or stone church, tempull (templum) eccles, regies (ecclesia), 
and sometimes, baslie (basilica). The smaller churches or ora- 
tories were called duirteaclis, and in the beginning were for 
the most part, as the etymology denotes, houses of oak, although 
the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick makes mention of a stone 
oratory at Armagh coeval with St. Patrick himself. The average 
dimensions of the duirteacJis was about fifteen feet in length, and 
ten in breadth, interior measurement. In the general plan of this 
class of buildings there was an equal uniformity. They had a sin- 
gle doorway, always placed in the centre of the west wall, and 
lighted by a single window placed in the centre of the east wall, 
and a stone altar beneath this window. It can scarcely be 
questioned that this class of buildings was originally erected 
for the private devotion of the founders exclusively : for in the 
immediate vicinity of such oratories we usually find not only 
the cells which served as habitations for the founders, but also 
as tombs in which they were interred. 

We found a beautiful specimen of the class of larger churches 
here described, inTempuL-Mac-Duagh,at Kilmurvey. It hasthe 
nave and chancel which characterise the first-mentioned species 
of the Tempulls. The nave is little more than eighteen feet long 
by fourteen broad, and the chancel nearly sixteen feet long by 
eleven broad. The stones of the walls are of immense size, 
and the entire building has a sombre, severe look. The door- 
way is a remarkable instance of the cyclopean door, and 
resembles the doorway of the Cathedral Church of Kilmac- 
duagh erected for St. Colman Macduagh by his kinsman 
Guaire Aidhne, King of Connaught, about the year 6 10. It 
is five feet six inches in height, two feet in width at the top, 
and two feet three inches at the bottom. The lintel is of 
granite, and measures five feet six inches in length, one foot 
six inches in height, and extends the entire thickness of the 
wall which is two feet six inches. 1 

Our chief interest, however, was naturally centred in the group 
of buildings which exist at Killeany, and consist of the church 
of St. Benignus, the church of St. Enda, the round tower of 
St. Enda, and the stone houses in its immediate vicinity. 
Our readers will have remarked that the first six churches 
l For an engraving of this doorway, see Petrie's Round Tfavtrs, p. 174. 

A Visit to the Aran-More of St. Enda. 1 17 

named in Dr. Keely's list, all stood near each other, and to the 
north of the present village of Killeany. Out of the six, four 
have almost entirely disappeared, namely, Kill-Enda, called 
also Temp tll-mor-Enda, or the great church of Enda ; Tempull- 
mac-Longa, Tentpull-mic-Canonn, and the church of St. Mary. 
They were demolished by the unholy hands of the invaders 
for the sake of the materials which they supplied to build the 
castle of Arkin. So all-devouring time, says O'Flaherty 1 

" Diruit, edificat, mutat quadrate rotundis." 

The church known as Teglach Enda "still exists on the 
shore ; it is in good preservation, and is a fine specimen of 
the single church without chancel It is twenty-four feet in 
length and fourteen in breath. All the walls now standing 
are by no means of an equal antiquity. The eastern gable 
and part of the northern side wall are the only parts belonging 
to St. Enda's time, the remainder of the building being the 
work of a later period. The eastern gable is built of large 
stones like those at Tempull-Mac-Duagh, cemented with ex- 
cellent mortar, one of the stones extending almost the entire 
breadth of the gable. The window in the eastern gable is one 
foot seventeen inches high and eight broad on the outside, and 
on the inside two feet three inches high, and one foot two 
inches at the top, widening, however, at the bottom to one 
foot eight inches. The doorway is placed in the northern 
wall, and is about two feet broad, and five high. It is in the 
modern pointed style, and cannot be more than five hundred 
years old. There is a narrow window in this northern wall of 
about three feet in height, of the same age as the doorway. 
Beneath this window, on the outside of the edifice, we found 
inserted in the wall a beautiful sepulchral slab inscribed, or 
do Scandlain, a prayer for Scanlan, which, however, was clearly 
not in situ, since the lines ran not parallel but at right 
angles with the ground. It was, probably, one of the many 
sepulchral slabs belonging to the cemetery which surrounds 
the church, and was employed by the restorers of the build- 
ing, just as the sepulchral slabs of the Roman Catacombs 
are sometimes found in the walls of the oratories erected at 
a later date over the entrances to the cemeteries, or over the 
spot where some illustrious martyr reposed below. We do 
not know who this Scanlan was, but in the list of saints of 
the family to which St. Enda belonged, we find mention made 
of a Scanlan who was father of Flann Febhla, Archbishop of 
Armagh. Around the church spreads the cemetery, now 

1 lar Coonaught, p. 82. 

1 1 8 A Visit to the A ran- More of St. Enda. 

almost completely covered up by the sands, in which the 
body of St. Enda, and those of one hundred and fifty 
other saints, are interred. Between this cemetery and the 
castle of Arkin, we found some remains of masonry 
buried in the sands, which had left uncovered what seemed 
to be the lintel of the doorway of one of the primitive 
buildings. Probably it was portion of one of the four churches 
mentioned by Dr. Keely, and which had been destroyed. 

A little beyond this point, in the street of the village of 
Killeany, we entered a narrow road, leading up the hill at the 
foot of which this ruined castle still frowns on the sea, and soon 
reached a small well sunk deep in the ground, known to the 
natives as the Friar's well. It was the well that served the 
Fathers of a Franciscan Monastery, which was built, Ware says, 1 
in the year 1485, probably by the O'Briens, on the slope of the 
hill just under the round tower of St. Enda. This establish- 
ment also was demolished by the barbarians for the sake of 
its building materials. It was easy for us, however, to trace its 
site by the lines formed by the foundations of the walls ; and 
the base of a large stone cross with portion of the cross itself 
were found lying in the middle of a field on which the build- 
ing once stood. The walls of loose stone on the road side 
were here festooned by thick and verdant shoots of the hop 
plant, which spread in great luxuriance around. This shrub 
is not found elsewhere on the island. It, and the ruined cross, 
and a few shapeless walls, are all that survive to tell where 
once stood garden and cloister of the Franciscan Monastery. 

A little higher up, on the hill side, we came to St.Enda's well, 
and altar ; the latter surmounted by a rude cross, and betray- 
ing by its clumsiness the work of a modern hand. St. Enda's 
well, and indeed all the other wells we saw in the island, are 
carefully protected by the Araners ; the scarcity of water ren- 
dering the possession of a well almost as precious to them as it 
was to the Eastern shepherds in the days of Rebecca. At a short 
distance to the left of the well, stands the remnant of the 
round tower of St. Enda. Once its height -was worthy of the 
cluster of sacred temples which stood within the circle traver- 
sed by the shadow it projected in the changing hours ; but now 
it is little more than thirteen feet high. An aged man who 
joined ourgroup, told us that in St. Enda's time theMass wasnot 
commenced in any of the churches of the island, until the bell 
from St. Enda's tower announced that St. Enda himself had 
taken his place at the altar in his own Church. There have 
been many theories propounded concerning the uses of the 
round towers, less satisfactory than this of the simple Araner. 

Vol. i. p. 280. 

A Visit to the Aran- Mote of St. Enda. 1 19 

The contrast between the masonry of the round tower 
and that of the pagan forts is very remarkable. The round 
tower was built of chiselled stones, bound together with ce- 
ment ; the pagan fortress of stones not dressed by the hand, 
and put together without mortar. No one who has had an 
opportunity of comparing both, can ever be persuaded that 
they are the work of the same period or of the same builders. 

Ascending the hill where it rises to the south-west behind 
the tower, we reached the exquisitely beautiful ditirteach 
known as Tempull Benain, or temple of St. Benignus, pupil 
of St. Patrick and Archbishop of Armagh, which crowned 
the highest point of the hill above us, and stood out with its 
sharp linesclearlydefined against the sky. This church is errone- 
ously called Temple Mionnain. It lies north and south, a pecu- 
liarity which distinguishes it from the other churches of these 
primitive ages, which, as a rule, lie east and west. A solitary 
arched window in the eastern wall, where the altar stood, gave 
admittance to the light through an opening alittle more than a 
foot high and a foot broad. The doorway is in the north gable, 
and commands an enchanting prospect over Casla Bay. It is six 
feet three inches in height, and one foot three inches broad at 
top, while, likethe cyclopean doors, it widens at bottom to a width 
of two feet. The original height of the side-walls was seven 
feet four inches ; the northern gable rose to the height of 
seventeen feet, but is now only fifteen feet high. In the 
western wall there is one large stone, in size four feet by four, 
and eleven inches in thickness. Tempull Benain measures on 
the outside only fifteen feet one inch in length, and eleven feet 
three inches in breadth. The roof has totally disappeared, 
but was evidently a stone roof like that on the building known 
as St. Kevin's house, at Glendalough. Dr. O'Donovan, who, 
in company with Dr. Petrie, examined all the churches in Aran, 
and to whose accuracy we owe those details of measurement, 
unhesitatingly declares this church of St. Benain to be an 
erection coeval with St Benignus himself. It is well known 
that this saint has always been the .object of great devotion 
in the west, on account of his apostolic labours in that portion 
of Ireland. 

And here, before leaving this part of our subject, we wish 
to quote Dr. Petrie's eloquent remarks on the primitive churches 
of our land, and what are especially applicable to those on 
Aran. "That they have little in them," says the learned 
man, 1 " to interest the mind or attract regard as works of art, 
it would be childish to deny ; yet, in their symmetrical sim- 

1 Round Towers, page 188, 189. 

120 A Visit to the Aran-Mote of St. Enda, 

plicity their dimly-lighted nave, entered by its central west 
doorway, and terminated on the other side by its chancel arch, 
affording to the devout worshipper an unimpeded view of that 
brighter sanctuary, in which were celebrated the divine myster- 
ies which afforded him consolation in this world and hope in 
the next in the total absence of everything which could dis- 
tract his attention there is an expression of fitness to their 
purpose, too often wanting in modern temples of the highest 
pretensions ; as the artless strains sung to the Creator, which, 
we may believe, were daily hymned in these unadorned 
temples, were calculated, from their very simplicity and art- 
lessness, to awaken feelings of deep devotion, which the gor- 
geous artificial music of the modern cathedral but too rarely 
excites, even in minds most predisposed to feel its influences, 
and appreciate its refinement. In short, these ancient temples 
are just such humble, unadorned structures, as we might 
expect them to have been ; but, even if they were found to 
exhibit less of that expression of congruity and fitness, and 
more of that humbleness so characteristic of a religion not 
made for the rich, but for the poor and lowly, that mind is but 
little to be envied which could look with apathy on the 
remains of national structures so venerable for their antiquity, 
and so interesting as being raised in honour of the Creator in 
the simplest ages of Christianity." 

But where, it may be asked, did all these religious men live ? 
How were they sheltered from the Atlantic tempests of which 
the first fury was necessarily spent on the beetling cliffs of 
Aran ? How were they protected from the wintry cold, and 
from the rain ? 

Let not our readers expect, in answer to this question, a 
description of any vast structure sufficient for the adequate 
accommodation of communities, as large as those that were 
housed in the stately monasteries of the middle ages. In 
Aran, as elsewhere in Ireland, the early monastic establish- 
ments were composed 1 of separate cells for the abbot, 
monks, and clergy, while the houses required for the 
accommodation of strangers, the kitchen, etc., were all se- 
parate edifices, surrounded by a cashel or circular wall, and 
forming a kind of monastery or ecclesiastical town, like those 
of the early Christians in the East, and known among the 
Egyptians by the name of Laura. The Laura herein differed 
from the Coenobium, that the latter was but one habitation 
where the monks lived in common, whereas the former con- 
sisted of many celb divided from each other. Such groups 

1 Round Towers, p. 416. 

A Visit to the A ran- More of St. Enda. 1 2 1 

of cells are frequently mentioned in the lives of the Irish 
Saints. 1 

These structures, it is fair to assume, were formed of the ma- 
terials within easy reach of the builders, and consequently, in 
many parts of Ireland, of perishable materials, such as wood and 
clay. For this reason few vestiges of them remain in the 
northern and eastern portions of the island. But in the west 
and south, many such buildings yet survive ; and of these we 
found interesting specimens in Aranmore. There, writes 
O'Flaherty, 2 " they have cloghanns, a kind of building of stones 
laid one upon another, which are brought to a roof, without 
any manner of mortar to cement them, some of which cabins 
will hold forty men on their floor; so ancient that nobody 
knows how long ago any of them was made. Scarcity of 
wood and store of fit stones, without peradventure, found out 
the first invention." These houses are of a circular or oval 
form, having dome roofs, constructed without a knowledge 
of the principle of the arch, and without the use of cement. 
They are formed upon the model left by the pagan Firbolg, 
and Tuatha de Danaan tribes, as is obvious from the resem- 
blance they bear to the pagan circular stone forts. One 
remarkable difference between the houses of the pagan and 
Christian periods, is, that whereas the former are round inter- 
nally and externally, the latter though externally round, are 
occasionally quadrangular in the interior, as if the quadran- 
gular form of the churches had been adopted also for the 
houses of ecclesiastics. Whole villages of these houses exist 
on Aranmore. 8 

The neighbouring island of Ardillaun still exhibits the 
Laura, founded by St. Fechin, in the seventh century, 
which is one of the most interesting and best preserved 
apchoretical establishments in Ireland, or perhaps in Europe.* 
On the crest of the hill, on which Tempull Benain stands, 
about thirteen feet to the north-west of the sacred edifice, 
there was a doghaun, partly under the ground, ten feet in length, 
and five feet four inches in breadth ; the door-way was more 
than two feet broad, and the walls three feet thick. O'Dono- 
van, who describes it, 6 is of opinion that it was probably the 
house of St. Benignus himself. Our interest was most 
excited by a cyclopean house, of angular form, which measured 
from north to south-, eleven feet eight inches, and six feet 
ten inches across. It had two doorways, about two feet 
broad, and three thick ; and in one of the chambers there 

1 Bollandists, Act. S3. Mail, Tom. 3, in life of StMochuda or C arthage of Lismore 
1 Op. cit. page 68. * Proceedings of R. I. Academy, voL x., page 25. 

* Ibid, page 551-555. ' Ordnance Surrey, MSS. 

122 A Visit to the Aran-Moreof St. Enda, 

was a window. The double door is said to be more common 
in the Aran doghauns, than in these found elsewhere. 1 One 
of the chambers in this house measures four feet nine inches 
In length, and four feet in breadth. The entire structure has 
suffered much from exposure. In addition to these separate 
cells, Dr. Petrie discovered on Aran-More, the ruins of a build- 
ing, which would have been large enough to serve the purpose 
of a refectory. It is situated near the churches of St. Colman 
MacDuach, at Kilmurvey, and is an oval structure, without 
cement, of fifty by thirty-seven feet, external measurement, 
with a wall of six feet in thickness. But it is now full time 
to bring our wanderings to a close. 

With the permission of the excellent and hospitable priest 
who has charge of the island, we resolved, on the last morning 
of our stay on Aran, to celebrate mass in the ruined church 
of Teglach-Enda, where in the year 540 or 542, St. Enda was 
interred, and where likewise repose the relics of a countless 
army of white-robed saints. The morning was bright and 
clear, and as we traversed the road skirting the shore from 
Kilronan to Killeany, the dark and rigid outlines of the rocks 
were softened by the touch of the early sunshine. The 
inhabitants of Killeany, exulting in the tidings that the Holy 
Sacrifice was once again to be offered to God near the shrine 
of their sainted Patron, accompanied or followed us to the 
venerable ruins. The men, young and old, were clothed in 
decent black, or in white garments of home-made stuff, with 
sandals of undressed leather, like those of the peasants of 
the Abruzzi, laced round their feet ; the women were attired 
in gay scarlet gowns and blue bodices, and all wore a look of 
remarkable neatness and comfort. The small roofless Church 
was soon filled to overflowing with a decorous and devout 
congregation ; and as the sands had accumulated to a con- 
siderable height on the exterior of the building, those who 
found no place within, were enabled to overtop the high walls 
on either side, and thus assist at the Sacrifice. It was plain 
to us, from what we saw before us, that these churches had 
not been originally intended to receive even ordinary as- 
semblages of the faithful. 

We can never forget the scene of that morning : the pure 
bright sand, covering the graves of unknown and unnumbered 
saints as with a robe of silvertissue, that glistened in the sunshine; 
the delicate green foliage of the wild plants, that rose here and 
there, as if wrought in embroidery upon the white expanse; on 
one side, the swelling hill crowned with the church of 
Benignus, and on the other the blue sea, that almost bathed 
1 Procctdings R. I. Academy, rel, x., p. 555- 

Letters of Balmez. 1 23 

the foundations of the venerable sanctuary itself; the soft 
balmy air that hardly stirred the ferns on the old walls ; and 
tin- fresh, happy, solemn calm that reigned over all 

The temporary altar was set up under the east window, 
on the site where of old the altar stood; and there, in the 
midst of the loving and simple faithful, within the walls 
which had been consecrated some twelve hundred years 
before, over the very spot of earth where so many of the 
saints of Ireland lay awaiting their resurrection to glory, 
the solemn rite of the Christian Sacrifice was performed, and 
once more, as in the days of which St. Columba wrote, the 
angels of God came down to worship the Divine Victim in 
the Churches of Aran. And surely, not unworthy of the angelic 
company were the devotion and faith of the humble worship- 
pers around. Throughout the Mass, a hush and a silence 
came upon them, and the only sounds that fell upon the ear 
was the solemn voice of the priest, or the murmur of the 
waves breaking on the beach outside ; but at the moment of 
the elevation, when they beheld the pure and holy and un- 
spotted Host raised up for them to Heaven, a cry of adoring 
faith and love went forth from their lips, and every head was 
bowed to the dust before the Lord. 



MY ESTEEMED FRIEND I am sincerely pleased your last 
letter exempts me for ever from dealing farther with the Ger- 
man philosophy, or the French, which is an imitation of it. 
I knew your naturally clear judgment, thirsting for truth and 
opposed to abstractions, would not tolerate the symbolic lan- 
guage and the phantastic ideas with which the good Germans 
have adorned philosophy, in the leisure moments abundantly 
afforded them by their climate of fogs and frosts. You won- 
der, and not without reason, that this philosophy could have 
spread in France, where mens' minds lean to the opposite ex- 
treme of sensual and materialist positivism. I believe it was by 
a kind of necessity in the supposition that the Voltairian philo- 
sophy was completely discredited, and those who wished to be 
regarded as philosophers must put on a grave and majestic 

1 24 Letters of Balmez. 

mantle ; and as they had no desire to follow the sound writers 
who preceded them in their native country, they had to cast their 
eye beyond the Rhine, and with great pomp import into the 
midst of a capricious and novelty-loving people the systems 
of Schelling and Hegel, as portentous inventions, capable of 
making the human mind progress indefinitely. For the rest, 
if I must frankly say what I think, I believe the French 
genius will not put up with the German philosophy, but will 
discover there is Pantheism in it at bottom ; and without 
waiting to subtilize or cavil about the universal and only sub- 
stance, will jump at its last consequence, which is Atheism, 
without the ambiguity of mysterious words. In arriving at 
this result, it will observe it is taught nothing new beyond 
what it learned from its own philosophers of the last century. 
It will then despise this philosophy, said to be new, as a pla- 
giarism of another worn out and effete ; and then it will be re- 
quisite to seek new springs of illusion to supply food, even 
for a short time, to the curiosity of the schools and the vanity 
of the professors. This is the history of the human mind, my 
dear friend. Examine its pages, and you shall at once dis- 
cover that the phenomenon we witness is the reproduction of 
what has occurred in all ages. The advantage derived from 
it by religious men is not small, for when they contemplate 
the versatility of the human mind, they more easily com- 
prehend the necessity of a guide in the midst of illusions and 

I have been almost surprised by the argument you use 
against the truth of our religion, founded on the fact that with 
our doctrines we contradict one of the most indelible and at 
the same time most innocent sentiments of the human breast 
self-love. I was amused by the terms in which you develop 
your ideas. The reasons on which you ground them would 
certainly be strong, only they rest on a false supposition, and 
consequently are like edifices void of foundation. " I know 
not," you say in your last, " what misanthropic spirit reigns 
among Catholics, and covers everything with gloomy sadness. 
You don't want anything earthly to be named, nor permit 
people to think on the affairs of this world ; you annihilate, as 
it were, the entire universe, and when all is sacrificed to 
your tetrical system, when you have succeeded in isolating 
man in frightful solitude, want him to turn against himself, to 
deny himself, to annihilate himself also, to despoil himself of 
his most intimate sentiments, to abhor himself, and make a 
cruel effort against the most lively instincts of his nature. But 
what ! Is God the Creator opposed to God the Saviour ? 
Will God, who has communicated to us the love of ourselves, 

L etters of Balmts. 125 

who has imprinted it in indelible characters on our soul, 
will that same God, when working in the order of grace, de- 
light in contradicting himself as the author of nature ? These 
are things I could never understand, and I think you shall 
have trouble in dissipating the mists that prevent me from 
seeing the truth. I know you will utter an eloquent sermon 
about the misery and iniquity of man, the just motives we 
have for professing a holy hatred of ourselves, but I now warn 
you I cannot desire such sanctity ; weak and vain and evil as 
I know I am, I cannot do less than love myself, and when I 
compare my nothingness with the elevation of the cherubim, 
I feel more affection, more love for my insignificant being, 
than for those sublime intelligences which are said to hold a 
high place in the celestial hierarchy." The tone of security 
you employ tells me there is here something more than 
doubts something approaching true conviction; and no won- 
der, in the supposition that you build on a false principle and 
consequently arrive at false conclusions. You have found 
some expressions in certain mystic works and have taken 
them literally, and hence your ascribing to our religion doc- 
trines she does not hold. 

Whotcld you Christianity condemns self-love, understanding 
this condemnation in a rigorous sense ? This is the vacuum 
left by you in your reasoning. You were not careful enough to 
make sure of the principle on which you founded it, and so whilst 
you believed you were building on a solid base, you were only 
raising castles in the air. This is not the first time such a 
thing has happened to religion, for often and often, for the sake 
of combating it, phantasms are conjured up, and people make 
war on them as if they were its offspring, whereas they are 
only the creations of her opponent's brain. I do not accuse 
you of acting perversely ; I am sure you suffer from mis- 
apprehension, which you will correct immediately I point it 
out ; and I flatter myself I can do so notwithstanding your 
assertion that it is difficult to dissipate the mists that impede 
your knowledge of the truth. As to the eloquent sermon on 
the misery and wickedness of man, I think you may make 
your mind easy, as I have given you sufficient proofs I am not 
inclined to declamations of any sort. But let us come to the 

It is false that religion prohibits us from loving ourselves ; 
and so false, that on the contrary one of its fundamental 
precepts is this same self-love. I need nothing but the 
Catechism to convince you of this. I hope you have not for- 
gotten we are told in it to love our neighbours as ourselves, 
in which the precept of love which each one should entertain 

1 26 Letters of Balmez. 

for himself is most expressly recorded. This love is presented 
to us as the model of that we should have for our neighbour; 
and the precept would clearly be contradictory if we were 
prohibited from entertaining this love which is to serve as 
the rule and standard of that which we should have for 

Are you aware the principle so common in the world, that 
charity should begin at home, is expressly recorded in all the 
theological tracts that have been written on charity ? They 
all clearly mark out the order charity should observe, accord- 
ing to its different relations with the objects to which it 
extends, the first and principal being God, the second we 

You now see all your arguments are upset when I roundly 
deny the principle on which they rested, and adduce in favour 
of my negation proofs so clear and simple that you cannot 
reject them ; nevertheless, I will amplify my ideas on the point, 
and make applications of them which shall satisfy you com- 

We will go back again to the Catechism. In it we are told 
that man was created to love and serve God in this life, and 
to enjoy Him in eternal bliss. Now then, all our actions have 
God and eternal bliss for their end. Does he who desires 
to be eternally happy not love himself ? And is he who is 
bound to labour all his life to attain this felicity, not also 
obliged to love himself exceedingly ? Or rather, do these two 
obligations not coalesce in one ? The Christian holds it as a 
dogma of faith that this life is a transit to another. If he 
despises the terrestrial, if he makes no account of the vanities 
of the world, it is because all is passing, because all is nothing 
compared with the happiness he is promised after death, if 
he endeavour to merit it by his good works his property, his 
health, his life, his honour he should be willing to lose all 
sooner than stain his conscience with one sole act which 
might close the gates of heaven against him. But in that ab- 
negation, in that abandonment of self, well-ordered self-love 
rides safely at anchor, for he despises the insignificant to attain 
the important,he abandons the terrestrial to obtain the celestial, 
he leaves the temporal to secure the eternal When we ex- 
amine the Christian doctrines, we find they wonderfully har- 
monise the love of God, the love of ourselves, and the love 
of our neighbour, and consequently it is totally false that the 
natural inclination which leads us to love ourselves is des- 
troyed by religion ; it is rectified, regulated, purified from the 
stains which deform it, preserved from ruin, and directed to 
the supreme end, infinitely holy and good, which ,is God. 

Letters of Balnus, 1 27 

How are we to understand, then, that destruction of self- 
love of which mystic writers speak ? We must understand 
by it the extirpation of vice, the restraint of the passions, 
victory over pride, in a word, a solicitude to prevent the love 
of the sensual from injuring the moral man. To make the 
superior prevail over the inferior parts of man, is not to des- 
troy his love for himself, but to cause it to act in conformity 
with the eternal law and advantageously to him. If a man 
abstains from a banquet for the sake of avoiding injury it 
might cause him, can it be said he does not love but hate 
himself? He will be truly said to deprive himself of a gratifi- 
cation, but that privation springs from the regard he has for 
his health, and consequently flows from his self-love, which 
induces him to sacrifice the less to the greater, and will not 
allow him to injure his health for a momentary appetite. This 
simple example, which we daily witness without any wonder, 
fairly explains the relations of the Christian doctrines with 
self-love, as we have only to extend the principle to higher 
objects, and consider the rule which guides a particular action 
is the same that regulates the whole conduct of the Christian. 

" But how then are we told to abhor ourselves ?" This ab- 
horrence does not, and cannot, refer to anything but what is evil 
in us, whether it be wicked acts or certain inclinations which 
tend to draw us from the path of the law of God ; but we 
should not, and cannot by any means abhor our nature as 
far as it is good and the work of God. On the contrary, we 
should love it, and the proof is in the fact that we should 
abhor what is evil in it, and to abhor the evil of anything is 
to desire its good and love it 

You are aware, my esteemed friend, that some of the rules 
laid down for the conduct of Christians are precepts, others 
counsels. The observance of the former is necessary for 
eternal life. The observance of the latter contributes to our 
perfection in this life, and merits a higher degree of glory 
in the next ; but it does not so oblige that its omission would 
be culpable. The same holds in our conduct with regard to 
self-love. By the precepts we are obliged to abstain from 
all infraction of the law of God, no matter how our dis- 
ordered appetites may impel us, as also to sacrifice the 
pleasure that might result from the satisfaction of our pas- 
sions when there is question of doing something expressly 
commanded by the law of God ; in this way we are all 
obliged to suffocate our self-love, and if we do not, we 
hold it as a dogma of faith we can never gain eternal 
life, but shall receive a punishment without end. But 
there are certain abstinences, certain mortifications of 

128 Letters of Bahncz. 

the senses, which belong not to the principles, but only 
to the counsels. We see these mortifications practised 
more or less rigorously by persons who aim at perfec- 
tion, and in some of the saints we find austerity carried to a 
degree that astonishes and bewilders us. But in these very 
saints self-love, properly understood, was not smothered. 
They gave themselves up unreservedly to penance, either to 
purify themselves from their faults, or to render themselves 
more agreeable to the Lord, by offering him in holocaust 
their senses, their body, all they had and all they were ; but 
in the meantime did these extraordinary men forget them- 
selves? No doubt they forgot the sensual man, or rather 
they declared war to the death on him, and attacked and 
tormented him whenever possible ; but they did so, because 
they regarded him as an enemy of the spiritual man a 
terrible, fearfully dangerous enemy, whom they could not 
trust for a minute, and from whose neck the chain could not 
be removed without imminent risk of rebellion against his 
ruler, the spirit, whom he might reduce to slavery. But those 
illustrious penitents never forgot the salvation of their soul, 
and the eternal felicity of the other life, but on the contrary 
incessantly sighed after it, anxiously longed for God to free 
them from this body which oppressed them, and their 
strongest desire was to be dissolved and be with Christ. The 
vision of God,- the union with God in bonds of ineffable love, 
was the object of their hopes, their desires, and their con- 
tinued sighs ; and so they cannot with propriety be said to 
abhor themselves, but rather to love themselves with a better 
love than the rest of men. 

I hope the preceding considerations may convince you you 
built on a false supposition, and if you want to continue your 
attacks on religion as opposed to self-love, must look out for 
other principles. In fact to do so, now that your error on the 
point is removed, and it was proved to evidence that religion 
not only does not prohibit self-love, but commands us to 
entertain it, there is only one course open to you, and that is 
to show that she has a wrong idea of this love, and whilst 
proposing to direct and purify, suffocates and smothers it. 
But do you know on what ground the question will then be 
placed? Do you know that, considered under this aspect, it 
has nothing to do with what we have hitherto discussed, but 
becomes an inquiry whether the precepts and counsels of the 
Gospel are just, holy, and prudent ? I do not believe you will 
dare dispute a truth generally admitted even by the most 
violent enemies of Christianity. They deny its dogmas, they 
mock its creed, they laugh at its hierarchy, they despise its 

Letters of Balnuz. 129 

authority, they consider it as a mere philosophical system, and 
despoil it of all supernatural and divine character ; but when 
they come to our moral code, they all agree it is admirable, 
sublime, superior to that of all ancient and modern legisla- 
tors ; is in intimate harmony with the light of reason, with the 
most noble and beautiful sentiments that find shelter in our 
breast, and is the only one worthy of ruling humanUy and 
directing the destinies of the world. So that when given up 
to their vain desires, they idealise new Christianities and 
totally new religions, they all adopt the morality of the 
Gospel for their model ; and even when perhaps they profess 
in the depth of their heart doctrines morally degrading and 
highly obnoxious, they do not dare to express them publicly, 
but eulogise the sweetness, the sanctity and sublimity of the 
maxims uttered by the lips of Jesus Christ. 

If then you direct your attacks against this point, you shall 
meet with serious opposition ; and hence I will venture to 
give you an advice, which most of those who attack religion 
would do well to take, and it is, that when you come to judge 
our doctrines or maxims you do not allow yourself to be 
carried away by that giddiness which decides on things of the 
utmost importance, without taking the trouble to examine 
them with proper attention ; but reflect that what so many 
men eminent in talent and wisdom have believed and taught 
and practised, must undoubtedly be well founded, and not to 
be overturned by a few observations, which though ingenious, 
are extremly futile. Believe me when you find arguments of 
this sort which appear to easily upset any religious truth, you 
should suspend your judgment, and not be precipitate, but 
meditate or read and consult ; and you shall soon discover 
the invincible Achilles has no more strength than what is 
supplied by a false supposition or vicious reasoning. I have 
no doubt you are convinced that if in time you resolve on 
returning to the bosom of religion, you may love yourself. In 
the meantime be assured of the affection of your attached 

J. B. 


1 HE 2 ist of June, 1870, will for ever be memorable in the 
Christian annals of China; and the blood of many martyrs, 
which. on that day flowed in the city of Tien-Tsin, gives 
promise that a rich harvest of faith will soon smile upon that 
dreary wilderness. Such days of martyrdom, are days of 
glory for the Church of Christ, and are sure to usher, in the 
triumph of the holy cause, which the heroes of religion thus 
seal with their blood. 

It is a privilege for Ireland, that one of her chosen daughters 
was reckoned in that glorious array of the 2ist of June last 
one of those ten Sisters of Charity who, fired with the zeal 
and fervour of their great founder, St. Vincent de Paul, wel- 
comed on that day the Pagan executioners of Tien-Tsin, and, 
offering their lives as a holocaust to God, attained their 
heavenly crown. 

Sister Louise was born in the parish of St. Mary's, Clonmel, 
County Tipperary, in the year 1835. She shewed from in- 
fancy a great disposition for works of charity, and felt 
strongly inclined to devote herself to religion and the service 
of the poor. After her early studies, she went to the convent 
of St. Mary's, Kingstown, to complete her education, and 
her memory is still cherished there for her piety and virtues. 
In the year 1854 she became a postulante of the Sisters of 
Charity at their hospital in Amiens, and received the habit 
of the Congregation after the usual novitiate in the parent 
house, Rue du Bac, Paris. The first field for her charitable 
labours was Koulogne-sur-mer. She was sent in 1857 to 
Drogheda, where she spent five years of loving labour amidst 
the poor of that town. Her only pain was that she had not 
adequate resources to meet the pressing demands of the 
numbers who. appeared fit objects of her devoted charity. 
From Drogheda Sister Louise was sent to the house of the 
sisters at Hereford. The difficulties and privations of that 
mission were a suitable preparation for her future sacrifices. 

An hospital was to be established at Shanghai, China. The 
Jesuit Fathers asked for the daughters of charity to take its 
charge and direction, and Sister Louise, having frequently made 
known to her superiors her readiness and desire to labour in 
any distant mission, was selected to join other sisters from 
Italy, Algiers, and France, to devote themselves to this 
good work 

An Irish Martyr at Tien-Tsin. 131 

Sister Louise was very useful in the hospital at Shanghai. 
Being the only sister able to speak English, her time and 
exertions were in constant demand in labouring for the 
English, Irish, and American sailors and soldiers. These 
recipients of her kind and untiring attention will long remem- 
ber her, who so tenderly nursed them when suffering in a 
far distant land. 

The last work in which Sister Louise was engaged was 
the Institute of the Immaculate Conception at Pekin an 
orphanage for the support and education of poor children 
rescued from death, when abandoned by Chinese mothers, in 
consequence of the inhuman and savage objection the Chinese 
have to rear female children. 

It was from this house Sister Louise proceeded in company 
with her superioress as far as Tien-Tsin, when an adorable 
Providence arranged that she should prepare to sacrifice 
her life in her loving Master's service. She was on her way 
to Europe, when, making a short stay at Tien-Tsin, she went 
to visit the Catholic Church ; and praying before the statue 
of Our Lady of Victories, she felt an irresistible impulse to 
request of her superioress to take another companion to 
Europe, and to leave her to her beloved work among the 

The superioress could not fail to see in her earnestness and 
entreaty the work of grace, and yielding to her request took 
another sister with her to Europe, and left the Irish sister to 
receive her early crown. 

With renewed zeal Sister Louise devoted herself at Tien- 
Tsin to the orphans and the hospital, from the end of March 
to the 2ist of June, when, with her heroic companions, she 
lost her life in the cause of charity. 

During the first months of the present year, the city of 
Tien-Tsin was a favorite resort of the leading enemies of 
the Christian name, and for some time previous to the day 
of massacre, rumours were industriously set afloat that the 
Sisters of Charity and the Priests took special delight in 
tearing out the eyes and hearts of Chinese children, which 
were afterwards used for medicinal purposes. The hatred 
of the Chinese mob was gradually fanned into a flame, and 
at length on the 2ist of June, it burst forth in all its fury 
against the Catholic institutions of Tien-Tsin. 

The French Consul seeing the gathering storm, went on 
the morning of that day to solicit the aid of the Govern- 
ment authorities in guarding from violence the foreign settlers 
in the city. On his return from the Governor, he himst If 
and his companion were brutally assailed and cut to pieces 

132 An Irish Martyr at Tien-Tsin. 

by the mob. " But, (thus continues the correspondent of the 
'limes, writing from Shanghai, on the 8th of July,) dreadful 
as is this death, the details are more horrible of the massacre 
of the Priests and Sisters of Charity which followed the 
attack on the mission premises. It is not clear whether this 
occured before or after the murder of the French Consul ; 
but the two occurrences were very nearly simultaneous. The 
establishments of the Lazarists, the Jesuits, and the Sisters 
of Charity were burnt, and their inmates murdered with cir- 
cumstances of brutal atrocity. Women, whose only fault 
was to have devoted their lives to do good, who had earned 
the respect of the foreign community at Shanghai (where 
they were known and appreciated), as well as at Tien-Tsin, 
were stripped, their bodies ripped open, their breasts cut 
off, their eyes scooped out, and their remains cast into their 
own burning house. All the native inmates of the missions 
were also, it is said, burnt to death ; the children only were 
saved, several hundred in number, and even of these between 
thirty or forty were unknowingly suffocated in a large cave 
where they had taken refuge at the first approach of the 
mob. The body of a priest, since recovered, is so mutilated, 
as to be hardly recognisable, and two others are missing, 
supposed to have been also burnt." 

One of the devoted sisters who had left Tien-Tsin only 
a few days before this dreadful massacre, writing from 
Ning-Po, on the 3rd July, to the superioress of the Order 
in Paris, details some circumstances connected with this 
dreadful tragedy. "The courier of to-day, bears to you 
intelligence which will overwhelm your maternal heart with 
affliction : For some days we were in great anxiety about our 
dear mission at Tien-Tsin, but we were in hopes that the 
rumours were exaggerated, and that the storm would soon 
cease. The events of the 2ist of June, proved how welt 
founded were the fears that were entertained. On that day 
the storm of persecution burst forth in all its fury against 
the Catholics of Tien-Tsin. The mission-house, the Catholic 
Church, the Consulate, the house of our sisters, were all 
reduced to ashes. Our ten sisters were massacred, and then 
their bodies were thrown into the flames of their own burning 
houses. M. Chevrier, and M. Ou (a Chinese priest), were 
put to death, and their bodies cast into the river. The French 
Consul, and many other Catholics, were also massacred. It 
was a storm of fiendish fury. We are told that they even 
tore out the eyes and hearts of our sisters, and this would 
be explained by the calumny that was circulated against 
us for some time back, that we used to tear out the hearts 

An Irish Martyr at Tim-Tsin. 133 

and eyes of the poor little Chinese children. All this pro- 
ceeded from the malice of Satan, who was filled with envy at 
all the good that this mission was achieving, and hence 
gathered together all the wickedness of hell, in order to 
impede it. The persecution only fell on the Catholics ; the 
Protestants, though very many of them are in that city, did 
not suffer from it in any way, and God did not permit their 
cause to be mixed up with ours. Here, then, is a good num- 
ber of martyrs. Our Holy Father will, I hope, return thanks 
to God that some of his children have attained this crown. 
How I would rejoice to have been one of their number : but 
I was not worthy of so great a favor, and I was called away 
from that city, just at the moment when the persecution 
burst forth. All the persons connected with our two houses 
were also massacred, and with them a good many other 
Christians ; and the children were carried off to a pagan 
hospice. We have been told that our dear sisters expected 
this dreadful outburst of persecution, and though they hoped 
it might be averted, they spent the whole morning of that 
day in preparing for it. The Missionaries also spent a part 
of the morning hearing the confessions of the Christians. 
In fine, our hearts are broken at this news ; for though we 
feel sure that our dear sisters and the worthy Missionaries 
are in heaven, and here everybody calls them martyrs, still 
this does not prevent those that survive them being over- 
whelmed with affliction at the dreadful massacre." 

She then adds the following extract from a letter received 
from Tien-Tsin : "It is reported here, and all the pagans 
vouch for it as certain, that at the time of the massacre of the 
sisters, a Bonzesse (i.e., the wife of one of the pagan priests), 
went to the balcony of her house to look on at the bloody 
scene, and as each one was massacred, she saw a beautiful 
and brilliant cloud mounting to heaven. Struck with this 
prodigy, she cried out that these people must have been be- 
loved by God, and she at once proceeded to the court-yard of 
the sisters' house. The murderers seeing her, asked her what 
she sought there. She replied that they were injuring holy 
people, and that she came to adore the God whom the mur- 
dered sisters adored, whereupon they at once struck off her 

The Times correspondent at Shanghai, writing on the nth 
of August, gives some details regarding the interment of the 
remains of these victims of Chinese ferocity. 

" The victims of the Tien-Tsin massacre were buried on the 
3rd inst., in the presence of a large body of native and foreign 
officials, and of nearly all the foreign residents of Tien-Tsin. 

134 ^ Irish Martyr at Tien- Tsin. 

I mentioned in a previous letter that the site of the burnt con- 
sulate and mission premises had been selected for their ceme- 
tery. The coffins had all been lowered into the grave on the 
previous day, so that it remained only to perform the funeral 
ceremony, which was impressively conducted by Mgr. Thierry, 
the pro-vicar of Chilli, aided by two other missionary priests. 
After it had ended, and holy water had been sprinkled on 
the grave, orations were delivered by several of the officials 
present in relation to the event. Count de Rochechouart, his 
Imperial Majesty's Charge d'Affairs, spoke first. History, he 
said, might be searched in vain for events so detestable as the 
massacre of the 2ist of June. Seventeen French subjects, of 
whom twelve were women, had been massacred, cut to pieces 
by a fanatical mob, which, not content with killing and de- 
stroying, had wished to increase the enormity of its crime en 
sacliarnant sur les cadavres. He could not trust himself to 
relate the horrors which had been committed ; but neither 
could he pass in silence the sublime conduct of the Sister Su- 
perioress, who, when the bloodthirsty mob had surrounded the 
building and was breaking in the doors, advanced alone towards 
them, and offered herself and her sisters as victims to their 
rage, begging that they would spare the Chinese who sur- 
rounded and had learnt to rely on them. 

"Mgr. Thierry spoke briefly but well, in a tone becoming his 
profession. The death of the victims had been to them a gain ; 
come to China with a hope of martyrdom, they had obtained 
the accomplishment of their most sincere wish, and had given 
their lives for Christ." 

That noth'ing should be wanting to complete the crown of 
the martyred Sister Louise, the enemies of her faith at home 
united with the barbarian murderers of Tien-Tsin in seeking to 
heap obloquy on the memory of such heroic victims of cha- 
rity. The Protestant missionaries and residents of China 
raised their voice against the barbarity of the pagan murderers. 
Nearer home, Protestant merchantsheld a meeting at the London 
Tavern, to protest "against the horrible outrages perpetrated 
on Christian ladies engaged in works of mercy." But the 
Orangemen of Ireland are Protestants of quite another stamp, 
and the Mail, in a leading article, writing as their official 
spokesman, could find no other name for these heroines of cha- 
rity but baby-farming Nuns ; and adds that at the hands of the 
Chinese populace they received the punishment which they 
deserved. I need not remind the reader that baby-fanning is 
a term reserved for those wicked wretches in England, who 
obtain babies from unnatural parents, undertaking to rear them 
for a certain price, and then maliciously and murderously drug 

An frisk Martyr at Tien-Tsin. 135 

them to death. And thus that Protestant organ, almost sur- 
iig the virulence of the Tien-Tsin barbarians, would fain 
compare such a system of assassination with the mission of heroines of charity who gratuiously, and at the risk of 
their own lives, would seek to rescue the Chinese infants from 
the certain death to which their heartless pagan parents so 
often expose them. 

In contrast with such ignoble bigotry, we will present two 
Protestant narratives the one English, the other American 
regarding this dreadful tragedy. The Rev. Charles Henry 
Butcher, M.A., British Chaplain at Shanghai, writes from that 
place on July 6 : " It is no exaggeration to say that since 
Cawnpore no such deed of blood has been committed. The 
murder of the Sisters of Charity, is an outrage not on a nation 
or a church, but on humanity itself. As chaplain to the 
Britisli community of Shanghai, I have had opportunities of 
seeing the noble and devoted work of some of these women, 
when taking care of the sick at the hospital at this port, before 
they removed to the north. One lady, who has been mur- 
dered with every circumstance of horror, was an Irish lady, 
whose memory is cherished with affection and gratitude by 
many of the community here. While the recollection of these 
things is fresh it is not easy to write with calmness, but I must 
venture to ask your permission to place prominently before 
your readers three points which are, in my judgment, the most 
practical and important lessons of the Tien-Tsin massacre. 

" i. This event disproves one popular fallacy viz., that 
the Chinese are free from superstition. We hear repeatedly a 
broad contrast drawn between the calm and comprehensive 
spirit of the Confucian philosophy and the narrow-minded 
bigotry of sectarian Christians. Now, though there is much 
that is admirable in the writings of Confucius, it is a mistake 
to believe that his system has been able to preserve the mass 
of the people from the most abject and ignorant supersti- 
tion. The credence obtained for the stories about eye-goug- 
ing, &c., lately circulated against the Roman Catholic mis- 
sionaries, goes far to prove this. The people, whom many 
delight to represent as a school of tolerant and placid philo- 
sophers, ate actually proved to be capable of cruelties which 
bear comparison with those of North American Indians. As 
an illustration of the fallacy of the popular view, I may say 
that at the very time when I received the news of the savage 
murder of nine Sisters of Charity, a priest, and his converts, I 
was reading an article in the Saturday Review, stating that 
the Pekin Government is 'entirely exempt from religious 

136 An Irish Martyr at Tien-Tsin. 

" 2. This event blows to pieces any fragments of trust irt 
the late Mr. Burlinghame and his theories, that may yet 
remain in men's minds. The speeches about the Chinese 
mandarins desiring to see the ' shining cross' on every hill, are 
now felt to have been fabrications made to serve a particular 
purpose ; at least, even Chinese perversity could scarcely per- 
suade us that men show their regard for a faith by burning 
its churches and stabbing and disembowelling its priests. The 
truth is, the litterati hate missionaries ; the common people 
hear them gladly. 

" 3. The tragedy in the north shows us that the Chinese 
Government is absolutely untrustworthy. His Excellency 
Chung How knew, three or four days before the massacre, that 
an outrage was intended. He took no steps whatever to 
prevent it ; on the contrary, he connived at it. The actual 
perpetrators of these crimes were the bravos of Tien-Tsin, but 
it must never be lost sight of, that the sisters were murdered 
in the presence of disciplined troops, who protected the native 
shops from pillage, but did not stir a hand to defend the 
foreigners i.e., they were present to keep the murderers to 
their fiendish work, and to prevent their digressing into any 
other more innocent employment. This event has no parallel 
in the Gordon riots, or any similar disturbances when a 
Government has been temporarily unable to control a mob. 
That the responsibility rests with the officials none can doubt 
who read the account, which says distinctly : 

" ' The whole thing was done by the bravos of Tien-Tsin, 
the fighting men and brothel bullies, the streets being full 
of troops, who were apparently there simply to keep the 
rowdies from breaking into the shops. The attack was made 
by signal, the same as used at fires, and when the murders 
were completed, the retreat was tom-tommed in the same 
way as at fires, and the crowd dispersed.' 

" It is very important to keep this in mind, as before the 
assassins could have well washed the blood off their hands, 
an Englishman in the employ of the Chinese was engaged 
in writing to a Chinese newspaper an account, endeavouring 
to throw the blame on the French Consul and the Sisters. 
No money and cunning will be spared to hide the truth, and, 
therefore, it is the duty of every one who is assured from re- 
liable sources of the facts to endeavour to give them the widest 
publicity in Europe and in America. 

"And now about the future. It is the wish of all fair-minded 
men interested in the China question that foreigners may not 
attempt to atone for a culpable remissness by any unreason- 
able violence. To take blood money, and to procure the 

An Irish Martyr at Tien-Tsin. 137 

judicial slaughter of a number of substitutes, while the real 
criminals escape, will do more harm than good. The troops 
whom we had seen so ready to protect the people while they 
were doing evil, should be compelled to protect the foreign 
missionary while he is doing good. This is all that the Roman 
Catholic Fathers desire. To quote the words of the Shanghai 
Priests' reply to the Protestant address of sympathy : 

14 4 No doubt the blood of so many innocent victims so bar- 
bously shed must rise up to the Altar of the Lamb, and cry 
aloud on our behalf till it obtains for us the sole vengeance 
we wish for viz., the better spread of the true light on 
these people, now living under the shadow of death, the 
greater freedom for the better exercise of works of charity 
towards the sufferer, and principally towards the little ones, 
who were for our Divine Saviour objects of such singular 

An American correspond eht from Tien-Tsin, thus writes 
to the New-York Nation, on July 23, 1870: 

44 Notices of the Tien-Tsin massacre have reached you 
already, doubtless ; but you may not be in possession of the 
facts relating to it. Little more will be attempted now than 
to bring before your readers the main features of an event 
so horrible in its details that no one can think of it but with 
a shudder. 

4 ' For many months rumours were in circulation that the 
Catholics were guilty of taking out the eyes and hearts of 
children for medicinal purposes, which, though false, created 
much exitement. These rumours increased in virulence till 
they burst forth in an unfuriated mob, on the 2ist of June, 
causing great destruction of life and property. Twenty-two 
foreigners, occupying various positions in life, were the vic- 
tims of one of the most brutal massacres which history 

44 Reliable evidence of a most convincing character had been 
obtained, establishing the following points, viz. : 

"The plot has been maturing for weeks, if not months, and 
the time for its consummation has been arranged and known 
for days previous. 

44 The plot was known, approved, and aided in execution by 
two, at least, of the leading city officials and some of the 
military officers, one of whom led foreign drilled troops to the 
attack, and encouraged the people in the work of destruction 
and death. More than a month has elapsed since the enactment 
of this fearful deed of blood and suffering, and yet no proof can 
be adduced to show that our representative in Pekin has 
attained even an approximately adequate conception of the 

138 An Irish Martyr at Tien-Tsin. 

magnitudeof the crisis whichhas overtaken us. The only positive 
information we have is, that the members of the U. S. Lega- 
tion are rusticating ' at the hills/ enjoying in undisturbed 
tranquillity the countless charms of their summer retreat. Re- 
port speaks of them as ' calm and grand' in deportment, and 
so philosophically superior to what is occurring about them, 
that they receive with a smiling suspicion all our notices of 
this sad catastrophe, as the fanciful narrations of an excited 
brain. And what wonder, when we remember that their 
official adviser, our consular agent at Tien-Tsin, is an alien 
whose interests are wholly with the Chinese Government, in 
whose employ he receives about 5000 dollars per annum ? 

" That the above is not overdrawn may be gathered from 
the following facts : 

"The foreign ministers were informed that, for a considerable 
period previous to the fatal day, the anti-foreign feeling in 
Tien-Tsin and the surrounding country had been deepening 
and intensifying ; that it had been increasingly manifested 
in the conduct of the official classes ; and that, in manifold 
and specious ways, it was gradually permeating all classes 
of society. The same facts were often referred to by those 
resident in Pekin. The expulsion of the hated foreigner was 
known to be matter of common desire and expectation. 

"It was known to them that this general feeling through- 
out China had found expression, during the last three or 
four years, in a series of attacks on foreigners, all emanating 
from the same sources, aiming at the same end, and, in degree, 
following an ascending scale of gradation ; and that innocent 
blood of a preceding year remained still unavenged. They 
were at last informed that the climax had been reached in 
fearful deeds of violence and blood. The terrible events of 
that never-to-be-forgotton day were minutely described to 
them, and of the dire results they were fully apprised. They 
were told that a score of foreigners the most of whom were 
unoffending, delicate women were horribly murdered in 
broad daylight that they were subjected to the most cruel 
barbarities that fiendish ingenuity could invent ; that, when 
death had at last ended their sufferings, their remains were 
treated with every possible indignity haggled, cut in pieces, 
and cast some into the water and some into the flames. 
They were told how the corpses were rescued from the 
river at the foreign settlement, hacked, mutilated, almost beyond 
recognition such spectacles of ghastly horror that the stout- 
est hearts, in gazing, were terror-stricken and bowed down in 
grief. They were told that when the coffins sent by the man- 
darins, and said to contain the bodies of the Sisters 'of Charity, 

An Irish Martyr at Tien-Tsin. 139 

were opened, there were found only a few ashes and a 
melancholy collection of charred bones. They know that 
several score of natives, Christians and others in foreign 
employ, were robbed, beaten, tortured, and not a few mur- 
dered, for no other crime but that of connection with us. They 
have been informed that many buildings, in more than a 
dozen localities -some of them imposing structures erected 
at great cost, others the houses of Christians and friendly 
natives were looted, torn in pieces, or consigned to the flames. 
They have had ample information of the fact that this 
event was not the result of a sudden outburst of popular 
feeling, but has been a matter of gradual and extensive 

"Some may think this an overdrawn picture; but I assert 
it to be given on credible evidence. It is substantiated by 
documents in our possession ; it is borne out by competent 
judges in the capital ; it is 'proved by the demand already 
made on Tien-Tsin residents to prepare estimates of losses 
sustained, in order to immediate payment by the Chinese 
Government. And all this while the villains who tore down 
our chapels, searched in them for the missionaries with avowed 
intent to kill them ; beat and killed the native Christians ; cut 
in pieces foreign officials, and cut off the breasts, ran spears 
through, and ripped open the bodies of innocent and defence- 
less women arc still running at large, vaunting their blood- 
stained booty, boasting of their valour in perpetrating these 
diabolical deeds of crime and shame, and stirring up the 
people to commit further outrages." 

We feel confident that Sister Louise will receive from Holy 
Church at no distant day the bright aureola of the martyrs of 
Christ ; but whilst amidst the white-robed army she folio weth 
the Lamb, and waits this earthly tribute to her devoted 
heroism, we pray her to intercede for those who calumniate 
her saving religion here at home, that their eyes may be 
opened to see the wickedness of the course which they pursue, 
their hearts be led captive to truth, and they themselves be 
brought to share the manifold blessings of God's mercy, as 
members of the one true fold. 





[N.B. The text of the "Monasticon" is taken verbatim from Archdall : the note* 
marked with numbers are added by the Editors.] 


Grey Friary ; Dermot M'Carthy Reagh founded this- 
monastery A.D. 1214, For Conventual Franciscans, and dedi- 

18 The MS. History of the Franciscan Order in Ireland, written by F. Francis 
Ward, O.S.F., in 1632, gives the following details connected with this convent: 
" The convent of Cork, called also the monastery of the Blessed Virgin Mary of 
Shandon, was founded in the episcopal city of Cork, in the year 1214, and com- 
pleted in the year 1229. Father Wadding says that this monastery, on account of 
its strict observance of regular life, and the piety of the brethren, was formerly 
called ' the mirror of all Ireland.' It was erected into a custodia in the year 1260, 
in the general chapter of Narbonne. It passed to the Friars of the Reformed 
Observance previous to the year 1 500, and remained in their possession till the 
year 1540, when heresy and persecution began to rage, and it was the first convent 
in all Ireland that was suppressed by the heretics. It remained desolate till the 
year 1600, when in the provincialate of F. Maurice Ultan, a residence was erected 
in that city, and F. William Farris was appointed guardian, and from that time 
to the present day (1632), the friars labour with great fruit for the salvation of the 
faithful and the conversion of the heretics. The first founder of the convent was 
Dermod MacCarthy More, called Dondraynean, King of the people of Munster ; 
and some provincial kings of his kindred were buried there in the habit of the 
Friars Minors. The most powerful family of the MacCarthys also erected a 
mausoleum for themselves in that Convent, till, in the course of time, they were 
divided into several noble families, each of which built a special convent for its 
own immediate members. Besides the tombs of the MacCarthys, and of fourteen 
Knights of Mora, the families of the Barrys and the chief nobles and citizens of 
that county are buried there. Philip Prendergast, the Treasurer of King John of 
England, who was one of the greatest benefactors to this house, is also buried there. 
A curious charter of his to the convent will be found in Wadding. A chapter 
was held in this convent in 1224, 1288, 1521, and 1533. One of the most remark- 
able religious of this convent was F. .Francis Matthew, who, after being Guardian 
in Cork, his native city, was appointed Provincial in 1626, and was suosequently 
Guardian of St. Anthony's, in Louvain. In his writings he assumed the nime of 
Ursulanus, and it was in reply to him that Paul Harris wrote his curious Arktomatur, 
i.e., a whip for the Bear. F. Matthew was put to death for the faith in Cork, in the 
year 1644. 

Grey Friary Inquisition 5th April, XXX. Elizabeth, finds that Andrew Skiddeis, 
late of the City of Cork, gent., was seized in fee of the precincts of this priory, 
with three gardens near Cork ; the moiety of a water-mill, the third part of 
another mill ; a pool of water called the Friar's Pool ; the right of fishing for 
salmon in Gaule s weir from sun-set on Saturday to sunrise on Sunday ; also one 
salmon on every Friday out of the said fishery, provided two fish were taken ; 
forty acres of land in the townland of Templenamkahir, with the appurtenances, 
all the said premises being of the annual value of 40*. ; also a park, containing 
by estimation, one acre, annnal value $s. ; also certain gardens belonging to the 
friary, annual value 6s. ; all the said premises being in the county of Cork, and 
held from the Queen in capite by knight's services. 

"Ordnance Surrey MS., R.I. A." vol. ir., p. 5*- 

Ancient Monasteries of Ireland. 141 

ated it to the Virgin Mary ; the founder dying in the year 
1219, his son Fineen continued the work, and the Lord 
Philip Prendergast, of Newcastle, was a great benefactor, 
having rebuilt this house in the year 1240; although other 
writers affirm that the Bourks were the parents of the 
second foundation.* 1 

A.D. 1244. On the I5th of October King Henry III. 
granted the sum of 20 to be paid on the feast of All Saints 
yearly, to buy one hundred tunics for the use of the Fran- 
ciscan Friars of Dublin, Waterford, Cork, Athlone, and Kil- 

1291. A general chapter of the order was held here. 00 

1293. King Edward I. granted to the Friars Minor of 
Dublin, Waterford, Cork, Limerick, and Drogheda, an 
annual pension of thirty-five marks. 1 Several liberates for 
the payment of this pension remain on record. 

1317. The friars of this monastery complained, that they 
were indicted and impleaded in the King's courts, contrary, 
as they alleged, both to the common and ecclesiastical laws.* 

1371. Philip Prendergast, a descendant of the founder, 
made a grant to this friary . h 

1 500. Before this year the Franciscans of the strict obser- 
vance had reformed this convent. 1 

Many illustrious persons were interred here, particularly 
Cormac M'Donald, King of Desmond, in 1247 ; M'P'inin, 
who was killed in the Lord Stanton's court in 1249 ; Dermot, 
surnamed the Fat, in 1275; Donald Rufus, in 1300 ; and 
Thady, the son of Donald, King of Desmond, in 141 3- k 

The Franciscans of this monastery were called the friars of 
Scandun. 1 

26th May, 8th Queen Elizabeth, this friary, with its appur- 
tenances and forty acres of land in the town of Templene- 
marhyr, also a park containing one acre and an half and a 
stank, with seven gardens, parcel of the possessions of the 
friary, were granted to Andrew Skydie and his heirs, in capite, 
at the annual rent of 58^. 8d. sterling. 11 

This building, which stood on the north side of the city, 
is now entirely demolished. 

Dominican Friary ; u this monastery, called the abbey of 

War. A/ss. vol. 34, A 13$. and Man. & Allemande. A7f,/. 308. m Clynn. 
Anna!. l King, p. 308. * Annul. Munst. * Wadding. '/</. *King,p. 307. 
Wadding. *Aud.Gcn. 

H Dominican Friary. Inquisition 25th June, XXVII. Elizabeth, finds that 
David Goulde was seized in fee of three parts of the precincts of this friary, three 
parts of the moiety of a salmon fishery, three parts of a water-mill, three parts of 
a certain arable and pasture land belonging to the friary ; annual value 6. 

" Ordnance Survey MS., R.I.A.," voL iv., p. 67. 

H 2 County of Cork. 

St. Mary of the Island, was founded in the year 1229." 
Philip de Barry, who arrived here to assist Robert Fitz- 
Stephen, his uncle, in his conquests in this country, was a 
principal benefactor to these friars, and his equestrian statue 
in brass, was formerly in this church. 015 

A.D. 1333, i3th January, 8th King Edward III., a liberate 
issued for the payment of one year's annual pension to the 
Dominican friars of Cork, Drogheda, Dublin, Waterford, and 

1340. John le Blound was prior/* 

^Botirke. " Ann. de Trim. King. p. 87. "War. Man. vKing.p, 87. *Id. p. 90. 

w This house was founded for friars-preachers, or Dominicans, by Philip de 
Barry, a Welsh knight, ancestor of the noble family of Barrymore. in the county 
of C< rk. A bronze equestrian statue of the founder was preserved in the church 
by the community, as a monument of pious gratitude, until the suppression of the 
convent under Henry VIII. The convent was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin ; 
and. from its insular site being built on one of the great marshes of " the five-isled 
city " was called ' St. Mary's of the Island." The church attached to the con- 
vent is noticed in the history of the order as having been rragnificent "Magnifica 
Fcclesia." Soon after its erection. David MacKelly dean of Cashel. took the 
habit of a Dominican in this house; in 1237 he was consecrated bishop of Cloyne ; 
next year, being succe ded in the chair of St. Colman by a brother Dominican, 
Allan O'Sullivan. he was translated to the Metropolitan see of Cashel. Arch- 
bishop David introduced into the arch-diocese nn affiliation of friars-preachers from 
Cork, and built for his brethren a beautiful church and abbey, at a short distance 
from his own cathedral, on the rock of Cashel. His name is celebrated in the 
works of many foreign and domestic writers. In 1245 he assisted at the first 
general council at Lyons, to the acts of which his name is subscribed. 

A charter, confirmed by assent of King Edward II., was granted, in 1317. by 
Sir Rog, r de Mortimer and his council in favour of the Dominican community, by 
which the ward or cu tody of the j;ate of the lately-erected city walls, nearest to the 
abbey of St. Mary's, should be committed to the mayor, bailiffs, and other trusty 
men. am' free passage to and from the city should be given to the friars, and, for 
their sake, to other good citizens. 

Edmund Mortimer. Earl of March and Ulster, father of the Heir- Presumptive to 
the cron of England, and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, when he came to Cork took 
up his viceregal residence in the Dominican convent. He died in that house on 
St. Stephen's day, 1381. and as is supposed, was buried in St. Mary's Isle. 

A friar of the order of Preachers Irom Cork, and thence called Fr. Joannes 
Corcagiensis. was Archbishop of Cologne in 1461 . (See Supplement of Hib. 
Dom., page 866. ) 

The Convent of Cork, with the houses of Dominicans in Youghal. Limerick, 
and Coleraine. were in 1509. erected into " a congregation of strict observance," 
under the direction of a Vicar General of the Order, which congregation was 
solemnly approved in the general chapter in Rome, A.D. 1518. A few years 
later, all the Dominican communities of Ireland, inside and outside the Pale, being 
restored to discipline, and united in spirit, were formed into a distinct Province of 
the Order, to be governed by an Irish Provincial, freely chosen in Chapter. 

The monastery of the Island at Cork, with all its appurtenances, lands, water 
mills, salmon weirs, fishing pools. &c., was confiscated to the Crown, in 1544, 
and sold to a person named William Boureman, at a head rent of six shillings 
and nine-pence a year ! The Friars, nevertheless, maintained possession for a 
long time afterwards a; d though often obliged to disguise and hide themselves, 
they never abandoned the hope of regaining their ancient Convent, in which, 
at intervals, during "the troublesome times,^ they contrived to live in community 
until the reign of William III. 

In the reign of Queea Elizabeth, Matthew Sheyne, Protestant Bishop of Cork, 

Ancient Monasteries of Ireland. 143 

1355. Another liberate issued on 4th of May for the pay- 
ment of the same pension. 1 " 

1381. Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March and Ulster, and 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, died in this monastery on the 
26th of December," and John Colton being appointed Lord 
Justice, took the oath of office in this house, on the following 

.*l. 'Cox. vol. i,/. 135. *War.Bj>s.p.%4. 

ordered the image of St. Dominic to he dragged from " the Abbey of the 

to the High Cross of the City, where it was publicly committed to the 

flames, and burnt to ashes, amidst the tears of the persecuted Catholic citizens. 

At the commencement of the reign of James I., the Friars began to repair 
thc ; r convent and church. Religious per-cuition soon stopt the work of resto- 
ration in the old Catholic churches and abbeys. In 1616 we find a giant made 
to Sir John King, of the church, steeple, monastery, &c., of St. Dominic, in 

A middle Chapter of the Fathers of the Irish Dominican Province, was held 
in the Convent of Cork, at which Father James O'Hurly. subsequently Bishop of 
Emly. preside ;, which is specially noticed in the Acts of the General Chapter of 
Rome, in 1644 Several of the Friars .there assembled, became soon after illus- 
trious as bishops and martyrs for the faith in the time of persecution. 
: Father John O'Morrogh. a distinguished preacher in this convent is said, in the 
Annals of the Order to have flourished about the year 1640. 

1642. The Dominican Order completely restored in Ireland. There were 
flourishing, in the short interval of peace for the Catholic Church, 43 houses, and 600 
Friars of the order of St Dominic. 

1644. The Catholics expelled from Cork, by order of Lord Inchiquin. 

The year 1647 was marked by the g'orious martyrdom of Father Richard Barry, 
a Cork I'ominican, then Prior of Cashel. who. having valiantly stood up for 
the defence of the sanctuary in the Cathedral of Cashel, and refused to accept his 
life, on condition of stripping himself of his religious habit, and assuming a 
secular dress, was condemne , to be burned alive on the summit of the Rock of 
Cashel, and having heroically suffered in the flames for the space of two hours, 
was transfixed through the side with a sword. Four days after, when the Pai iia-. 
montary forces had retired. the Vicar-General with the Notary Apostolic riLnry 
O'Callanan, having judicially examined the proofs of his martyrdom, conveyed his 
sacred remains in solemn procession and with joyful anthems to the beautiful 
cloister <f his Convent, where, perhaps, they are reposing undisturbed to the 
present day. 

In 1648, Dominic de Burgo. a young professed memberof the Order of Preachers, 
and near relative of the Karl of Clanricarde, was made prisoner on board of the 
ship in which he had taken his p ssage to Spain, to pursue his studies. II 
thrown into prison at Kinsale whence he made his escape by jumping from the top 
of the gaol wall down on the sea-shore. For two days he lay concealed in a neigh- 
bouring wood, all covered with mud. without clothing, food, or drink. At length 
he found shelter under the hospitable roof of the Roches in that neighbourhood, 
probably of Garrettstown. He was. at a later period of life, the celebrated Bishop 
of F.lphin, for whose head or capture the government offered a large reward, and 
to whom Oliver Plunket. the martyred Archbishop of Armagh, wr te from his 
dungeon, warning him of the attempts of the Privy Council against his life. He 
died in exile. 

In 1651, Father Eneas Ambrose O'Cahil. an eloquent preacher, and zealous 
missionary in Cork, being recognised as a Friar of a Dominican community, was 
rushed upon by a troop of Cromwell's soldiers, cut to pieces with their sabres, and 
his limlis were scattered about to be trampled underfoot. At this tim<- ii. 
a most furious per coition raged, the effects of which, on the condition of the i 
nican Order in Ireland, are thus described in one of the Acts of the General Chapter 
held in Rome A.D. 1656: " An abundant harvest of those who in our Irish 

144 County of Cork. 

1400. September i8th, an annual pension of thirty marcs 
was granted to the Dominicans of Cork, Dublin, Waterford, 
Limerick, and Drogheda." 

province, have suffered cruel torments for the Catholic faith, has been gathered, in 
these our days, into the celestial granary ; since of forty-three convents which the 
Order possessed in this island, not a single one survives to-day, which the fury of 
the heretical persecutor hath not either burned or levelled to the ground or di- 
verted to profane uses. In these religious establishments, there were counted about 
six hundred, of which but the fourth part is now in the land of the living, and even 
that number is dispersed in exile ; the remainder died martyrs at home, or were 
cruelly transported to the island of Barbadoes." Among other facts connected 
with this period, it is recorded that Father Thomas Fitzgerald, a Dominican, a 
good priest, combining great zeal and piety, with primitive simplicity of manners, 
dressed himself as a peasant, and in that assumed garb, served the Catholics 
of Cork during the entire period of Cromwell's usurpation. Father Eustace 
Maguire, of the convent of Cork, was no less distinguished, in the time of terror 
and persecution, for his intrepid courage, than for his meek piety and religious zeal. 
Being chosen by the Catholics as governor of the castle of Druimeagh, near Kanturk, 
he so guarded and defended it during the period of Cromwell's wars, that it was 
never taken or surrendered. 

In 1689, King James II. landed at Kinsale, and proceeded thence to Cork. On 
his arrival in this city, the king lodged in the house of the Dominican Friars, and 
on Sunday heard mass in the Church of the Franciscans, called the North Abbey. 

At the accession of William, Prince of Orange, the most persecuting laws were 
enacted against the Catholic clergy and people. The Dominican Friars fled from 
St. Mary's Island, of which they never after were able to resume possession. The 
Convent was used for the residence of the Governor or Mayor of the City. It was 
called, in after times, the Great House of St. Dominic's, and became the town 
mansion of the Earl oflnchiquin. 

About the year 1698, Father John Morrogh, O.S.D., not being able to escape 
from the city, on account of illness, was taken prisoner, thrown into irons in Cork 
jail, where he found rest in a pious death, in the year 1702. About the same time, 
Father Walter Fleming, O.S.D., came to Cork, whence he sailed to France, in 
company with Father John O'Heyn (author of the interesting Dominican history, 
called Epilogus Chronologicus), and having sailed the year after for Ireland, 
with Father Daniel M 'Donnel.of the same Order, both Friars were seized on board 
before they came on shore, and more than a year were kept in chains and close con- 
finement in Cork jail, whence they were allowed to take shipping again for France. 

In the beginning of the 1 8th century Father Ambrose O'Connor, appointed 
Provincial of Ireland while in Spain, privately returned home, and made bis visi- 
tation in this country', providentially escaping the spies who were in search for 
him. In the Memorial or Report jof his Visitation as Provincial, which he drew 
up for Pope Clement IX. in 1 704, he states that he found about ninety Dominican 
missionaries working in the service of religion, but living in concealed places, and 
that five were confessing the faith in prison. 

The fury of the persecution somewhat abating about the time of the Hanoverian 
succession, the scattered Dominicans of Ireland cautiously began to unite and form 
themselves into communities. The friars of Cork lived together in the narrow 
obscure lane in the northern district of this city, off Shandon-street, called to this 
day Friary-lane. Father Peter M'Carthy was Prior. 

1731. In the Report of the Lords' Committee to inquire into the state of Popery 
in Ireland, one Friary only is returned as being in Cork, with ihe number of friars 

In 1784, the Dominicans built a -more suitable convent and chapel in a more 
public and convenient place, on the site of old Shandon Castle. They remained 
here till 1839, when their present beautiful church of St. Mary's, on Pope's Quay, 
was solemnly dedicated. 

( To be continued.) 




JANUARY, 1871. 


in a late number, of the claims of the Irish 
College, Paris, on the British Government, we made good the 
following points : 

1st That Sir John Leach, in pronouncing the judgment of 
the Privy Council on the claims of the Irish College, and in 
making the judgment of Lord Gifford in the case of the Douay 
College, a precedent, distorted and misapplied his Lordship's 
judgment, and that the cases, so far from being alike, were 
opposed in all essential particulars. 

2ndly That the fund from which the Irish College should 
have received compensation more than fifty years ago, has 
been misappropriated and spoliated. 

3rdly That if the fund has been expended on other 
purposes belonging to the Public Service, the Treasury is 
bound to make restitution from the public revenues in its 

We proceed now to answer a question of which we gave 
notice in our last, viz. : Upon li'liat authority did the Govern- 
ment apply the fund, out of which the- Irish College should have 
received its compensation, to purposes other than those indicated 
by the Treaties in question f Tin's may appear to be a simple 
question ; and one might expect we should answer it simply, 
and in an off-hand manner. This, however, we regret, cannot 
be so. On the contrary, we have before us a tedious and 
troublesome inquiry, and we must request in advance the 
patience of our readers, more especially as we are likely to 
meet on our way several incidental matters that may have an 
important bearing upon the main issue of these papers. 


146 Claims of the Irish College, Paris, 

But before entering on our subject, we shall take leave to 
remark, that the question we propose places us in an attitude 
which to some may appear rather bold and presuming. We 
may be asked, Do we mean to question the uprightness of the 
Government in dealing with the trust fund confided to its 
administration in virtue of an International Treaty ? Do we 
mean to cast distrust and discredit on the Public Service of 
the country ? We reply, there is nothing more remote from 
our wishes than to make a gratuitous attack on the Govern- 
ment, either past or present, or any department of the Public 
Service. But we have a task to perform a just and legiti- 
mate task. We have undertaken to vindicate the rights of a 
national institution in a foreign land, and to repair an injury 
inflicted upon it more than half a century ago, and yet remain- 
ing unredressed. If, in the prosecution of this task, awkward 
facts shall meet us, we do not think that we should be diverted 
from our course in order to avoid disclosures, however painful, 
and in every way undesirable, it may be to bring them to light. 
But need we an apology ? Responsibility, and therefore 
publicity, are they not of the essence of free institutions, like 
those under which we live ? Does not the Government of these 
realms profess to do its work in the open face of day ? Does 
not our whole political system warn every department of the 
Public Service, and every officer in the public employment, that 
there must be no "hidden things of darkness" in the discharge 
of their official duties, and that "nothing is covered that 
sooner or later shall not be revealed, nor hid that shall not be 

We therefore offer no apology. Nay, we avail ourselves of 
no more than the simple right of every citizen, however humble, 
to make the inquiry we put before us. We therefore ask the 
question again with all confidence, Upon what authority did the 
British Government apply -the fund out of which the Irish 
College should have received its compensation to purposes other 
than those indicated by the Treaties in question ? 

A Government, as every one knows, is a complex machine, 
consisting of various departments for their respective purposes. 
It is frequently, therefore, a work of difficult analysis to fix 
responsibility, or apportion the just measure of praise or 
censure, of merit or fault, in public affairs. And in our present 
inquiry we are concerned with no less than three distinct 
departments, viz., the several Commissions that from time 
to time had charge of the fund on which the Irish College 
had its claims, the Lords of the Treasury, and the Imperial 

Beginning with the Commissions, the first was that which 

On the British Government. 147 

vras appointed under the Treaty of 1815, between Great 
Britain and France, and which was composed partly of Eng- 
lish and partly of Frenchmen, and continued their operations 
until 1818. We have no charge to bring against this Commis- 
sion of applying the fund placed at its disposal outside the 
provisions of the Treaty. We shall remark, however, en 
passant, that it was to it that the claim of the Irish College, 
amounting at the time to ,3,398 1 5-r. 2d. a-year, was presented 
by the Very Rev. Paul Long, the then Administrator-General 
of the Irish Foundations in France ; that it registered the 
claim as presented as legitimate, and, of course, included it in 
the approximate estimate of the total amount deemed neces- 
sary afterwards to satisfy the various claimants according to 
the intents and purposes of the further Treaty of 1818, of 
which we will have occasion later on to speak more at large. 
Well would it have been for the Irish College if this mixed 
and, therefore, impartial tribunal had the adjudication of its 
claim. But owing, perhaps, to the fact that it stood low on 
the register of claims, or to changes in the administration of 
the College itself at this period, or to both causes combined, 
the claim was held over, and passed on with other reserved 
claims to the succeeding Commission in 1818. 

This second Commission owed its appointment to a special 
Treaty agreed to between the two Powers, and having for 
object, as its preamble indicates, the final arrangement of the 
claims of his Majesty's subjects, in order to effect the payment 
and entire extinction, as well of the " capital as of the interest 
thereon,due to them;" forwhich object it provided acapital pro- 
ducing an annual interest of 3,000,000 francs, in addition to the 
3,500,000 francs annually already provided by the Treaty of 
1815. It was exclusively composed of Englishmen, and 
exercised its functions in England until 1826. The members 
were appointed directly by the Government, at the head of 
which was Lord Liverpool, with Lord Eldon as Lord Chan- 
cellor of England, two characters specially distinguished 
at the time, as they are still notorious in history, for 
their unrelenting hostility to the rights of their Roman 
Catholic fellow-subjects. It is also worthy of remark, that the 
period was one of great religious strife, calculated to envenom 
sectarian bigotry to the highest degree, on account of the 
struggle for Emancipation which the Catholics of the empire 
were carrying on with such vigour and perseverance. We 
are consequently prepared for the supercilious disdain with 
which the gentlemen of this Commission treated the claim of 
our time-honoured national Establishment in Paris. 

Already had they rejected the claims of the Douay and 

148 Claims of the Irish College, Paris, 

other English Catholic Colleges in France, but they had 
condescended to give a hearing to their case, and arrived at 
an award by what had, at least, the appearance of a judicial 
proceeding. Then came the case of the Irish College; it was 
a mere Irish affair, it was unworthy of being entertained. 
Consequently, without the formality even of an award, the 
Commissioners directed their secretary or some other official 
to notify to the representative of the Irish College, that he 
should consider his claim as included in the disallowed claims 
of the English Colleges already disposed of. The Administra- 
tor could have well represented, as we have abundantly shown 
m these papers, how, instead of analogous, the two cases 
stood upon entirely different footings, and that the reasons 
that militated against the English Colleges spoke in favour of 
the Irish establishment. But it was a mere Irish affair, and 
that was an " ultima ratio" of the case. But we find that 
whilst these gentlemen were pretending " to strain at a gnat," 
when disposing of the Irish College, they had no difficulty in 
" swallowing a camel," in dealing with other applications. In 
looking over their proceedings we find, amongst others, the 
enormous misapplication of 130,000; for what purpose may it 
be supposed ? for the expenses of the coronation of George 
IV. ! ! This fact we find revealed in the History of England, 
in French, by Roujoux and Maingnet in 4, 1847, * 2 >P- ^9- 
Need we ask the question, upon what authority did these Com- 
missioners make this enormous allocation for a purpose that 
had as little to do as the Alabama claims w.ith the Treaty 
which they were appointed to administer. But before parting 
with them, we have another little account to settle a two-penny 
affair, likely, it appeared to them. To our readers, however, 
the amount will appear more serious. Under the provisions of 
the Act of Parliament to which they owed their appointment 
and authority, they were to have been paid their expenses and 
salaries by deducting two per cent., on the amount of all the 
claims to be liquidated by them ; but this appeared to them a 
paltry provision, and we, therefore, find in their accounts the 
sum of 132,178, and a further sum of 122,414 13^. 3</., 
making a total of 254,592 13^.3^., instead of, or in^addition 
to (we do not know which), the two/rr cent, allowed them by 
the statute ; and to take a friendly farewell of their Commis- 
sion, they had the modesty to take credit to themselves at 
the close of their labours, for a year's salary in advance, in ad- 
vance that is, to borrow a phrase from the trade, " for work 
and labour" UNDONE and NEVER TO BE DONE. And, yet, to 
the very last, the Irish College can find no access to their 
sympathies. No compunctious visitings come upon them for 
their injustice to the Irish College, Paris. 

On the British Government. 149 

We now proceed to the other Commissions. They are re- 
spectively of the dates 1826, 1830, 1833, and lastly, 1849. 
When the Commission of 1818 had terminated its mission in 
1826, it laid before Parliament " an account of its stewardship," 
and exhibited a balance of 700,000 francs annual revenue, re- 
presenting a capital of 14,000,000 francs or 560,000. But 
M. Le Baron, the French authority whom we quoted in our 
last, finding access to the half-yearly accounts as previously 
reported to Parliament, discovers this balance to be inaccurate, 
and, that instead of a surplus of 14,000,000 francs, it should be 
64,776,132 francs or 2, 596,000 odd. 

However, the Commissioners passed the amount reported 
by themselves into the Treasury, and so washed their hands 
out of their responsibilities. 

We have now the Lords of the Treasury committed to a 
joint responsibility with the new Commissioners, the former 
holding the trust-fund in their safe-keeping, and the latter 
investigating and adjudicating the claims as they came before 
them. We will, therefore, treat both as in a common cause, 
and we shall dispose of the several Commissions above 
enumerated in globo, as the observations we purpose making 
shall have the same application to each. 

As the new Commission of 1526 was installed, we find them, 
as one of their first acts, making order on the Treasury for 
250,000 for the repairs and improvement of Buckingham 
Palace. Casting our eyes further over their disbursements we 
meet the enormous amounts, some of which we enumerated 
in our former article. By what authority were these sums 
taken out of the fund, from which, let us constantly remember, 
the Irish College should have received its compensation. 
The treaties of 1814, 1815, and 1818, between England and 
France, are yet in existence ; they are an international compact 
between two great countries, and are guaranteed, moreover, 
by the Great Powers of Europe that had been combined in 
war against France. And the compact, so far from authorizing 
such disbursements, is most distinct and precise in fixing the 
application of the fund, also of any surplus that might remain 
after such application. Reserving for the moment, the obser- 
vations we have to make, we prefer that other authorities 
should speak first, and applying the rule "ex uno disce ovints," 
we will listen to the Times, as it thunders out on the Buck- 
ingham Palace affair. We quote from its issue of 29th April, 
1828, the following leading article : 

" Within these few days we adverted to a strange occurrence 
which had come to light, involving the disposition of a sum of 
public money reputed to amount to 250,000. The subject 

1 50 Claims of the Irish College, Paris, 

is as delicate as it is painful. After the peace of 1814, a con- 
siderable number of British subjects preferred claims upon the 
French Government for indemnification of losses sustained 
through acts of that Government or its officers. After some 
negociations between the two Courts, that of France handed 
over a sum of money to Great Britain in full satisfaction of the 
claims as estimated, leaving the detailed distribution of it to 
the British Government, as the claims of its own subjects 
might be decided on by its own tribunals. A Commission for 
the investigation and settlement of these claims was appointed 
by the ministers of the day. After intervals of no very short 
duration (including several years), two classes of claimants 
were successively satisfied or rejected, and at last the Com- 
mission closed its sittings, declaring in substance, as is said, 
that no further demands could be authenticated, and that no 
further distribution of the fund ought to be made by the 
Government of Great Britain, A large balance of from 
.200,000 to 300,000 was thus left unappropriated in the 
hands of the British Treasury ; and the money so left, became 
beyond all question, public property, to be accounted for to 
Parliament, and not disposed of without its sanction. By a stroke 
of the pen, however, it is said, that the First Lord of the 
Treasury transferred this large balance of public money from 
the Treasury where Parliament ought to have found it, to 
another department. The affair we presume will undergo a 
rigid investigation." 

This article elicited the following letter, which we find in the 
Times under date 2nd May, 1828 : 

" To THE EDITOR Sir, the misappropriation referred to in 
your paper of Tuesday last, or the misappropriation to use a 
gentle word of a sum reported to amount to 250,000 is a 
very serious one. The really unappropriated balance, however, 
of money received from the French Government, to enable the 
British Government to satisfy the claimants alluded to, is 
supposed to nearly double that sum. What adds to the scan- 
dal of the transaction is, that the claimants are in fact not 
satisfied. The case, I believe, stands nearly thus. When the 
separation of the mixed Commission took place, which was 
established in Paris in 1815 to manage the fund for indemni- 
fying the subjects of the belligerent powers for the losses they 
had sustained through the French Revolution and the subse-* 
quent wars, each power received a share, and engaged to settle 
with its own subjects, his Grace the Duke of Wellington 
having been unanimously appointed to make the division 
among the powers. The British Commission was then trans- 
ferred to London, and out of the sum apportioned to Great 

On the British Government. 151 

Britain, one part was destined to satisfy the claimants under 
the Convention No. 7 of the treaty of November 20, 1815, who 
were, I think, all English by birth, and the other to satisfy 
those under Convention No. 13, who had become British in 
the course of the war, and remained so at the peace, such as 
the inhabitants of the Mauritius, the Ionian Islands, &c. Many 
of the claims under both heads have been rejected, I conclude, 
for sufficient reasons. Those which were admitted under Con- 
vention No. 7 have been liquidated in full, principal and in- 
terest, whilst those under Convention No. 13 have only received 
53 i8s. yd. per cent, and are refused the remaining 
46 is. 3</. per cent, under the//<vz that there is no more money. 
Now, Sir, the inquiry should be made, by whom, and on what 
principle, a given sum was at the outset set apart for one class 
of claimants, and another sum for another ? Surely it could 
not have been with the view of creating a large surplus on the 
one hand and leaving a deficit on the other. The whole sum 
obtained should be divided as far as it will go among those 
whose claims have been admitted, and who have all an equita- 
ble right to be paid in full. I have reason to believe that the 
overplus balanced under Convention 7 would be far more than 
sufficient to pay the remaining 46 is. $d. percent, due to the 
claimants under Convention 13. How unwarrantable then is 
the abstraction of a large sum out of the surplus under Con- 
vention 7, at the very moment when a large class of claimants, 
who, I contend, have a right to be satisfied in full from the 
sum levied upon France for the specific purpose, have been 
paid little more than one-half of what the Commissioners have 
admitted to be due to them. The question cannot rest where 
it is. FiAT JUSTITIA. 

" London, May i." 

The Times returns to the subject, and gives the following 
leader on the 28th June, 1823: 

" On the affair of the .250,000, a part of the sum given by 
the French Government for satisfying the claims of British 
subjects, and really applied to the building of the new palace, 
we have a remark or two to make which we overlooked 
yesterday, but which, we venture to think, of some import- 
ance. With respect to the remaining claims of British sub- 
jects, though many of them we have no doubt are well founded, 
yet are the proofs required of the validity of those claims of 
so difficult a nature, and probably now, that another object 
is found for the money, the ears of the Commissioners so dull 
of hearing, that we shrewdly suspect it is not intended or 
contemplated to bestow one farthing more upon those in 
whose behalf the money was first demanded. What then 

152 Claims of the Irish College, Paris, 

ought really to be done with this excess, if we were an honest 
and upright-minded people, if our Government were just 
and equitable? Unquestionably it ought to be returned to 

"The French Government paid a covenanted sum to ours, in 
lieu of all demands of a certain kind to be made by British 
subjects. The whole of that sum was not expended on the 
objects for which it was destined. Then what ought to become 
of the residue ? Why it ought, we again assert, to be returned 
to the French. They are probably too proud to request it. 
But we know that they will also, hereafter, have a strict logical 
right to advance this extortion transaction as a proof of the 
bad faith of Great Britain, of her rapacious and perfidious 
practices in pecuniary transactions; that she has screwed more 
money than she ought to have required from France for a 
certain purpose, and has applied a part of what she received 
to building regal palaces. It is out of French money that 
the palace of the kings of England is partly built out of 
French money advanced by that people to satisfy the demands 
of certain English people. We again say that a high-minded 
Government would restore the ^250,000 to France." 

Weshallnextquotenolessapersonage than Lord Lyndhurst. 
His Lordship took a prominent part in a debate in the House 
of Lords on August 1st, 1853, the subject being the adminis- 
tration of the fund we are treating of. As we observed, the 
Treasury and Commissioners are in the same boat, and his 
Lordship prefers in his observations taking the former to task. 
His words, as we find them in the Times of next morning, are 
to the following effect : " It was asserted by a great law 
authority that a corporation had no conscience. How far 
that was applicable to the Treasury it was not for him to 
determine. They saw in the public papers cases where con- 
scientious persons sent money to the Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer, which they ought to have paid, but they might look in 
vain for any instance of reciprocity on the part of that 
functionary. The footsteps were all one way. But nnlla 
vestigia retrorsuin* In his long experience of public men, he 
had never known a case in which money was paid back again 
when it had once been got in. The genius at the head of the 
Government, represented by the noble Earl and the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, stood at the entrance of the Treasury, stern, 
inflexible, and obdurate ' Qitam si dura silcx aitt stet Marpe- 
sia cautes? " 

Such are the scathing words in which the great statesman 
upbraids the Treasury as being inexorable to the claims of 
simple justice, and puts it into the inextricable dilemma of 

On the British Government. \ 5 3 

plead ing guilty to the charge of having no conscience, or of 
granting the claim he urged on the occasion. 

We, on our part, urging the claim of the Irish College, press 
the same argument, and give the Government the option of 
saying to us, "the Treasury has no conscience," or of admit- 
ting our claim. 

But his Lordship bears down with yet greater force upon 
the Treasury. Like ourselves, he would ask upon what 
authority the Treasury applied the trust fund in question to 
purposes other than those stipulated ; and, employing the 
weapon of sarcasm, of which he was so distinguished a 
master, he puts forward, by way of hypothesis, extreme necessity 
as the pretence extreme necessity, which makes all things 
common, and abrogates all law of right and property. His 
words, as reported by the Times, are : " The answer he 
would make, and he would make it with shame, would be, 
that this country was so poor, so wretched, and had so little 
means, that it had appropriated the funds allotted by Parlia- 
ment for these claimants to discharge the debts due to the 
French Government." Extreme necessity ! ! the phrase in 
his lordship's mouth means, more forcibly than if he were to 
say in express words, extreme injustice, extreme fraud, 
extreme perfidy. 

But we will quote another great authority, one who, like 
Lord Lyndhurst, sat upon the woolsack in his day, and who 
took part in the same debate. It is Lord Truro. He spoke 
as follows, according to the Times of the same date : " The 
French Government paid over certain sums of money to this 
country ; the sums to be paid to one class of claimants, being 
wholly distinct from those which were to be paid to another ; 
and these trust funds Parliament was bound by contract with 
the French Government to apply according to the condition 
on which they were given. This, however, they have not done; 
they appropriated the money to other uses." 

To these terrible condemnations we will add a few sober 
reflections from ourselves. 

It is to be recollected that the several Commissions were 
appointed for the purpose of administering the Treaties we 
have referred to, and of disbursing the funds placed in their 
hands, according to the express terms of those Treaties. 
Consequently we should expect them to follow a uniform rule, 
and to be directed by fixed principles taken from the terms 
of the Treaties. The contrary, however, we find to be the 
case. Each succeeding Commission calls up for liquidation, 
and award claimants disallowed by preceding Commissions, 
thereby showing that arbitrary rule was their sole guidance in 
the distribution of the money. 

1 54 Claims of the Irish College, Paris, 

We also find that these several Commissions were called 
into existence by minutes of the Lords of the Treasury, 
which arrogate the authority of dispensing with the stipula- 
tions of the Treaties. Thus, for instance, by the minute ap- 
pointing the Commission in 1826, the Treasury prolongs the 
time fixed for claimants by the treaties to present their claims. 
Also we find that the Treasury minute creating the Commis- 
sion of 1830, grounds itself "upon the mere bounty of His 
Majesty, upon the liberality of the Crown," assuming the right 
of distributing a part of the fund amongst individuals who 
had no claim whatever upon it under the Treaties ; and by 
the minute creating the Commission of 1832, its decisions are 
declared beforehand as "final and unassailable, being an 
act of grace and favour" These several minutes, placed 
side by side with the Treaties, bear their own comment. If 
the decisions of the Commissioners were to be regulated 
according to the Treaties which they had to administer, there 
should be no room for " the mere bounty of his Majesty" " tlie 
liberality of the Crown" "acts of grace and favour? Justice 
before liberality. But the Lords of the Treasury, and the 
Commissioners, inverted the rule, setting at nought the Trea- 
ties and their express stipulations. 

We have associated the Lords of the Treasury and the 
Commissioners in a joint responsibility. They acted in a 
vicious circle. The Lords of the Treasury appointed the seve- 
ral Commissions from 1826, and gave them their orders 
respecting the fund. The Commissioners, on their part, made 
orders for payment on the Treasury, so that the Treasury 
cast the responsibility of its payments on the Commissioners, 
and the Commissioners, in turn, cast the responsibility of their 
orders on the Treasury, in pursuance of the minutes of their 
appointment. Nevertheless, the poor Irish College, Paris, 
injured and robbed though it had been by the French Re- 
volution, admitted though it had been by the first Commission 
acting in France to a right of compensation, could never 
obtain admission within the circle of the Lords of the Trea- 
sury and the Commissioners, even " by the mere bounty of 
His Majesty," or " the liberality of the Crown," or by any 
" acts of grace or favour." 

But, after all, the Lords of the Treasury and the Commis- 
sioners of the Fund must have some support at their back 
some plea to exculpate them in the exercise of such authority. 
It cannot be expected that they would have recklessly and 
capriciously cast to the right and to the left hundreds of 
thousands of pounds confided to them as a sacred deposit, 
under the guarantee of International Treaties. Here we have 

On the British Government. 155 

arrived at the most serious, and, we must add, the most dis- 
tressing part of our case. We find ourselves at this point 
standing in the actual presence of the Imperial Legislature. 
No well-affected citizen should think or speak otherwise than 
with respect and reverence of the exalted institution to which 
are entrusted our properties, our liberties, and our lives, and 
which is allowed a species of omnipotence in the unbounded 
sway it exercises over all our institutions and the countless 
interests of the great commonwealth. But " humanum est 
errare" has been, unfortunately, a truth from the beginning, 
and everywhere that human nature has to act, we find the 
traces of human weakness, and too often of human perversity. 
Reserving the latter epithet, we would say that Parliament has 
its moments of distraction, weariness, and drowsiness, and it 
happens sometimes that when those who should watch fall 
asleep, " the cockle is sown among the wheat," and thus en- 
actments find their way to the Statute Book, which virtuous 
and honourable men have reason to be ashamed of. What 
are we preparing our readers to expect? Nothing less than 
the legislative anomaly of a National Legislature annulling 
and abrogating International Treaties. How is this ? Let 
us bear in mind that the subject matter about which we are 
concerned is the trust fund confided by France to this country 
for specific purposes. These purposes are declared on the 
face of the Treaties. But the British Legislature interposes 
its authority, and by Act of Parliament directs the application 
of the fund to other purposes. The Treaties are the well- 
known Peace Treaties of 1814, 1815, and 1818, between 
France and Great Britain. The Act of Parliament is that of 
59th year of George III., c. xxxi., intituled "An Act to enable 
certain Commissioners fully to carry into effect several conventions 
for liquidating claims of British subjects and others against the 
Government of France" 

The point in which the Treaties and this Act come into con- 
flict, is the surplus of the fund after satisfying the claims 
specified in the Treaties. This surplus, the Treaties say, must 
return to France, The Act of Parliament says, No ; the sur- 
plus must remain in this country for such purposes as t/tc Com- 
missioners of the Treasury shall direct the Commissioners of Li- 
quidation, Arbitration, and Award. 

We shall put in juxta-position the text of the Treaties and 
of the Act. The Treaty of 1815, article 9 of the Convention 
No. 7, which is one with the other Convention of April 1 5, 
1818, which refers to it in its Preamble, and Article 1st, the 
latter being the complement of the former, says that " '//<// 
till the payments due to the claimants shall have been made, the 

156 Claims of the Irish College, Paris, 

surplus of unappropriated revenue, with the proportion of accumu- 
lated and compound interest which sJuill belong thereto, shall be 
returned, if there be any, to the French Government'' On the 
contrary, our Act of Parliament says, section xvi., that the 
fund in question was to be transferred to England, and to be 
invested in Exchequer Bills or other Public Securities, bearing 
interest " for tlie purposes of being applied to the Payments or 
Liquidation of any such claims, OR IN CASE ALL SUCH CLAIMS 

Now, the merest tyro-lawyer will pronounce this Act of 
Parliament to be a nullity. There is no condition more vital 
or fundamental in legislation than competent authority in the 
legislating power ; and we do not require to be told that the 
Imperial Parliament, omnipotent though it be in matters of 
internal legislation, has no authority whatever over an Inter- 
national Treaty. The Act, therefore, which would authorize 
the Lords of the Treasury, and the Commissioners appointed 
by them, to dispose, in the manner they did, of the trust-fund 
confided to them under the guarantee of an International 
Treaty, was a nullity, and absolutely void from the commence- 
ment. But it was not merely a nullity ; it was a breach of 
faith of a nation's faith, pledged by solemn International 
Treaty. We recollect an eminent judge in one of our own 
Courts complaining in a particular case from the bench on 
which he sat, that in administering law he was obliged to violate 
Justice. The Commissioners of the trust-fund in question, 
had reason to make the same complaint, that they were re- 
quired according to law to violate an International Treaty, and 
perpetrate perfidy in the name of the Imperial Parliament, 
with a foreign state. Is this language too strong? I fit be 
deemed so, let us observe that Lord Truro has used stronger 
terms in stigmatising this Act of Parliament. We quote him 
from the Times, August 2nd, 1853, as he is reported to have 
spoken in the House of Lords in a debate on the subject of 
this trust-fund we are treating of. His words are : " The Par- 
liament it was said could do anything except make a man a 
woman ; but Parliament had no power in one sense to apply 
the money, of which we were the trustees, for other purposes 
than those for which that money had been handed over to us. 
He complained of that Law as WICKED, FRAUDULENT, AND 


We are now arrived at the end of our inquiry, starting from 

On the British Government. 157 

the question Upon what authority did the Government apply the 
fund, out of which the Irish College should have received its 
compensation, to purposes other than those indicated by the 
Treaties in question ? 

We have followed the fund from France to England, from 
the mixed Commission appointed under the Treaty of 1815, 
to the exclusive Commission appointed by the Government in 
England under the Act of Parliament of 5Qth year of George 
III., cap. 33, on which we had to make such painful remarks. 
We have further followed it from the last-mentioned Commis- 
sioners to the British Treasury, and we have seen it in a joint 
trusteeship between the Lords of the Treasury and other 
Commissioners appointed by their order. We have seen how 
both these bodies; acting in concert, or, as we have said, in a 
vicious circle, dissipated the fund on purposes unauthorised by 
the Treaties, and how they were sustained in so doing by an 
Act of Parliament, which was a manifest nullity, and which the 
highest legal authority branded in open Parliament as 

To these terms of reprobation Lord Truro might add, that 
the Act was also an impossibility. How is this ? We have 
seen that it was in direct contradiction with the express pro- 
visions of the Treaties of 1814, 1815, and 1818. Nevertheless, 
it refers to these Treaties, and binds the Commissioners by 
oath to fulfil them, and carry out the Act at the same time ; 
that is, to perform contradictory duties, a task of manifest 
impossibility. The oath imposed by the Commissioners was 
literally as follows : 

" I, A. B., one of the Commissioners of Liquidation, Arbi- 
tration, and Award, appointed to carry into effect the pro- 
visions of several Conventions, concluded between His Majesty 
and His Most Christian Majesty the King of France, do swear 
that according to the best of my judgment and knowledge, I 
will faithfully, impartially, and truly execute the several 
powers and trusts vested in me by an Act of 59 year of the 
reign of King George III., entituled An Act to enable certain 
Commissioners fully to carry into effect several conventions for 
liquidating claims of British subjects and others against the 
Government of France, according to the tenor and purport of 
said Act, and according to the true intent and meaning of the 
said several Conventions. So help me GOD." 

We see the Commissioners by this oath placed between 
the " tenor and purport of the said Act" on one side, and the 
irreconcilable "intent and meaning of the said several Conven- 
tions' on the other. Their position reminds us of the philo- 
sopher's ass between the two bundles of hay ; but the money 

1 58 Claims of the Irish College, Paris. 

imparts a superior attraction to the Act of Parliament, and null 
and void though it was, and " wicked, and fraudulent, and 
unjust" though it was, they determined their hesitation, if 
indeed they hesitated at all in that direction, turning their 
back upon the Treaties, the force and obligation of which 
were above and beyond the reach of Parliament. 

To come to an end, Lord Lyndhurst and Lord Truro helped 
us a considerable way through this paper, and we shall now 
avail ourselves of their assistance to conclude it. The former, 
in the debate in the House of Lords of August ist, 1853, to 
which we have more than once alluded, said of the surplus of 
the fund: "The balance of this money being thus appro- 
priated and misapplied from its original purposes, would any 
one say it was not reasonable that the country which had 
benefited by the appropriation of this property to the public 
service, should replace that money ?" And Lord Truro in 
the same debate said " The verdict of the jury which decided 
in his favour had never been questioned, and in answer to 
all this he was met by an Act of Parliament. It was an 
answer which he did not hesitate to say was as disgraceful 
to this country as it was unjust to the claimant. Everything 
that they could expect to be done, in order to establish a case, 
had been done in the case of Baron De Bode, and unless the 
misapplication of the fund was to be taken as a justification of 
breach of faith with the French Government, of dishonour to 
this country, and of gross injustice to the claimant, the demand 
which had been made would be fully recognized." This case 
of the Baron De Bode created a great sensation in Parlia- 
ment and out of Parliament at the time. But every point in 
it applies strictly to the Irish College, so that mutato nomine, 
the concluding words of these two great statesmen may be 
taken as enforcing its claims, and obtaining for it the com- 
pensation of which it has been so long and so unwarrantably 



MY ESTEEMED FRIEND The method you employ in our 
discussion proves, or rather, as I had already known it, con- 
vinces me of one thing, and that is, your want of firmness and 
moral exactness, of which those who build not on the solid 
foundations of religion, are totally devoid. It has been said, 
with much truth, that morality without dogmas, was justice 
without tribunals. We hear your incredulists raise and enthu- 
siastically proclaim the sublimity of the doctrine of Jesus 
Christ in everything appertaining to the regulation of the con- 
duct of man ; you confess there is nothing superior or equal 
in the precepts of ancient or modern philosophers ; you ac- 
knowledge there is nothing to add or retrench ; and you do 
all this with such a tone of sincerity and such apparent bona 
fide as to leave no doubt that if you reject the dogmas of the 
Christain religion, you at least embrace its code of morality as 
a philosophical conviction. But then, behold ! you immediately 
launch into the exposition of some doctrine totally at variance 
with the morality of the Gospel. You, yourself, have done 
this in your last letter ; for, after resigning yourself to the 
abandonment of the trench in which you had fortified yourself 
concerning self-love, you change the argument, but not the 

You say you agree with me that religion does not destroy, 
but only rectifies self-love ; and you have no hesitation in ac- 
knowledging the objections of your former letter hinged on a 
false supposition. Nevertheless, you are unwilling to abandon 
your ground, and insist that the manner in which religion rec- 
tifies self-love is too severe, and opposed besides to the instincts 
of nature. Here we have the application of what I told you a 
short time ago, viz., that men without religion frequently fall 
into a manifest contradiction, by praising in one place the 
moral code of Jesus Christ, and attacking it in another without 
consideration or respect. You are one of those who recognise 
the sanctity of the Gospel morality, and yet you do not hesi- 
tate to condemn it for what it prescribes concerning the passions. 
But do you know that to declare a moral code bad or useless, 
or inapplicable in relation to the passions, is little less than to 
condemn it in its totality ? Have you not remarked that the 
greater part of moral precepts deal with the regulation and re- 

1 60 L e tiers of Balmcz. 

pression of the passions ? If then, the morality of the Gospel 
is not suited to them, of what use is it ? 

You assert the Gospel precepts are much too severe in their 
opposition to irresistible instincts of nature ; and as regards 
some of its counsels, you venture to say it will be hard to per- 
suade you they are comformable with reason and prudence. 
You hold that the secret of directing the passions is to leave 
them a safety-valve to avoid an explosion, and regard the 
neglect of this maxim as one of the capital defects of the code 
of the Gospel. You do not object to its declaring culpable 
acts which introduce disturbance into families, and even those 
which tend to multiply the population, while the fruit of the 
incontinence is abandoned to public charity ; but you cannot 
believe its rigor should be carried so far as to prohibit the very 
thought, and declare him culpable, in the eyes of God, who 
should admit levity into his heart, though he abstain from 
everything repugnant to nature, or that could entail injury on 
the family or society. Avoiding the discussion to which your 
objection might tend under many aspects, and circumscribing 
ourselves to the prudential point of view, I maintain the 
moral code of the Gospel is so profoundly wise and prudent in 
its so called harshness, that it would be much more harsh if 
moulded after your doctrines. This assertion may appear to 
you extravagant, and yet, I flatter myself with being able to 
support it with such reasons, that you shall find yourself com- 
pelled to suscribe to my opinion. 

As you appear fond- of the study of the heart, I shall ven- 
ture to ask you, whether, supposing an act to be prohibited, it 
is more difficult to secure obedience by prohibiting the desire 
of it also, or allowing it to roam at will ? I hold it as certain, 
that it is much more easy to make a man avoid what he can- 
not even desire, than what he cannot do, but the desire of 
which is not prohibited. said there is as little distance 
between the thought and the execution, as between the head 
and the arm ; and daily experience tells us that he who has 
conceived vehement desires of possessing an object, seldom 
hesitates at employing the means of attaining it. 

Precisely in this very matter in which we are engaged 
reason becomes so blinded, and the passions preponderate to 
such a degree, that he who allows himself to be hurried away 
by them becomes degraded and stupified, and disregards his 
honour, his property, his health, nay, even his very life, and, 
in a passion like this, do you think prudence would advise the 
desire to be permitted but the execution prohibited ? You 
unhesitatingly assert that the prohibition which extends to 
the desire is cruel, without adverting that true harshness is 

L e tiers of B a lines. 1 6 1 

found in your system alone, for it tantalises a man, and pre- 
sents to him pure and crystalline waters, but will not allow 
him to quench his thirst. Reflect maturely on these observa- 
tions, and you shall find that real harshness is found, not in the 
Gospel, but in your code ; that in yours, under the appearance 
of indulgent suavity, a real torture is applied to the heart, 
while, in that of the Gospel, the peace and tranquility of vir- 
tuous souls is secured by prudent and timely severity. The 
man who knows it is not lawful to indulge even in a bad 
thought, firmly rejects it the moment it occurs to him, and 
does not allow passion to blind him ; the man who believes 
there is no sin but in the execution, endeavours to gratify the 
inclinations of nature, and deceives himself with the hope that 
pleasure in the thought or desire cannot lead him to commit 
the act ; but the moment reason and the will abdicate their 
sovereignty, even under the express condition they should 
not be carried beyond the limits of duty, it is impossible for 
them to restrain the turbulent passions which, emboldened 
by the first concession, would demand to be completely 

Between religion and the philosophers who, under dif- 
ferent names, attack her, there is this great difference : 
the former establishes as a principle the absolute necessity of 
nipping the passions in the bud, believing it will be so much 
the more difficult to subject or direct them by how much the 
more growth they are allowed to make ; whilst the latter 
hold the most irregular passions are to be allowed a certain 
expansion, beyond which they must be restrained. And is 
it not strange that this course is pursued by men who have no 
means of subduing the heart but sterile discourses, whose 
impotence is manifested whenever they have to struggle with 
a passion rnore or less vehement, while religion, which has so 
many means of influencing the understanding and the will, 
and lording it over the entire man, adopts quite a different 
course ? Religion, founded by God Himself, adheres to a 
prudent rule, and regards the prevention of the evil as better 
than its cure, applying the remedy when it is insignificant to 
avoid doing so when it is great ; but clever mortals, opening 
the dyke for the waters, allow them to flow freely, determined, 
when they have reached a certain limit, to cry out to them 
" Stay here, farther you shall not go ! " 

I know not, my esteemed friend, if you be convinced by 
the reasons I have assigned in defence of the moral code of 
the Gospel, and against that of the philosophic system. You 
cannot, however, deny these considerations are not to be 


1 62 Letters of Balmcz. 

despised, as they are founded in the very nature of man, 
and on the teaching of daily experience. What \ve have said 
of the most turbulent and dangerous passion that afflicts 
miserable mortals, can be applied to all the rest, though the 
saying that there is no remedy but in flight is peculiarly 
verified in it, a sentence profoundly wise and prudent, warning 
a man of how much importance it is not to lose dominion 
over himself, because once he has given rein to them, it is 
very difficult to restrain the passions. 

We can apply to the individual what happens in society. 
If the supreme power, whose duty it is to govern, begins to 
yield to the exigencies of those who should obey, their 
demands will daily increase, and its authority will become 
degraded in proportion as it loses ground, until in the end an 
anarchy supervenes, or an appeal is made to a violent reaction 
to recover what was lost, and establish rights which should 
never have been abdicated. The laws of order have an 
analogy even in their application to very dissimilar things 
it might be said to be the self-same law without other 
modification but what is indispensably necessary to suit it to 
the species of subject to be governed by it. 

I remarked that what I had said of the voluptuous passion 
could be applied to the others, and I shall make you feel it 
by attacking you in the most sensitive part, which is philan- 
thropy ; for you, philosophers, cannot bear to have your ardent 
love for humanity called in question. You constantly extol 
the precept of universal fraternity, which, according to the 
religion of Jesus Christ, makes all men members of the same 
family. From this Commandment comes the prohibition to 
injure our neighbour ; and, according to our principle, not 
only we cannot injure him, but we cannot even entertain the 
desire of doing so, and look on it as a sin to simply indulge 
in a thought of vengeance.. 

Well, now, if we apply your theory to the present case, 
we shall have to condemn the Christian code as unduly harsh, 
and limit ourselves to declaring it unlawful to commit an 
act that may injure our brethren, but illicit to entertain a 
thought or desire of doing so. And so your fine fraternity 
may be expressed thus: "Fellowmen, injure us not by 
word or deed, for by doing so you would break through the 
rules of sound morality, and offend the God who created you, 
not that you might act to each others prejudice, but that you 
might live together in peace and harmony. Thus far are you 
bound by the law ; but entering into the sanctuary of your 
own interior, you are at perfect liberty to desire what evil you 

L etters of Balnuz. 1 63 

wish to other men, certain that by so doing you are guilty 
of no fault, for God is not so cruel as to prohibit not only the 
act but even the thought and desire." Does not the precept 
of charity of universal fraternity look rather curious and 
strange, if explained in this way ? And yet it is thus ex- 
plained by you, for I have done no more than collect together 
different parts of your system to render the contrast more 

The radical vice of such a system consists in its putting the 
interior at variance with the exterior ; in supposing it right to 
limit moral obligations to external acts ; in establishing a 
species of civil morality which, in ultimate analysis, is nothing 
more than a purely human jurisprudence, without other object 
but to secure public tranquillity. This is the result of your 
doctrines. And it is no way strange ; for what more natural, 
when God is exiled from the world, and no religion admitted 
when the divine influence on the acts of men is ignored, than 
that they should be considered in the purely external order, and 
have no importance in the eyes of the philosopher but inas- 
much as they are capable of producing some exterior good, 
or causing some exterior evil. By removing God, or what is 
the same, by destroying religion, you destroy the interior 
man, and reduce all morality to a combination of well- 
calculated utilities. 

These consequences may be disagreeable to you, and I 
have no doubt you will make an effort to reject them ; but 
to avoid disputes, I beseech you to turn back and follow the 
thread of my argument, convinced that if you do so with 
impartiality, you must acknowledge my words are not false 
or exaggerated. 

In the meantime, to show how palpable are the errors and 
the inconveniences of the doctrine you hold with such security, 
I will make an application of this precept of universal fra- 
ternity, not considered in its prohibitive but in its preceptive 
part. Once admitted the evil of actions is in the external 
act alone, we must also admit their goodness will be in the 
exterior also ; and so we shall perform a laudable act by doing 
good to our neighbour, but not by desiring it. But do you 
know whither this principle leads us ? Would you believe 
it does nothing less than destroy at one fell swoop that uni- 
versal fraternity so extolled by the philanthropy of philoso- 
phers ? What is the love which is limited to exterior acts ? 
Is any love true which does not exist in the heart ? Is it not 
this which language indicates, when it distinguishes between 
beneficence and benevolence the doing good and the desiring 

164 Letters of Balmez. 

it ? Is not the latter as well as the former a praiseworthy 
virtue ? If a person cannot be beneficent, because he lacks 
the means, is he not worthy of praise if he be benevolent, 
that is, if he has the desire of doing the good which it is out 
of his power to accomplish? If a person does good, does 
he not desire it before he does it ? That is to say, is not 
the beneficent man benevolent first ? And is he not beneficent 
because he is benevolent ? I do not know whether you will 
look at things from this point of view, but I can say for myself 
I consider the desire and the act so united, that they appear 
to me things of the same order, and as if the one were the 
complement of the other. And, as far as beneficence is con- 
cerned, I will go farther, when I represent to myself a man 
v/ho does good from any motive whatever, but at the same 
time does not entertain in his heajt an affectionate desire, 
which impels him to act ; that is, when I see beneficence 
without benevolence, either I do not conceive an act of virtue 
there, or at least, I find it lame and devoid of the beautiful 
adornments that render it agreeable and enchanting. 

Now, my dear friend, you must see the Christian religion 
is not so far astray in introducing herself into internal acts 
in extending her commandments and prohibitions even to the 
most hidden things we execute in the lowest depths of our 
conscience ; and that to accuse her of harshness in the matter 
is to upset not only religious morality, but even that taught 
by the light of reason. Thus are things joined which appeared 
quite distant ; thus are virtues united with an intimacy so 
close, that whoever dares to deny one finds himself obliged to 
reject many others, which, perhaps, he respects and venerates 
with all sincerity and reverence. From these considerations 
I wish you would draw this consequence that we should 
not isolate religious questions too much when we come to 
examine them, for by doing so we run the risk of mutilating 
the truth, and a mutilated truth is an error. Infidels and 
sceptics almost always fall into this mistake : they take up 
a dogma, a moral precept, a practice or ceremony of religion ; 
they separate it from everything else ; they analyze it, pre- 
scinding from all the relations it has with other dogmas, 
precepts, practices, or ceremonies ; they look at but one side 
of it, and endeavour to make the ceremony appear ridiculous, 
the practice irrational, the precept cruel, the dogma absurd. 
There is no order of truths that will not fall to the ground 
if examined in this way ; because its truths are not considered 
as they are in themselves, but as the caprice of the philoso- 
pher has regulated them in the closet of his mind. In such 

Letters of Bn/mt's. 165 

a case phantasms are created which do not exist ; the real 
enemies are avoided, and war made on imaginary ones with 
whom it is in no way dangerous to contend. 

When one has to deal with the most sweet and seducing sen- 
timents, it is not difficult to deceive the incautious by repre- 
senting to them as an innocent expansion what is in reality a 
deadly poison. Thus, for example, in the difficulty you 
raise in you letter, what is more comformable to the instincts 
of nature, to the softest impulses of the heart, than the doc- 
trine you hold ? " What !" you say, " is it not enough to pro- 
hibit the acts which might entail evil results on society, the 
family, or the individual ; but must you penetrate into the 
interior of the soul too, and then take delight in tormenting 
the poor heart by obliging it to abstain from these exhalations, 
which, rather than crimes, God should regard as the innocent 
alleviations of nature. If the evil be not consummated, whom 
does the desire injure ? Is it possible the Creator can take 
umbrage at the most inoffensive acts of the creature ?" These, 
my friend, are what are called sentimental strokes, and deci- 
sive arguments for candid and ardent souls, anxious to find a 
doctrine to excuse their weakness, and tone down the austerity 
of the morality they learned from the catechism. But they are 
really dangerous sophisms, which do not conduce to the well- 
being and consolation of those in whose favour they are made, 
but on the contrary, sadly corrupt and lead them astray. 
" What ! " one might reply, imitating your tone ; " will you be 
so cruel as to allow the sweet fresh liquid to approach our lips, 
and not allow us to partake of it ? Are you so cruel as to 
give passion the reins in the interior, and refuse it a safety- 
valve in the exterior ? Can you be so cruel as to unchain the 
tempests in the depth of the heart, kept agitated and tor- 
mented by you on all sides, without giving it freedon to alle- 
viate its pains, and, by extending the storm, to make it less 
intense and grievous ? Oh ! close the door entirely or allow 
of a remedy ; do not set the interior man at such variance 
with the exterior the heart with its works. As you beast of 
your humanity, endeavour to render your false indulgence less 

As regards the point, whether God can be indignant at the 
interior acts of the creature, we might say : " What ! if rela- 
tions exist between God and man if the Creator has not 
abandoned his creature if he regards it yet as an object of 
care, is it not clear is it not evident, that the understanding 
and the will, that is, what is most precious in man what 
renders him capable of knowing and loving his Maker what 

1 66 Letter of tJte Irish Bishops. 

raises him above the brute what constitutes him king of 
creation is not that, we repeat, what should be regarded as 
the object of the solicitude of the Supreme Ruler ; and should 
we not feel certain He does not attend to exterior acts, but 
inasmuch as they come from the sanctuary of the con- 
science, where he delights to be known, loved, and adored ? 
What is man if we prescind from his interior ? What is mora- 
lity, if not applied to the understanding and will ? Is that 
doctrine well-founded, which mercilessly destroys what is most 
independent and dignified in man, whilst it boasts of being in- 
stinct with the sentiments of morality ?" 

Be persuaded, my dear friend, that there is no truth or 
dignity in anything that opposes religion ; and what appears 
at first sight noble and generous, is base and degrading. And 
apropos of philanthropic sentiments, beware of those sudden in- 
spirations, which may appear to you decisive arguments, but 
which, when examined at the light of religion, or even sound 
philosophy, are nothing but unfounded reasonings, or conclu- 
sions from unsound principles, conducing to establish the 
dominion of matter over spirit, and let loose the voluptuous 
passions on the world. 

See if any service can be done you by your fond and affec- 
tionate friend 

J. B. 



Quae adversus Sanctitatem Tuam proxime elapsis diebus a 
perditis hominibus Romae gesta sunt, maximo dolore et animi 
indignatione nos omnes Hiberniae episcopos, et clerum et 
populum fidelem curae nostrae concreditum, affecerunt. Cum 
enim ut Beati Petri successorem et infallibilem Christi vica- 
rium Te veneremur, et praecipuo quodam amore prosequamur, 
fieri non potuit quin acerbissimae *nobis essent injuriae Tibj 
illatae, et omni reprobatione digni isti homines haberentur, qui 

Letter of the Irish Bishops. 167 

adversus Dominum et Christum cjus tumultuantes urbem 
ipsam Romam, apostolorum principum sanguine consecratam, 
totius Christiani populi communem patriam aggressi fuerint, at- 
queexpugnaverint, tequeinsuper omnium catholicorum patrem, 
et doctorem captivum constitucrint ; et contra omnia jura 
divina et humana sacrum tuum principatum et saeculorum 
diuturnitate firmatum, et ecclesiae libertati servandae omnino 
necessarium penitus delere conati fuerint. 

Haec scelera et sacrilegia adeo atrocia nobis visa sunt, et 
tanto moerore nos affecerunt, ut vix loqui et doloris et indig- 
nationis sensus qui in nobis exurgunt, verbis exprimere 
possimus. Ne tamen muneri nostro erga Patrem dilectissi- 
mum deessemus, pauca haec scribenda existimavimus ut sciat 
Sanctitas Tua filios tuos ex longinquis regionibus Tecum in 
dolore tuo condolere. Eodem etiam tempore litteras gregi- 
bus nostris dandas decrevimus ut de injuriis quae amantissimo 
Pontifici et Patri irrogatae sunt, eos certiores faceremus hor- 
taremurque ut piis precibus ad Deum optimum maximum, 
atque omni alia qua possent ratione, opem Tibi afferrent. 
Inter sacrificia missae etiam et in omnibus publicis precibus 
curabimus ut orationes riant, atque obsecrationes pro inco- 
lumitate Tua ad thronum divinae misericordiae perpetuo 

Vehementer porro optamus ut tempus quam citissime veniat, 
quo populorum supplicationibus expergefactus Deus ad judi- 
candam causam suam exurgat, coecos tumultus, bella, et secre- 
et sedis apostolicae hostes ad nihilum redigat. Laetissimus 
quidem ille dies illucescet, quo profligatis portis infernorum, 
nationes Catholicae Te in libertatem vindicabunt, et urbem 
Romam et totam ditionem pontificiam Tibi et sedi apostolicae 
restituent, ita ut cum ea qua convenit libertate, res universae 
ecclesiae administrare, et concilium vaticanum tarn sapienter, 
plaudentibus omnibus Catholicis congregatum, ad felicem ter- 
minum perducere possis. 

Haec dum in votis nobis sunt, et certa esse eventura con- 
fidimus, omnia quae in nostra protestate sunt praestabimus 
ut iniquis hisce temporibus, quibus sanctissima tua jura 
audacter, impune et sacrilege impugnantur, fidem, obsequium 
et venerationem nostram et ecclesiae nostrae Hiberniae erga 
Te et Sancti Petri cathedram ostendamus et operibus com- 

Denique dolore at amaro luctu obruti ad pedes sanctitatis 
Tuae provoluti benedictionem pro nobis ct omnibus fidelibus 

1 68 

Letter of the Irish Bishops. 

gregibus nostrae curae pastoral! commissis humillime ob- 

Sanctitatis Tuae, 

Obedientissimi et obsequentissimi famuli, 
Dublini, die 19 Octobris, 1870. 


Archiepus. Dublinensis. 


Archiepus. Tuamensis. 


Epus. Alladensis. 


Epus. Corcagiensis. 


Epus. Cloynen. 


Epus. Ardferten et Agliadohen. 


Epus. Waterfordien. et Lismoren. 


Epus. Elphinensis. 


Epus. Galviensis. 


Epus. Dunen. et Connorien. 

Epus. Kilmorensis. 


Epus. Clogheren. 


Coad. Epus. Kildar. et Leigh. 


Epus. Hobartoncnsis. 


Epus. Armidalensis. 


Archiepus. Armacanus. 


Archiepus. Casseliensis, &c. 


Epus. Ossoriensis. 


Epus. Derriensis. 


Epus. Achadensis. 

*J. P. LEAHY, 

Epus. Dromorensis 


Epus. Kildarien.etLeighlien. 


Epus. Femensis. 


Epus. Rossen. 


Epus. Limericensis. 


Epus. Midensis. 


Epus. Sareptanus, Coadj.Laoneo. 


Epus. Aureliopolitanus. 


Vic. Ap. Cap. Bona?. Spei. 


Vic. Cap. Ardachadensis. 



Dilccte Fili Noster et Venerabiles Fratres, salutem et 
Apostolicam Benedictionem. Quo vividior semper in hac 
insula vestra, Dilecte Fili Noster ct Venerabiles Fratres, inter 
ipsas aerumnas religio floruit, quo impensiore studio et obsequio 
Vos, Clerusque et populus vester prosequuti constanter estis 
et proscquimini Apostolicam hanc Sedem, eo etiam acerbius 
afficii debuistis a consummatione sacrilegi illius sceleris, quo 
Nos, reliqua civilis ditionis" Nostrai parte et ipsa principe urbe 
spoliati, hostili commissi fuimus arbitrio, illaque privati 
exteriore ministerii libertate, quam supremo muneri Nostro 
obeundo plane necessarian! Ecclesia tota pronunciavit. Silicet 
iivlignantes execrari debuistis violatum jus gentium, procul- 
cata solemnia fcedera, vim brutam foedoe conjunctam 
hypocrisi ad populos decipiendos, vulnus atrox Ecclesiae 
in ejus Capite inflictum, immanem injuriam illatam universae 
familiae Catholicae, religionem, mores, publicam privatamque 
tranquillitatem summum in discrimen adductos. Et quoniam 
sincera dilectio sejungi nescit ab opere, consistere ncquivistis 
in hujusmodi indignationis sensibus, sed credito vobis populo 
perspectum facere voluistis criminis impietatem, ne a vetera- 
torum dissimulatione et fraudibus deciperetur, eumque 
excitare ad oppressae Ecclesiae causam quae sua quoque est, 
communi reclamatione, petitionibus, et omni, qua fas est, 
ratione tuendam atque juvandam. Quae sane omnia cum de 
sacrorum jurium agatur etreligionis defensione, si juxta leges 
fiant et moderante ecclesiastica auctoritate, sicuti sincerum 
religionis amorem praeferent et piirum divini honoris zelum, 
sic nequibunt non esse perutilia. Sed acceptissimum omnium 
habemus, Vos orationem cum piis operibus conjunctam sua- 
sisse populo vestro et auribus omnium inculcasse. Utut enim 
humana ope impetrata, coercerentur malorum cftcctus, resque 
materiales restituerentur ; cum de bello agatur ad versus 
Deum ubique ferme conflato, eumque e rejectis passim sanae 
docrinae principiis invectaquc monstrosa errorum colluvie 
manavcrint ille sacrarum rerum comtemptus illud cujusvis 
auctoritatis odium ilia corruptio unde facinora proccsserunt, 
quae lamentamur; parum certe proficeretur ncc quidquam 

1 70 Documents. 

duraturum constitui posset, nisi funditus ipsa malorum radix, 
quod solius Dei est, extirpetur. Ad ipsum itaque clamare 
non cessemus, ut exurgat tandem et judicet causam suam ; 
et qui humanae pariter et religiosae societatis est auctor, utrique 
periclitanti succurrat dispulsisque errorum tenebris et luce 
veritatis reducta, det gloriam nomini suo, libertatem Ecclesiae, 
orbi pacem. Nos gratissimo officiis vestris animo copiosa 
caelestis gratiae munera vobis, Dilecte Fili Noster et Venera- 
biles Fratres, Cleroque et populo uniuscujusque vestrum votis 
omnibus adprecamur ; supernique favoris auspicem et praeci- 
puae Nostrae benevolentiae testem Apostolicam Benedictionem 
universis peramanter impertimus. 

Datum Romae apud Sanctum Petrum die 17, Novembris, 
anno 1870. 

Pontificatus Nostri Anno Vicesimoquinto. 





IXESPICIENTES ea omnia, quae Subalpinum Gubernium 
pluribus ab annis non intermissis molitionibus gerit ad ever- 
tendum civilem Principatum singulari Dei providentia huic 
Apostolicae Sedi concessum, ut Beati Petri successores in 
exercitio spiritualis suae jurisdictions necessaria ac plena liber- 
tate et securitate uterentur, fieri non potest, W. FF., ut in 
tanta contra Ecclesiam Dei et Sanctam hanc Sedem conspira- 
tione intimo cordis Nostri dolore non moveamur ; atque hoc 
tarn luctuoso tempore, quo idem Gubernium sectarum perdi- 
tionis consilia sequens, sacrilegam almae Urbis Nostrae et re- 
liquarum civitatum, quarum Nobis imperium ex superiori 
usurpatione supererat, invasionem quam jamdiu meditabatur, 
contra omne fas vi armisque complevit, dum Nos arcana Dei 
consilia coram Ipso prostrati humiliter veneramur,illamprophe- 
tae vocem usurpare cogimur "ego plorans et oculus^meus dedu- 

Documents. \ 7 1 

cens aquas, quia longe factus est a me consolator convertens 
animam meam : facti sunt filii mei perditi quoniam invaluit 
inimicus." 1 

Satis quidem W. FR, a Nobis exposita et catholico orbi 
jamdiu patefacta est nefarii hujus belli historia, idque fecimus 
pluribus Allocutionibus Nostris, Encyclicis, Brevibusque 
litteris diverse tempore habitis aut datis, nempe diebus I 
Novemb. an. 1850, 22 Jan. et 26 Julii 1855, 18 et 28 Julii et 
26 Sept. 1859, 19 Jan. 1860, ac Apostolicis Litteris 26 Martii 
1860, Allocutionibus deinde 28 Sept. 1860, 18 Martii et 30 
Sept. 1 86 1 et2O Sept, 17 Octob. et 14 Novem. 1867. Horum 
documentorumserie perspectae atque exploratae fiunt gravissi- 
mae injuriae a Subalpino Gubernio iam ante ipsam Ecclesias- 
ticae ditionis superioribus annis incoeptam occupationem 
Supremos Nostrae et hujus Sanctae Sedis auctoritati illatae, 
turn legibus contra naturale, divinum et ecclesiasticum jus 
rogatis, turn sacris ministris, religiosis familiis et Episcopis 
ipsis indignae vexationi subjectis, turn obligatam solemnibus 
conventionibus cum eadem Apostolica Sede initis fidem in- 
fringendo, atque earum inviolabilc jus praefracte denegando 
vel eo ipso tempore, quo novas Nobiscum tractationes inire 
velle significabat. Ex iisdem docu mentis plane liquet, VV. 
FF., totaque videbit posteritas, quibus artibus et quam callidis 
ac indignis molitionibus idem Gubernium ad justitiam et 
sanctitatem jurium hujus Apostolicae Sedis opprimendam 
pervenerit ; ac simul cognoscet quae curae Nostrae fue- 
rint in illius audacia, quae augebatur in dies, quantum 
in Nobis erat compescenda atque in Ecclesiae causa vindi- 
canda. .Probe nostis anno 1859 ab ipsa Subalpina potestate 
praecipuas Aemiliae civitates submissis scriptis, conspira- 
toribus, armis, pecunia ad perduellionem fuisse excitatas ; nee 
multo post, comitiis populi indictis, captatisque suffrages 
plebiscitum confictum esse, eoque fuco et nomine provincias 
Nostras in ea regione positas a paterno Nostro imperio, bonis 
frustra refragantibus, avulsas. Perspectum quoque est, anno 
deinde consequuto idem Gubernium ut alias hujus S. Sedis 
provincias in Piseno, Umbria et Patrimonio sitas in praedam 
suam converteret, dolosis pratextibus adductis, improviso 
impetu milites Nostros et voluntariam Catholicae iuventutis 
manum, quae religionis spiritu et pietate erga communem 
Parentem adducta ex omni orbe ad defensionem Nostram 
convolaverat, magno circumvenisse exercitu, eosque tarn 
subitam irruptionem minime suspicantes, impavide tamen pro 
religione certantes cruento proelio oppressisse. Neminem 
Jfttet insignis ejusdem Gubcrnii impudentia et hypocrisis, qua 

1 Jerem. thr. i. 16, 

172 Documents. 

ad minuendam sacrilegae hujus usurpations invidiam jactare 
non dubitavit sc illas invasisse provincias ut principia moralis 
ordinis ibi restitueret, dum tamcn rcipsa ubique falsac cujus- 
que doctrinae diffusionem cultumque promovit, ubique cupidi- 
tatibus ct impietati habenas laxavit, immcritas etiam poenas 
sumens de Sacris Antistitibus, de Ecclesiasticis cujusque 
gradus viris, quos in custodiam abripuit et publicis contumcliis 
vexari pcrmisit, cum interea insectatoribus et iis qui ne 
Supremi quidem Pontificatus dignitati in persona humilitatis 
Nostrae parcebant, impune esse pateretur. Constat praeterea, 
Nos debito officii Nostri munere non solum iteratis semper 
obstitisse consiliis et postulationibus Nobis oblatis, quibus 
agebatur ut officium Nostrum turpiter proderemus, vel scilicet 
juribus et possessionibus Ecclesiae dimissis ac traditis, vel 
nefaria cum usurpatoribus conciliatione inita ; verum etiam 
Nos iniquis hisce ausibus et facinoribus contra omne humanum 
et divinum jus perpetratis solemnes protestationes coram Deo 
et hominibus opposuisse illorumque auctores et fautores 
Ecclesiasticis censuris obstrictos declarasse et quatenus opus 
esset iisdem censuris in illos denuo animadvertisse. Denique 
exploratum est, praedictum Gubernium in sua contumacia 
suisque machinationibus nihilominus perstitisse, rebellionem- 
que in reliquis Nostris provinciis et in Urbe praescrtim promo- 
vere immissis perturbatoribus ac omnis generis artibus sine 
intermissione curavisse. Hisce autem conatibus minime ex 
sententia procedentibus propter inconcussam Nostrorum 
militum fidem, Nostrorumque populorum amorem ac studium 
insigniter et constanter Nobis declaratum, turbulentam demum 
illam tempestatem in Nos erupisse anno 1867, quum Autumni 
tempore conversae in Nostros fines et hanc Urbem fuerunt 
perditissimorum hominum cohortes scelere et furore inflam- 
matae et subsidiis Gubernii ejusdem adjutae, quorum ex 
numero occulti plures in ipsa hac Urbe pridem consederant ; 
atque ab earum vi crudelitate et armis omnia Nobis Nostris- 
que dilectissimis subditis acerba et cruenta timenda erant, uti 
liquido apparuit, nisi Deus misericors earumdem impetus et 
strenuitate Nostrarum copiarum et valido legionum auxilio 
ab inclyta natione Gallica Nobis submisso irritos reddidisset. 
In tot vero dimicationibus, in tanta periculorum, sollicitu- 
dinum, acerbitatum serie maximum Nobis interim Divina 
Providentia solatium conferebat ex praeclara vestra, W. FF., 
vestrorumque Fidelium crga Nos ethane Apostolicam Sedcm 
pietate ac Studio, quod et insignibus significationibus editis et 
catholicae charitatis operibus jugiter demonstrastis. Et 
quamquam gravissima in quibus versabamur discrimina vix 
aliquas Nobis inducias rclinqucrent, nihil tamcn unquam, Deo 

Documents. 173 

Nos confortante, curarum remisimus, quae ad temporalcm 
subditorum Nostrorum prospcritatcm tuendam peftinebant ; 
ac quae esset apud Nos tranquillitatis et securitatis publicae 
ratio, quae optimarum quarumcumquedisciplinarum etartium 
conditio, quae populorum Nostrorum erga Nos fides et voluntas 
omnibus nationibus facile innotuit, ex quibus advenae frequen- 
tissimi in hanc Urbcm occasione praesertim plurium celcbri- 
tatum, quas peregimus, sacrorumque solemnium certatim omni 
tempore confluxerunt. 

Jamvero cum res ita se haberent nostrique populi tranquilla 
pace fruerentur, Rex Subalpinus ejusque Gubernium capta 
occasione ingentis inter duas potcntissimas Europae nationes 
flagrantis belli, quarum cum altera pepigerant se inviolatum 
servaturos praesentem ecclesiasticae ditionis statum, nee a fac- 
tiosis violari passuros, protinus reliquas dominationis Nostrae 
terras Sedemque ipsam Nostram invadere et in suam potesta- 
tem redigere decreverunt. At quorsum haec hostilis invasio, 
quaenam causae praeferebantur ? Notissima profecto cuique 
sunt ea quae in Epistola Regis die 8 proxime elapsi 
Septembris ad Nos data et per ipsius Oratorem ad Nos 
destinatum Nobis tradita disseruntur, in qua longo 
fallacique verborum et sentcntiarum ambitu, ostentatis 
amantis filii et catholici hominis nominibus causaque obtenta 
publici ordinis, Pontificatus ipsius et personae Nostrae servan- 
dae, illud poscebatur, ne temporalis nostrae potestatis ever- 
sioncm velut hostile facinus vellemus accipere, atque ultro 
eadem potestate cederemus, futilibus confisi sponsionibus ab 
ipso oblatis, quibus vota, ut ajebat, populorum Italiac cum 
supremo spiritualis Romani Pontificis auctoritatis jure et liber- 
tate conciliarentur. Nos equidem non potuimus non vehemen- 
ter mirari, videntes qua ratione vis quae Nobis brevi inferenda 
crat obtegi et dissimulari vellet, nee potuimus non dolere in- 
timo animo vicem Regis ejusdem qui iniquis consiliis adactus 
nova in dies Ecclesiae vulnera infligitethominum magis quam 
Dei respectu habito non cogitat esse in caelis Regem regum et 
Dominum dominantium, qui "non subtrahet personam 
cujusquam, nee verebitur magnituclinem cujusquam quoniam 
pusillum et magnum ipse fecit, fortioribus autem fortior 
instat cfuciatio." 1 Quod autem attinet ad propositas 
Nobis postulationes cunctandum Nobis non esse censuimus, 
quin officii et conscientiae legibus parentes, Pracdcces- 
sorum Nostrorum exempla sequeremur, ac praesertim fel. rec. 
Pii VII., cujus invicti animi sensa ab eo prolata in simili pror- 
sus causa, ac Nostra est, hie uti Nobis communia exprimere ac 
usurpare juvat " Memincramus cum S. Ambrosio 2 Nabnth 
1 Sap. VI. Set 9. De Basil, trad. n. 17. 

i/4 Documents. 

Sanctum virum possessorem vincae suae interpcllatum petitione 
regia ut vincam suam daret, ubi rex succisis vitibus olus vile 
sercret, eumdtm rcspondisse : absit ut ego patrum mcorum tra- 
dam hatreditatem. Multo hinc minus fas esse Nobis judicavi- 
mus tarn antiquam ac sacram haereditatem (temporale scilicet 
Sanctae hujus Sedis Dominium non sine evidenti Providentiae 
divfriae consilio a Romanis Pontificibus preadecessoribus 
Nostris tarn longa saeculorum serie possessum) tradere, aut vel 
tacite assentiri ut quis Urbe principe Orbis Catholici potiretur, 
ubi perturbata destructaque sanctissima regiminis forma, quae 
a Jesu Christo Ecclesiae Sanctae Suae relicta fuit, atque a Sa- 
cris canonibus Spiritu Dei conditis ordinata, in ejus locum 
sufficeret Codicem non modo sacris Canonibus, sed Evangelicis 
etiam praeceptis contrarium atque repugnantem, inveheretque, 
ut assolet, novum hujusmodi rerum ordinem quiad consocian- 
das confundendasque sectas superstitionesque omnes cum 
Ecclesia Catholica manifestissime tendit. 

" Nabuth vites suas vel proprio cruore defendit) Num po- 
teramus Nos, quidquid tandem eventurum esset Nobis, non 
jura possessionesque Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae defendere, 
quibus servandis, quantum in Nobis est, solemnis jurisjurandi 
Nos obstrinximus religione ? vel non libertatem Apostolicae 
Sedis cum libertate atque utilitate Ecclesiae universae adeo 
conjunctam vindicare ? 

" Ac quam magna revera sit temporalis hujus Principatus 
congruentia atque necessitas ad asserendum Supremo Ecclesiae 
Capiti tutum ac liberum exercitum spiritualis illius, quae di- 
vinitus Illi toto orbe tradita est, potestatis, ea ipsa, quae nunc 
eveniunt (etiamsi alia deessent argumenta) nimis jam multa 
demonstrant." 2 

His igitur inhaerentes sensibus quos in pluribus Allocution- 
ibus Nostris constanter professi sumus, responsione Nostra ad 
Regem data, injustas ejus postulationes reprobavimus, ita 
tamen utacerbum dolorem Nostrum paternaecharitati conjunc- 
tum ostenderemus, quae vel ipsos filios rebellem Absalon imi- 
tantes nescit a sua sollicitudine removere. Hisce autem litteris 
nondum ad Regem perlatis, ab ejus interea exercitu pontificiae 
Nostrae ditionis intactae hactenus et pacificae urbes occupatae 
fuerunt, praesidiariis militibus, ubi resistere conati fuerant, 
facile disjectis ; ac brevi deinde infaustus ille dies proxime 
elapsi Septembris vicesimus illuxit, quo hanc Urbem Aposto- 
lorum Principis Sedem, Catholicae religionis centrum omnium- 
que genitum perfugium multis armatorum millibus obsessam 
vidimus, factaque murorum labe et excussorum missilium 
terrore intra ipsam illato, vi et arm is expugnatam deplorare 

1 S. Ambr. ibid. * Litt. Apost. 10 lun. 1809. 

Documents. 175 

dcbuimus cjus jussu, qui paulo ante filiali in Nos afifectu et 

fideli in rcligionem animo esse tarn insigniter professus fucrat 

Quidnam Nobis ac bonis omnibus illo die luctuosius esse 

potuit ? in quo copiis Urbem ingressis, magna factiosorum 

adventita multitudine repleta Urbe, vidimus statim publici 

ordinis rationem perturbatam et eversam, vidimus in Nostrae 

humilitatis persona Supremi ipsius Pontificatus dignitatem et 

sanctitatem impiis vocibus impetitam, vidimus fidelissimas 

Nostrorum militum cohortes omni contumeliarum genere 

affectas, atque effrenem late licentiam ac petulantiam domi- 

nari, ubi paulo ante filiorum affectus communis Parentis moe- 

rorem relevare cupientium eminebat. Ab eo deinde die ea sub 

oculis nostris consequuta sunt, quae non sine iusta bonorum 

omnium indignatione commemorari possunt : nefarii libri 

mendaciis, turpitudine, impietate referti ad facilem emptionem 

proponi coepti et passim disseminari ; multiplices ephemeri- 

des in dies vulgari ad corrupteiam mentium et honesti moris 

ad contemptum et calumniam religionis, ad inflammandam 

contra Nos et hanc Apostolicam Sedem publicam opinionem 

spectantes ; foedae indignaeque imagines publicari, aliaque 

hujus generis opera, quibus res personaeque sacrae ludibrio 

habentur et irrisioni publicae exponuntur ; decreti honores et 

monumenta iis qui judicio et legibus poenas gravissimorum 

criminum dederunt ; Ecclesiae ministri, in quos, omnis con- 

flatur invidia, plures injuriis lacessiti, ac aliqui etiam prodi- 

toris percussionibus sauciati ; nonnullae religiosae domus 

injustis conquisitionibus subicctae ; violatae Nostrae Quirinales 

domus, atque ex iis ubi Sedem habebat unus e S.R.E. Cardi- 

nalibus violento jussu raptim abire coactus, aliique Ecclesi- 

astici viri e familiarium Nostrorum numero ab illarum usu 

exclusi et molestiis affecti ; leges et decreta edita quae liberta- 

tem, immunitatem, proprietates et jura Ecclesiae Dei mani- 

feste laedunt ac pessumdant ; quae mala gravissima latius 

etiam nisi Deus propitius avertat, progressura esse dolemus, 

dum Nos interim ab ullo aliquo remedio afferendo conditionis 

Nostrae ratione praepediti vehementius in dies admonemur de 

ea captivitate, in qua sumus ac de defectu plenae illius liber- 

tatis, quam Nobis relictam esse in Apostolici Nostri ministerii 

exercitio Orbi mendacibus verbis ostenditur, et necessariis, 

quas appellant, cautionibus firmari velle ab intruso Gubernio 


Neque hie praeterire possumus immane facinus quod vobis 
profecto innotuit, W. FF. Perinde enim ac Sedis Apostolicac 
possessiones et jura tot titulis sacra atque inviolabilia, ac per 
tot saccula semper explorata ct inconcussa habita in contro- 
\ crsiam ac disceptationem rcvocari possent, et quasi censurae 

176 Documents. 

gravissimae quibus ipso facto et absque ulla nova declaratione 
violatores praedictorum jurium et possessionum innodantur, 
popular! rcbellione atque audacia vim suam amittere possent 
ad sacrilegam quam passi sumus expoliationem honestandam, 
communi naturae ac gentium jure despecto, quaesitus est 
ille apparatus ac ludicra plebisciti species alias in provinciis 
Nobis ademptis usurpata ; et qui exultare sclent in rebus 
pessimis hac occasione rebellionem et ecclesiasticarum censur- 
arum contemptum, veluti triumphali pompa, per Italicas urbes 
praeferre non erubuerunt, contra germana sensa longe maximae 
Italorum partis, quorum religio devotio ac fides erga Nos et 
Ecclesiam Sanctam multis modis compressa, quominus libere 
manare possit, impeditur. 

Nos interim qui a Deo universae domui Israel regendae et 
gubernandae praepositi et supremi religionis ac justitiae 
vindices et Ecclesiae jurium defensores constituti sumus, ne 
coram Deo et Ecclesia tacuisse ac silentio Nostro tam iniquae 
rerum perturbationi assensum praestitisse redarguamur, reno- 
vantes et confimantes, quae in superius citatis Allocutionibus 
Encyclicis ac Brevibus litteris alias solemniter declaravimus 
ac Novissime in protestatione, quam jussu ac nomine Nostro 
Cardinalis publicis negotiis praepositus ipso vicesimo Septem- 
bris die, ad Oratores, Ministros et Negotiorum gestores exter- 
arum nationum apud Nos et hanc S. Sedem commorantes 
dedit, solemniori quo possumus modo iterum coram Vobis, 
W. FR, declaramus, Nostram mentem propositum et volun- 
tatem esse omnia hujus S. Sedis dominia ejusdemque jura 
integra intacta inviolata retinere atque ad successores Nostros 
transmittere ; quamcumque eorum ursurpationem, tam modo 
quam antea factam, injustam violentam nullam irritamque 
esse, omniaque perduellium et invasorum acta, sive quae 
hactenus gesta sunt, sive quae forsitan in posterum gerentur 
ad praedictam usurpationem quoquo modo confirmandam, 
a Nobis etiam nunc pro tune damnari, rescindi cassari et 
abrogari. Declaramus practerea et protestamur coram Deo 
et universe orbe Catholico Nos in ejusmodi captivitate 
versari, ut supremam Nostram pastoralem auctoritatem 
tuto expedite ac libere minime exercere possimus. Tandem 
monito illi S. Paulli obtemperantes " Quae partici- 
patio injustitiae cum iniquitate ? aut quae societas luci 
ad tenebras ? Quae autem conventio Christi ad Belial," 1 
palam aperteque edicimus ac declaramus, Nos memores officii 
Nostriet solemnis iurisiurandi quo tenemur nulliunquam con- 
ciliation! assentiri vel assensum praestituros quae ullo modo 
jura Nostra atque adeo Dei et Sanctae Sedis destruat vel 
1 2 Cor. cap. VI. 14 et 15. 

Documents. 177 

imminuat : itidcmque profitcmur Nos paratos quidcm divinae 
gratiae auxilio, gravi Nostra aetatc, usque ad fcccm pro Christi 
Ecclcsia caliccm bibere qucm Ipsc prior bibcrc pro cadem 
dignatus cst, nunquam commissures ut iniquis postulationibus 
quae Nobis offcruntur adhacrcamus atquc obsccundemus. 
Uti enim praedeccssor Noster Pius VII. ajcbat : " vim huic 
summo Sedis Apostolicae impcrio affere, tcmporalem ipsius 
potestatem a spirituali discerpere, Pastoris et Principis munia 
dissociare, divellcre, exscindere, nihil aliud est nisi opus Dei 
pessumdare ac pcrdere velle, nihil nisi dare operam ut Rcligio 
maximum detrimentum capiat, nihil nisi earn efficacissimo 
spoliare praesidio, ne summus ipsius Rector, Pastor Deique 
vicarius in Catholicos quoquo terrarum sparsos alque inde auxi- 
lium et opcm flagitantes, confcrre subsidia possit, quae a 
spirituali Ipsius, per nemincm impedienda, petuntur potes- 
tate." 1 

Quoniam vero Nostra monita, expostulationes et protesta- 
tiones in irritum cesserunt, idcirco auctoritate omnipotentis 
Dei, SS. Apostolorum Petri et Pauli ac Nostra Vobis, W. 
FR, ac per Vos universae Ecclcsiae declaramus, eos omncs 
qualibet dignitate etiam specialissima mentione digna, ful- 
gentes, qui quarumcumque provinciarum Nostrae ditionis atque 
almae hujus Urbis invasionem, usurpationem, occupationem 
vel eorcm aliqua perpctrarunt, itcmque ipsorum mandantes, 
fautores, adjutores, consiliarios, adhaerentes vel alios quoscum- 
que praedictarum rerum exequutionem quolibet praetextu ct 
quovis modo procurantes vel per seipsos excquentes, majorcm 
excommunicationem aliasque censuras et poenas ecclesiasticas 
a sacris Canonibus, Apostolicis constitutionibus et gencralium 
Conciliorum, Tridentini pracsertim (Sess. 22. c. II de Reform.) 
decretis inflictas incurrisse juxta formam et tcnorem cxpressum 
in supcrius commcmoratis Apostolicis litteris Nostris die 26 
Mart. a. 1860 datis. 

Memorcs vero Nos ejus locum tenere in terris qui venit 
quaerere et salvum facere quod perierat, nihil magis optamus 
quam devios filios ad Nos revertentes paterna charitate com- 
plccti ; quare Icvantes manus Nostras in caelum in humilitate 
cordis Nostri dum Deo, cujus cst potius quam Nostra, justissi- 
mam causam rcmittimus et commcndamus, Eum per viscera 
misericordiae suae obsecramus obtestamurque, ut adsit prae- 
senti auxilio Nobis, adsit Ecclcsiae suae, ac miscricors et pro- 
pitius efficiat ut hostes Ecclesiac aeternam perniciem quam 
sibi moliuntur cogitantes, formidandam ejus justitiam ante 
diem vindictae placare contcndant, et mutatis consiliis 

l Alloc. I CMartii 1808. 
VOL. VII. 12 

i/8 Decree placing the whole Church 

Sanctae Matris Ecclesiae gemitus Nostrumque moerorem 

Quoverohujusmondi tarn insignia beneficia a divina demen- 
tia assequamur, Vos enixe ac summopere hortamur, W. FF., 
ut una cum Fidelibus cujusque Vestrum curaeconcreditis, ves- 
tras fervidas preces Nostris votis conjungatis, atque omnes 
simul ad thronum gratiae et misericordiae adeuntes Immacu- 
latam Deiparam Virginem Mariam et Beatos Apostolos Pe- 
trum et Paullum depracatores adhibeamus. " Ecclesia Dei 
ab exortu sui usque ad haec tempora pluries tribulata est, 
et pluries liberata est. Ipsius vox est : saepe expugnaverunt 
me ajuventute mea, ctcnini non potuentnt miki. Supra dor sum 
tneum fabricaverunt pcccatores, prolongaverunt iniquitatem 
suam. Nee nunc quoque relinquet Dominus vigam peccatorum 
super sortem justorum. Non est abbreviata manus Domini, 
nee facta impotens ad salvandum. Liberabit et hoc tempore 
absque dubio sponsam suam qui suo sanguine redemit earn, 
suo spiritu dotavit, donis caelestibus exoraavit, ditavit nihilo- 
minus et terrenis." 1 

Interim uberrima caelestium gratiarum munera Vobis, W. 
FF., cunctisque Clericis Laicisque Fidelibus cujusque Vestrum 
vigilantiae commissis a Deo ex animo adprecantes, praecipuae 
Nostrae ergo vos charitatis pignus Apostolicam Benedictionem 
Vobis Ipsis eisdemque Dilectis Filiis ex intimo corde deprom- 
tam peramanter impertimus. 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum die I Novembris Anno 

Pontificatus Nostri Anno Vicesimoquinto. 




Quemadmodum Deus Josephum ilium a Jacob Patriarcha 
progenitum praepositum constituerat universae terrae Aegypti 
ut populo frumenta servaret, ita temporum plenitudine adven- 
tante cum Filium suum Unigenitum mundi Salvatorem in 

1 S. Bern. Ep. 244. ad Conradum Reg. 

Under tJu Patronage of St. Joseph. 179 

terram missurus esset alium srlegit Josephum, cujus ille primus 
typum gestaret, quemque fecit Dominumet Principem domus 
ac possessionis suae, principaliumque thesaurorum suorum 
custodem elegit. Siquidem desponsatam sibi habuit Immacu- 
latam Virginem Mariam, ex qua de Spiritu Sancto natus est 
Dominus Noster Jesus Christus, qui apud homines putari 
dignatus est filius Joseph, illique subditus fuit. Et quern tot 
reges ac prophetae videre exoptaverant iste Joseph non tantum 
vidit, sed cum eo conversatus, eumque paterno affectu corn- 
plexus, deosculatusque est ; necnon solertissime enutrivit 
quern populus fidelis uti panem de coelo descensum sumeret 
ad vitam acternam consequendam. Ob sublimem hanc digni- 
tatem quam Deus fidelissimo huic servo suo contulit, semper 
Beatissimum Josephum post Dciparam Virginem ejus Spon- 
sam Ecclesia summo honore ac laudibus prosecuta est, ejus- 
demque interventum in rebus anxiis imploravit. Verum cum 
tristissimis hisce temporibus Ecclesia ipsa ab hostibus undi- 
que insectata adeo gravioribus opprimatur calamitatibus, ut 
impii homines portas inferi advcrsus earn tandem praevalere 
autumarent, ideo, Venerabiles universi Orbis Catholici Sacro- 
rum Antistites suas ac Christifidclium eorum curae concredit- 
orum preces Summo Pontificio porrexerunt, quibus petebant 
ut Sanctum Josephum Catholicac Ecclesiae Patronum con- 
stituere dignaretur. Deinde cum in Sacra Oecumenica Syno- 
do Vaticana easdem postulationes etvota enixius renovassent, 
Sanctissimus Dominus Noster PIUS Papa IX. nuperrima ac 
luctuosa rerum conditione commotus ut potentissimo Sancti 
Patriarchae Josephi patrocinio Se ac Fideles omnes commit- 
teret Sacrorum Antistitum votis satisfacere voluit, eumque 
declaravit ; illiusque festum die decimanona Martii occurrens, 
in posterum sub ritu duplici primac classis, attamen sine octava 
ratione Quadragesimae, celebrari mandavit. Disposuit insuper 
ut hac die Deiparae Virgini Immaculatae ac castissimi Josephi 
Sponsae sacra hujusmodi declaratio per praesens Sacrorum 
Rituum Congregationis Decretum publici juris fierit. Con- 
trariis non obstantibus quibuscumque. 

Die VIII. Decembris anni 1870. 


Loco * Sigilli 

D. Bartolini S. R. C. Secretaries. 

1 80 Decree. 

Rme. Domine 

Sanctissimus Dominus Noster PIUS Papa IX. satisfacere 
volens postulationibus omnium ferme Sacrorum Antistitum 
in Oecumenica etiam Vaticana Synodo manifestatis Sanctum 
Patriarcham Josephum Deiparae Virginis Sponsum declaravit 
Ecclesiae Catholicae Patronum, ut ipsa in misserima hac tem- 
porum augustia plurimis exagitata calamitatibus, iilius patro- 
cinio destructis tandem adversitatibus ac erroribus universis 
secura Deo serviat libertate. Etsi autem Sanctissimus idem 
Dominus praefati Sancti Josephi natale Festum die XIX. 
Martii occurrens sub ritu duplici primae classis in posterum 
celebrari mandaverit, tamem a redintegrando in eodem Festo 
duplici praecepto sese absttnuit, voluitque ut per praesentes 
Sacrorum Rituum Congregationis Litteras significaretur Lo- 
corum Ordinariis Se libenter eoram votis esse satisfacturum 
si Ordinarii ipsi inspectis Locorum ac Temporum nee non 
resnectivi Gubernii voluntate ita in Domino expedire judican- 
tes supplicia vota sua huic Sanctae Sedi Apostolicae porrex- 
erint ad redintegrationem in hujusmodi Festo utriusque prae- 

Interim ut Amplitudo Tua diu felix et incolumis evadat 
ex animo adprecor. 

Ex Secretaria Sacrorum Rituum Congregationis hac die 
8 Decembris 1870. 

Uti Frater. 

Dominicus Bartolini S. R. C. Secretarius. 
Rmo. Domino 








" R. Pater Victor De Buck e Societate Jesu commentarium 
quoddam de Sancta Eusebia Give Bergomate Virgine et 
Martyre in Lucem edidit in volumine duodecimo Actorum 
Sanctorum Bollandianae Collectionis ad diem 29 Octobris, 
quo in commentario plura congessit argumenta, quibus ipse 
martyrium inficiari conatus est, non solum Sanctae ipsius 
Eusebiae, sed et Sanctorum Domni et Domnionis ac aliorum 
martyrum Bergomensium. Quum autem praefati Sancti 
Eusebia Domnus et Domnio inter Patronos minus principales 
Civitatis recenseantur ac insigni devotionis ac pietatis sensu 
a concivibus suis honorentur, ad avertendum scandalum, quod 
praefata opinio inter fideles praesertim Civitatis Bergomae, 
erit allatura, Rmus. D. Petrus Aloisius Speranza Episcopus 
Bergomen, supplici dato libello, Sacrorum Rituum Congrega- 
tionem adiit enixe deprecans, ut hujus negotii examen ipsa 
susciperet, ac decerneret quid sentiendum esset de hujus 
Bollandiani Scriptoris commentario. Instante itaque prae- 
fato Rmo. Episcopo, Emus, et Rmus. D. Cardinalis 
Carolus Sacconi hujus Causae Ponens designatus in ordinariis 
Comitiis hodierna die ad Vaticanum habitis sequens dubium 
discutiendum proposuit, nimirum "An Argumenta allata a 
Patre de Buck probent in casu ?" 

" Emi. porro ac Rmi. Patres sacris tuendis Ritibus 
praepositi, licet prae oculis habuerint summam utilitatem 
quam Ecclesiae Catholicae attulit magna Bollandiana Collectio 
adversus heterodoxorum de Cultu Sanctorum commenta ; 
tamen, accuratissime perpensis omnibus Documentis ad 
Causae hujus elucidationem copiose adductis, hanc edixere 
sententiam, videlicet "Argumenta allata a patre De Buck 

1 82 Letter of His Holiness to Sister M. F. Clare, 

adversus traditionem, quae respicit Sanctos Martyres de quibus 
agitur, nihil probant" Die 2O August! 1870. 

" Facta autem de praedictis per infrascriptum Sacrae 
ejusdem Congregationis Secretarium SSmo. Domino 
Nostro Pio Papae IX. fideli relatione, Sanctitas Sua senten- 
tiam Sacrae Congregationis ratam habere ac confirmare 
dignata est. Mandavit insuper ut admoneantur omnes 
Cultores studiorum Historiae Ecclesiasticae et Sacrae Archeo- 
logiae, ut quandocumque agitur de Sanctis vel Beatis, qui, 
approbante SanctA Sede, sunt in possessions publici Cultus 
Ecclesiastic^ caute se gerant, ac pre oculis habeant regulas Jiac 
de retraditas a Benedicto XIV. in Litter is Apostolicis de nova 
Martyrologii Romani Editione n. 2 et 1 8 : De Servorum Dei 
Beatificatione et Canonizatione Lib. IV. Par. II. Cap. XVII. 
n 9 et 10. Ibidfm Lib. IV. Part. II. Cap XIII. n. 7 et 8, 
ubi agitur de Breviario Romano. Die I Septembris anni 

C. Episcopus Portuen. et S. Rufinae 

CARD PATRIZI S. R. C. Praefectus 
Loco * Sigilli. 

Dominicus Bartolini S. R. C. Secretarius, 




DILECTA in Christo Filia, Salutem et Apostolicam Benedic- 
tionem. Gratulamur tibi, Dilecta in Christo Filia, quod pro- 
lixum ac difficile opus, cui vix pares esse posse sexus tui vires 
videbantur, ad exitum perduxeris ea felicitate, quae piorum 
ac doctorum laudes promeruerit. Nee gaudemus tantum 
quod per scitam copiosamque lucubrationem hanc gloriam 
promoveris insignis Hiberniae Apostoli, Sancti Patritii, pieta- 
temque fidelium in eumdem succenderis ; sed etiam de Ec- 
clesia tota bene merucris. Nam per ipsam descriptionem 
gestorum tanti viri, largita hominibus a Catholica religione 
beneficia. subiecisti oculis ita, ut in dubium revocari nequeant, 

Congratulating her on the Life of St. Patrick. 1 83 

Nee cnim sola fidci lux occurrit ab ilia allata, ad populum, 
qui sedebat in tenebris et in umbra mortis, sed feri ac barbari 
mores ita simul reformati et compositi, ut insula isthaec, veluti 
in alium con versa, Insula Sanctorum appellari meruerit. Clerus 
autem ab eodem ubique constitutus, una cum religione ac 
pietate ita coluit promovitque scientiam, ut dum Europa tota 
barborum incursu vastabatur, et opprimebatur ignorantiae 
tenebris, tutum litteris ac disciplinis perfugium exhibuerit, et 
confluentem undique juventutem sic exceperit et excoluerit, 
ut complures inde prodierint diversarum nationum apostoli 
innumerique viri sanctitate et doctrina celleberrimi. Atque 
tanti viri donum Hibernia debuit huic Apostolicae Sedi; et is 
non aliam Hibernis doctrinam attulit, quam quae tradebatur 
ab eadem sede, quaeque jam a christianae religionis exordiis 
gentes superstitioni erroribusque mancipatis, foedoque volup- 
tatum omnium coeno demersas, erexerat, caritate consocia- 
verat, et ad vitae cultum hominis nobilitate dignum tradux- 
erat. Quae quidem facta cum calumnias ignorantiae, obscu- 
rantismi, regressus, quibus passim Ecclesia et sanca haec sedes 
impetuntur, evidentissime refellant ; vita certe Sancti Patritii 
a te concinnata eo merito draestat, ut hoc beneficium cuique 
exhibuerit eo praestantius ac validius quod ultra fluat ab ipsa 
factorum narratione. Cum autem perennitatem fructuum 
operis Sanctissimi Praesulis demiremur in constantia tuae 
gentis nulla unquam insectatione, vi, machinatione, calamitate 
dejecta per tot saecula ; non immerito confidimus fore, ut per 
instauratam nunc a te veterum eventuum ac gloriae memoriam 
piissimus hie populus studiosius etiam incendi debeat ad 
preclara majorum suorum vestigia terenda. Hunc certe suc- 
cessum ominamur labori tuo, dum divini favoris auspicem, et 
paternae, Nostrae benevolentiae pignus, Apostolicam Bene- 
dictionem tibi et sororibus tuis peramanter impertimus. 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum 

die 6 Octobris, Ano 1870. 
Pontificatus Nostri Anno Vicesimoquinto. 

1 84 




[N.B. Thetextofthe "Monasticon" is taken verbatim from Archdall : the notes 
marked with numbers are added by the Editors.] 


1484. In a general chapter of this order, held at Rome 
the loth of November, a licence was granted to Maurice 
Moral, prior provincial, to reform this convent. w 

e,p. 87. 

* The site of the present city of Cork was, in the beginning of the sixth century, 
a low, marshy tract, through the centre of which flowed the waters of the Lee. 
When this river overflowed its banks the whole country presented the appearance 
of an immense lake, which was called in those early times Lough Eirce. 

It was at the source of the river Lee, near Lough Allua, that St. Finbarr erected 
his first cell ; and to the present day that district, now situated in the parish of 
Inchigeelagh, recalls his memory in the classic name of " Cougane Barra" which 
means " the lonely retreat of St. Finbarr." Thence, however, he soon removed to 
the banks of Lough Eirce, and erected there his chief school and monastery, which 
became so illustrious for its learning and sanctity, that innumerable students and 
pilgrims flocked to it from every part of our island. '' Here in this solitude the saint 
laid the foundation of his monastic establishment : it grew rapidly, became a crowded 
city, a school for learning, a college for religion, a receptacle for holy men, a sanc- 
tuary for the oppressed, an asylum for the poor, an hospital for the sick. " (Hairs 
Ireland, ii., 214.) 

From the peculiarity of the site chosen for the monastery, the city received its 
name of Corcach Bascain, or simply Corcach, that is, 'a marsh.' 

Colgan has given a short account of this famous school, and preserved the names 
of some of the most illustrious saints who flourished there: "After these things, 
St. Barra came to a place which in the Irish language is called Loch-Erce, near 
which he constructed a monastery, to which, as to the abode of wisdom, and sanc- 
tuary of all Christian virtues, disciples flowed in crowds from every quarter in so 
great numbers, through zeal of holiness, that, from the multitude of the monks and 
cells, it changed that desert, as it were, into a large city : for from that school 
which he instituted there, numerous men came, remarkable for holiness of life and 
the praise of learning, amongst whom were conspicuous St. Eulangius or Eulogius, 
the instructor of St. Barra himself, St. Colman, of Dore Dhunchon, St. Bathinus, 
St. Nessan, St. Garbhan, son of Findbarr, St. Talmach, St. Finchad of Ross- 
ailithir, St. Lucerus, St. Cumanus, St. Lochinus of Achadh-airaird, St. Carinus, 
St. Fintanus of Ros-coerach, St. Euhel de Roscoerach, St. Trellanus of Druim- 
draighniche, St. Coelchuo, St. Mogenna, St. Modimochus, St. Sanctanus, and St. 
Lugerius, son of Columb. All these, and many others that came from that very 
celebrated school, by the merits of holiness and virtue, constructed cells in different 
places, and consecrated themselves and all these to St. Barra, their father and 
master, and his successors." (Acta Sanctorum, p. 607.) 

The name of St. Findbarr holds a prominent place in the early history of the 
Irish Church. St. Cuimin of Connor, in his poem on the characteristic virtues of 
our saints, writes : 

"Fin-Barr, the torch of wisdom, loved 
Humility towards all men ; 
He never saw in pressing distress 
Any one whom he would not relieve, " 

A ncitnt Monasteries of Ireland. \ 8 5 

2Oth December, 35th King Henry VIII. a grant was 
made to William Boureman of this monastery and its ap- 

Tn the ancient list of Irish saints, which illustrates their lives by comparison with 
the saints of other nations, St. Finbarr, who is styled "Bishop of Minister and 
Connaught," is placed in parallel with St. Augustine, the apostle of England. 
(Liber Ilymnorum, I.A.S., p. 70. ) 

The martyrology of Donegal marks St. Bairre's festival on the 25th of September. 
The martyrology of Tallaght on that day gives the feast of Barrind Corcaige, but 
adds, on the 26th of September vel hie, Barrind Corcaighe. In the famous Cata- 
logue of the Three Orders of Irish Saints, published by Fleming and Usher, the 
name of S. Barrindau appears among the saints of the second order. Marianus 
O'Gorman, in his metrical martyrology, prays: 

"May the noble Baire from Corcach 
Be before me to the great land, 
For he is blooming-sweet to the poor." 

St. ./Engus, in his Ff/irf, also commemorates on the 25th of September : 

"The solemnity of the beloved man, 
The festival of Bairre from Corcach." 

And the note is added in the Leabhar Breac: "This is the festival of Bairre 
from Corcach : he was of the race of Brian, son of Eochaidh Muidhmhedhoinn, 
and it is in Achadh Cill-Clochair, or Drochait, in Aird-Uladh on this day with 
Bairre." There is evidently an omission in this note, which is thus supplied in the 
Roman MS. of the felirt : "Of the race of Brian Mac Eochaidh M. was Bairre 
of Corcach, and it is in Achadh Cill-Clochair. or at Drochait in Aird-Uladh, that 
his festival is kept ; or it is the feast of lomchadh that is kept in Cill-Clochair at 
Ard-Uladh on this day with llairre." 

Two ancient Latin lives of St. Finbarr were published by Mr. Caulfield in 1864. 
In the Irish life preserved in the Brussels MSS. the virtues of the saint are thus 
compendiated : "His humility, his piety, his charity, his abstinence, his prayers 
by day and by night, won him great privileges : for he was godlike and pure of 
heart and mind, like Abraham ; mild and well-doing, like Moyses; a psalmist, like 
I >a\ id ; wise, like Solomon; firm in the laith, like Peter; devoted to the truth, like 
Paul the Apostle; and full of the Holy Spirit, like John the Baptist. He was a 
lion of strength, and an orchard full of apples of sweetness, \\hen the time of his 
death arrived, after erecting churches and monasteries to God, and appointing over 
them bishops, priests, and other degrees, and baptising and blessing districts and 
people, Barra went to Kill na-Cluana (i.e. Cloyne), and with him went Fiana, at 
the desire of Cormac and Baoithin, where they consecrated two churches. Then 
he said, ' It is time for me to quit this corporeal prison, and to go to the heavenly 
King who is now calling me to Himself.' And then Barra was confessed, and 
received the Holy Sacrament from the hand of Fiana, and his soul went to heaven, 
at the cross which is in the middle of the Church of Cloyne ; and there came 
bishops, priests, monks, and disciples, on his death being reported, to honour him. 
And they took him to Cork, the place of his resurrection, honouring him with 
psalms and hymns and spiritual songs ; and the angels bore his soul with joy un- 
speakable to heaven, to the company of the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, and 
disciples of Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Trinity, the Father, Son, and Holy 

We will not attempt to give in detail any sketch of the life of this great saint. 
A few facts will suffice for our present purpose: "This most holy and elect of 
God, and most worthy priest, Barr(it is thus his ancient Latin life begins), was born 
of the sept called loruin-Katha, of Connaught, whose territory in after times 
became the Diocese of Enaghdune." He had for his master a religious named 
Corporitts, styled in our Irish calendars Mac-Cuirp, who himself had been trained 
to piety in Rome, in the monastery of St. Gregory the Great. St. Finbarr was 
remarkable for miracles from his infancy ; and it is recorded in his life that, in 
company with SS. Colgu, Macdhoc, and David, and twelve religious of his own 
monastery, he made a pilgrimage to Rome. St, Gregory the Great predicted his 

1 86 A ncient Monasteries of Ireland. 

purtenances, with three small gardens containing two acres, 
a water-mill, two stangs of land, a fishing pool, half a sal- 
mon-weir, three acres of arable land called the Half Skeagh- 

promotion to the episcopate, which was fulfilled on his return to Ireland ; and at 
the same time a fountain of oil, symbolical of the abundance of graces with which 
his ministry should enrich our Church, sprung forth in that spot, " close to the altar, 
where a cross was in after times erected, and where the saint's remains were also 
for a time deposited." (Lynch 's MS. Hist.) 

Having governed his monastery and see for seventeen years, St. Finbarr was 
summoned to his heavenly reward, and the 25th of September is marked in all the 
ancient calendars for his festival. It was at the monastery of Cloyne, fifteen miles 
from Cork, that St. Finbarr rested in peace ; but his remains were translated to his 
own great monastery, and being deposited for a while beneath the monumental 
cross at his cathedral church, they were subsequently encased in a silver shrine, and 
exposed to the veneration of the faithful. They were thus preserved till the year 
1089, when, as the Annals of Innisfallen relate, "A fleet, with Dermot O'Brien, 
devastated Cork, and carried away the relics of Barre from Cill-na-Clerich." 

St. Nessan, the immediate successor of St. Finbarr, was also renowned for his 
sanctity : he died in the year 551. So numerous were the holy men who flourished 
here, or wished their remains to be interred in the great Sanctuary of Lough-Eirce, 
that St. ^Engus, about the year 800, writes : " Seventeen holy bishops, and seven 
hundred favoured servants of God, who rest in Cork with Barri and Nessan, whose 
names are written in the heavens all these I invoke unto my aid, through Jesus 
Christ." And again, he invokes all the saints who, by their prayers and peniten- 
tial deeds, had sanctified that district : "Three hundred and fifty holy bishops, 
three hundred and fifty priests, three hundred and fifty deacons, three hundred and 
fifty exorcists, three hundred and fifty lectors, three hundred and fifty ostiarii, and 
all the saints, with the blessing of God, in Loch Eirchi, in the territory of Mus- 
craighe and Hy-Eachach Cruadha, as is said : 

" The protection of Loch Irchi, 

In which is a sweet-toned bell : 
Numerous as leaves upon trees, 
Are the saints who around it dwell. 

"All these I invoke to my aid, through Jesus Christ." (Irish Ecelesiastical 
Record, vol. iii., p. 391.) 

Among the sacred treasures of Cork was preserved a copy of the Gospels, tran- 
scribed by St. Finbarr, and encased in a precious shrine: " Evangelium sacris 
Sancti Barrii digitis exscriptum librum gemmis auroque ornatum. " (Lynches MS.) 
Towards the close of the loth century, Columb Mac Kieregan sent this relic, borne 
by two priests, as a protection to Mahoun Mac Kennedy, King of Munster. It 
was brought back stained with that prince's blood, and our annalists relate that 
Bishop Cormac, raising his hands to heaven, uttered a prophecy (inserted in the 
' Wars of the Danes,' p. 93,) in which, execrating the dread sacrilege which had 
been perpetrated, he prophetically foretold the future fate of the murderers. 

St. Bernard, in his life of St. Malachy, has preserved to us an interesting account 
of the appointment of a bishop of this see in the year 1 140. We will give in full 
the narrative of this great doctor of the Church : " About the year 1 140 a vacancy 
occurred in the see of Cork ; dissensions followed, each party being desirous of 
electing one pleasing to themselves, heedless of the choice of God. Malachy hear- 
ing of such dissensions, proceeded thither. Having assembled the clergy and 
people, he restored to union their hearts and their desires, for all agreed to leave 
the selection of their future bishop to him whose pastoral solicitude extended to that 
and to all the other churches of Ireland. He then chose for the see, not one of 
the princes of the land, but one from among the poor, whom he knew to be holy 
and learned, and one, moreover, who was not a native of that diocese. This person 
being sought for, was found laid up with illness, and so weak that he was unable to 
proceed abroad, except when borne on the arms of assistants. Then Malachy said, 
'In the name of God I command him to arise: obedience will restore him to 
health.' What was the poor man now to do ? He was anxious to ohf y, but he was 

A ncient Monasteries of Ireland. \ 87 

begge, ten other acres of arable, and twenty acres of arable 
and twenty of pasture in Galverston ; to hold the same in 
capite for ever, at the annual rent of 6s. ox/, sterling. ww 
1578. This year, in the month of October, to the great 

^Aud. Gen. 

unprepared to do so ; and even were he able to go thither, yet he feared the epis- 
copal ministry. Thus the twofold enemy of sickness and fear of the burden strug- 
gled against his desire to obey; nevertheless this was victorious, the hope of salva- 
tion coming to its aid. Therefore he makes an effort ; he raises himself up ; he 
tries his strength ; he finds that his strength has increased. With his material 
strength his faith also increases, and this, too, becoming more robust, reflects its 
firmness on his physical powers. And now he arises by himself ; he moves about 
without difficulty; he feels no fatigue in walking. At length, without the help of 
an assistant, he proceeds, sane and courageous, to Malachy, who placed him in the 
see, amidst the applause of the clergy and people. Thus was all done in peace : 
for, seeing the miracle, no one dared to resist the decision of Malachy, and neither 
did he who was chosen make further opposition, seeing that the will of God was 
so manifestly made known." {Vita S. Malackta, cap. viii.) 

Lynch, in his MS. History, justly supposes that the holy bishop thus chosen by 
St Malachy was Giolla-Aedha O Muidhin, who took part in the Synod of Kells 
in 1 152, and who is celebrated in our Annals as " a man full of the grace of God, 
the tower of virginity and of wisdom in his time." He was of the Muinter-aedh, 
on the borders of Lough Con, and as he was still living when St. Bernard wrote, 
his name is not mentioned in the above narrative. He restored the church and 
rebuilt the monastery which, in after times, was called from him " Gille- Abbey" 
His death is marked in our Annals in the year 1172. 

He was succeeded by Bishop Gregory, who governed the see fourteen years. 
He made a grant of the Church of St. Nessan, in Cork, to the monks of St. 
Thomas, Dublin, together with its lands, tithes, and other offerings, on condition 
of the payment of a cask of wine annually. A charter of Dermot, King of 
Munster, during his episcopate, makes known to us another church of this city, 
dedicated to St. John the Evangelist. This important document is as follows : 

"Dermot, by favour of Divine Providence, King of Munster, to all the faithful 
people greeting and peace for ever, 

" Being fully persuaded of the fleeting nature of human memory, and of the 
unstable pomp of a perishable world, we have on that account decreed to record 
in writing the affectionate zeal with which our father, Cormac of blessed memory, 
King of Munster, built and confided to the protection of his people the Church of 
St, John the Apostle and Evangelist, at Cork, lor the use of Archbishop Maurice 
and his successors, and for the pilgrims out of Connaught, the compatriots of 
St. Barre. 

" And now having succeeded to our paternal Kingdom, relying upon the Divine 
assistance, we have undertaken, for the salvation of our soul, and of the souls of 
our parents, to defend the said church in such manner as it becomes royal munifi- 
cence to do, and to re-edify and enlarge the same, in honour of the saints under 
whose protection the said place is known to be". Be it therefore known to all the 
faithful, that we do confirm, for all time to come, to the said foundation, all that 
the said place now justly possesses, either by the paternal donation, or by the 
grants of other kings ; for my glorious father, the King, bestowed upon the said 
place Lysnoldarrah, and Diarmid O'Connor endowed it with Aillina Carrigh. 

" And be it known, furthermore, that we have ourselves granted to the said pil- 
grims the lands of Ilia, and by this our charter do confirm the same : and our illus- 
trious son Cormac, at the request of Catholicus, Archbishop of Tuam, has granted 
in perpetuity to God and to St. John, the lands of Maeldulgi, for the salvation of 
his soul and of ours, to be enjoyed freely and without molestation, and exempt 
from all secular services, which grant of said lands we also hereby confirm. 

"Now, finally, we do take under our protection the said monastery, with the 
aforesaid lands, which we exempt from all secular charge, and yield freely and. 

1 88 Ancient Monasteries of Ireland. 

grief of the Irish inhabitants, the bishops did publicly burn, 
at the high cross in this town, the image of St. Dominick, 
which had belonged to this monastery.* 

1 War. Bp$.p. 564. 

peaceably to God for all time to come. And lest at any time any one should pre- 
sume to call in question the truth of those former grants, or of this our present 
grant, we have authenticated this charter with the impression of our seal, and de- 
livered it, in the presence of fitting witnesses, to the King of Connaught, to be 

" And the following are witnesses, on the part of the clergy and people : 

" CHRISTIAN, Bishop of Lismore, Legate of the 

Apostolic See. 

" DoNAT, Archbishop of Cashel. 
" GREGORY, Bishop of Cork. 
" BRICIUS, Bishop of Limerick. 
" BENEDICT, Bishop of Ross. 
" MATTHF.W, Bishop of Cloyne. 
" DONAT, Abbot of Mayo. 
" GREGORY, Abbot of Cong. 
" EUGENE, Bishop of Ardmore." 

Of the old church thus repaired, the steeple is the only part that now remains. 
A round tower formerly stood in the church-yard, but all traces of it have long 
since disappeared. A Frenchman, M. De la Boullaye, who travelled in Ireland 
in 1644, and published an account of his tour, at Paris, in 1653. writes that ' In 
one of the suburbs of Cork there is an old tower, ten or twelve feet in circum- 
ference, and more than one hundred feet high, which they firmly hold to have been 
built by St. Barre." And speaking of the ruins of Gill-Abbey, he says they are 
situated at the distance of one mile from Cork, ' ' opposite the well called by the 

English Sunday Spring, to the south side of the sea Here is a cave, which 

extends far under the ground, where, they say, St. Patrick resorted often for 
prayer." This is the cave referred to in our ancient writers as the " ant 'rum Sancti 
Finbarri." The MS. of Dive-Downes, who was Protestant Bishop of Cork 
towards the close of the iyth century, describes the parish of St. Finbarr as com- 
prising the parishes of St. John, Rinn-Mahon, St. Stephen, St. "N icholas, and St. 
Mary-de-Narde. He adds : " There is one mass-house in the parish ; 'tis now 

ruinous Colman Sarsfield is Popish priest of this and the united parishes ; 

he has been here about four or five years. He has a mass-house (the one above 
referred to) near Red-Abbey. He was bred at France, in the Irish 
seminary. Sarsfield says Mass twice every Sunday morning ; and the rest of the 
priests in Ireland, by order from the Pope, have the privilege of saying two Masses 
in one day, by reason of the great extent of most parishes or unions." 

Some of the details of this MS. of Dive-Downes are full of interest, and throw 
considerable light on the condition of Ireland, and especially of the See of Cork 
about the year 1700. Thus he tells us that 20 was given at the time for 
bringing in a Tory. Again, that Teigue Dash was prosecuted for having a 
harper playing in his house on Sunday, " In the'parish of Ardnageehy, 
David . Terry, Papist, gives the seventh part of his milk to the poor. In 
Abbeysrowry, the rector or vicar usually demands, besides his burying fees, 
when the man of the family, or widow, dies worth jf5, the sum of 13*. 4*f. as 
a mortuary ; if the man dies worth less than .5, they demand his second-best 
suit of clothes, or 6j. 8</. in lieu thereof. In Dromdaleague parish, Felix 
M 'Carthy is priest ; he was here before the late troubles. A Protestant school- 
master complains that Papists teach publick school in this parish. In Caharagh 
parish 'tis thought that there are forty Papists for one Protestant; William Guricheen, 
a very old man, is priest there. In Cannaway parish no church, no Protestants- 
there are the ruins of a house in the churchyard ; there is a vault whole ; the priest 
built an altar in it about a year ago, when some person of note was buried. Denis 
Sweeney is Popish priest of this parish and Macromp." Of Durrus, hftwrites " Si. 

A ncient Monasteries of Ireland. \ 89 

This house, which stood in an island called Cross-green, 
on the south side of the town, is now entirely demolished.* 

> 'Smith, vol. i,/. 388. 

Faughnan is the patron saint of this parish. Not far from Bantry, by the sea- 
side, are the ruins of an abbey which belonged to the Franciscans. I don't hear 
that there were any other religious houses l>esides this in the barony of Becra and 
Bantry. Humphrey Sullivan is Popish priest of this parish and of Kilcroghan, he 
has been here about twelve years. All the inhabitants are Papists. No Papists 
are allowed to live within the walls of Bandon. The Earl of Cork in his leases 
has obliged all the tenants not to admit Papists. In the parish of Skull, there are 
about four Protestant families, and about four hundred Papist families. Daniel 
Carthy is Popish priest of the eastern part of this parish ; he has been here ever 
since before the late troubles. No glebe in this parish, no Registry-book, nor Bible, 
nor Common Prayer-book. In Kilmoe, there are the ruins of a chapel at the 
west -end of the town, dedicated to St. Mullagh. The church of Kilmoe is 
dedicated to St. Briana, alias Brandon, whose festival is observed in this parish; 
there are about nine Protestant families, and two hundred Papist. Teige Coghlen 
is Popish priest of Kilmoe and of the western part of Skull; he has been here 
about eight years. A young Irishman, a Papist, teaches school about the 
middle of the parish. In all the O'Sullivan's country they observe as a holiday 
'St. Rooane's Day.' At Kinneigh, a high round tower stands in the south-west 
corner of the churchyard. "Tis supposed this church was formerly a cathedral. A 
stone is in the south-west corner of the church of Kinneigh. counted very sacred, 
which the Irish solemnly swear upon. The church is accounted by the Irish 
very sacred. There is a tradition that formerly in this churchyard there was a 
well that had great medicinal virtues, and that the concourse of people being 
rery chargeable to the inhabitants, they stopped it up. In Murragh, Daniel 
Hurley, a quiet man, is Popish priest of this and three or four contiguous 
parishes ; there are more Protestants than Papists ; there was a registry lately 
bought, and a Bible, and two Common Prayer-books. In Desertsurgis there 
are one hundred and fifty families of Protestants ; no Popish schoolmaster in this 
parish ; a Bible and Common Prayer-book lately bought. Denis Mahony is 
Popish priest of this parish." 

The County of Cork Grand Jury Presentments, at the close of the iyth 
century, detail some facts of the deepest interest. In 1687, they present "That 
the Protestant clergy, under colour of law, exact from the Roman Catholick subjects 
several sums of christening, purification, burying, and book money, and sue them in 
their spiritual courts, and commit them to prison, so dispeopling the country, &c., that 
therefore, your Lordship would favorably represent the same to the Government, or 
otherwise make such order that may hinder these inconveniences ; and the rather, 
because the like duties are not demanded in any other Christian country by the 
clergy, nor from any other but the Roman Catholics." In 1694, they present 
"An address to the Judge, complaining of the Popish clergy that come from 
beyond the sea, and praying for the suppression of Popish schools." In 1696, 
they state " That John Mulconry, a Popish priest, and others, are out on their 
keeping, and cannot be taken by warrant ; we, therefore, pray they may be 
ordered to surrender themselves by a certain day, or that the)' may be proclaimed 
rebels and traitors to the Government." In the following year they complain 
1 That Cornelius Crowley, alias Maddery, of Skibbercen, and Owen MacOwen 
Sullivan, of Kilcaskin parish, and others, all Irish Papists, have taught school, 
and continue to do so, contrary to the Act." In April, 1698, they present " That 
P. Morrough, Titular Vicar-General, and Dr. fohn Slyne, Titular Bishop (of 
Cork), remain in this kingdom contrary to the late Act" On I3th of August, 
1701, they also complain that "John Connelly, formerly Vicar of Rossccarbery, 
still remains in this kingdom contrary to the Act." And on 27th July, 1702, they 
again present "That John Slyne, Titular Bishop of Cork, remains still in this 
kingdom, exercising ecclesiastical jurisdiction contrary to the late Act." 

We have said that St. Finbarr first erected his cell on the banks of Lake Allua. 

1 90 A ncient Monasteries of Ireland. 

Augustinian Friary 1 ; a monastery was founded, on the 
south side of the city, in the reign of King Edward I. for 
friars following the rule of St. Augustin ;* some writers give 
this foundation to Patrick Lord Kingsale, who lived in the 
reigns of King Henry V. and VI.;* and another writer brings 
the foundation so low as 1472, or i475- b 

6th October, I9th of Queen Elizabeth, a grant was made 
to Cormac M'Teige M'Carthy of this friars and its appur- 
tenances, containing two acres, a church, &c., at the annual 
rent of ^"13 ; and for the other possessions the rent of i6s. %d. 
all Irish money . bb 

Of this building, the steeple, which is 64 feet high, and the 
walls of the church, still remain ; the east window, the only one 
in the choir, was truly magnificent, and measured 30 feet in 
height and 15 in breadth ; the whole erection was converted 
into a sugar-house, and is now called the Red Abbey. 

War. man. *Lodge, vol. 4, /. 35. *Herera, quoted by Allemande. b Mw</. Gett. 
'Smith, vol. l, p. 388. 

In after times that spot became a favorite resort of Pilgrims . Seren churches 
were erected there, and it bloomed as a garden of Paradise : 

"There is a green island in lone Gougane Barra, 
Where Allua of songs rushes forth as an arrow ; 
In deep-vallied Desmond, a thousand wild fountains 
Come down to that lake from their home in the mountains. 
There grows the wild ash, and a time-stricken willow 
Looks chidingly down on the mirth of the billow, 
As like some gay child, that sad monitor scorning, 
It lightly laughs back to the laugh of the morning ; 
And its zone of dark hills oh ! to see them all bright'ning 
When the tempest flings out its red banner of lightning ; 
And the waters rush down, 'mid the thunder's deep rattle, 
Like clans from their hills at the voice of the battle ; 
And brightly the fire-crested billows are gleaming, 
And wildly, from Mullagh, the eagles are screaming. 
Oh ! where is the dwelling in valley or highland 
So meet for a bard as this lone little island." 

At the close of the I7th century, a priest named Denis O'Mahony chose 
this spot as a penitential retreat, and restored its seven chapels. Opposite the 
island he placed a small tomb with the inscription " Hoc sibi ft' successoribus in 
eadem vocation* monumentum imposuit Dominus Doctor Dionynus (fAfahonv, 
Presbyter licet indignus, an. dom. y 1700." 

'Augustinian Friary. Inquisition 3 1st October, IV. King James, finds that the 
friars were seized of the third part of a water-mill called the upper mill of Douglas, 
on the lands of Buelibracky, and the tithes of the mill and the said lands, that 
William White and John, his son, by writing, dated XIII. Edward IV., granted 
to the friary a parcel of land in Shandon, near Cork, in breadth between the lands 
of St. John the Baptist, on the north, and the lands of the said William and John 
on the south, and in length from the land of the Grey Friars, on the west, to the 
highway on the east : 

Inquisition yth October, V. James, finds that the said mill was built by the 
O'Dalies, and that the said lands of Buelibracky contain, by estimation, two acres, 
and that the same did belong to the friary. 

A ncient Monasteries of Ireland. 191 

Carmelite Friary; Bourke is the only author who men- 
tions this house for White Friars. 

Nunnery of St. John the Baptist; William de Barry and 
John de Barry, supposed to be John Keltagh Barry, and 
styled the Lord John Barry of Hely, who was basely mur- 
dered in the year 1327^ did, together with John Fitz- 
Gilbert, and Philip Fitz-Robert, grant several carucates and 
parcels of land, tithes, and advowsons of churches, to Agnes 
de Hereford and other women, to serve God in the habit 
of nuns, in the house of St. John the Baptist, in St. John's- 
street, within the suburbs of Cork.* 

This nunnery, of which there are now no remains, was 
situated near the present market-house, and the site was 
accidently discovered in digging up some old tombs. 1 

Preceptory; there was a preceptory of the Knight's Tem- 
plars in this town, for we find that William le Chaplain 
was master of Cork about the year 1292.* 

Priory of St. Stephen; An house was founded in the 
south suburbs of this city for the support of Lepers, and 
Edward Henry was keeper of it A.D. I295. hl 

1408. November 22nd, Henry IV. granted the custody of 
this house, then vacant and in his gift, to Henry Fygham, 
chaplain, for life ;' and November 22nd, 1419, it was re- 
granted to another Henry Fygham during life. k This priory, 
when suppressed, was granted to the city of Cork, and 
about the year 1674, an hospital for poor children, now 
called the Blue-coat Hospital, was erected on the ancient 

Christ Church ; otherwise called the Church of the Holy 

Inquisition loth September, XX Queen Elizabeth, finds 
that a chantry was founded in this church for the support of 
eight priests ; to which, contrary to the statute of mortmain, 
the following grants were made ; by James White, the Church 
of St. Laurens in this city, with three messuages adjacent 
thereto, annual value, besides reprises, 3^. ^d. ; by James 

A Lodge,vol. I,/. 196. *Dugdale,vol.2,p. 1020. t Smith,vol. \,p. 389. 'Jfing; 
p. 38. b fj. p. 139. Harris's Collect, vol. 4. * King, p. 139. ^Smith, vol. I, 
/. 389. 

Priory of St. Stephen. Cormac Mac Dermody Carty and his assigns were en- 
titled when on the road to Cork, that the master of this hospital should, for the 
space of twenty-four hours, maintain and support all the horsemen and footmen 
attending the said Cormac, his heirs and assigns, with victuals, and all necessaries, 
in consideration of which the said master claimed housefoot, and firefoot out of 
the woods of said Cormac for the support, repairing, and re-edifying of the hospital 
when necessary. The master was seized of the advowsons Aghnynagh and the 
rectory of the parish churches of Mucrumphe and Clounadrohide, and the patron- 
age of the parish church of Moyviddy and Kilkollinan. 

192 A ncient Monasteries of Ireland. 

Milton, a carucate of land near Cork, in the tenure of James 
Meagh, annual value 6s. ; and by Philip Golde, a college, built 
of stone, near Christ Church, annual value, besides re- 
prises, 6s. 

St. Peter's ; The same inquisition finds, that there was a 
chantry in this church ; to which, contrary to the statute of 
mortmain, two messuages and a garden, annual value, besides 
reprises, 6s. 8d., were granted by Robert Golde, for the purpose 
of finding one priest to say mass. 

Cregan, see Timoleague. 

Cullen ; In the barony of Duhallow, and five miles and an 
half south-west of Kanturk ; near this church are some ruins 
which are said to have been an ancient nunnery. m 

Donaghmore ; In the barony of Muskerry, and six miles 
north-east of Macroomp. St. Fingene, a disciple ofc St. 
Finbarr, was abbot of Domnach mor mitine n which, in after 
ages, became a parish church, and is now called Donaghmore. 

Permoy ; A small village on the river Blackwater, in the 
barony of Clangibbon. An Abbey was founded here under 
the invocation of the Virgin Mary, for Cistertian Monks, who 
were brought hither from an abbey on the Suire, in the 
county of Tipperary ; and a new colony was afterwards intro- 
duced from the abbey of Furnes, in Lancashire. 

A.D 1226. Patrick, the prior, was made bishop of Cloyne, 
according to Sir James Ware ; but from the records it appears, 
that W. then prior of Fermoy, was elected bishop of Cloyne, 
and received the royal assent.? 

1248. The abbot was fined in the sum of 10 for divers 
offences.* 1 

1290. Maurice le Fleming made a considerable grant to 
this abbey/ 

1301. The abbot Maurice Carton fell from his horse into 
the river Funcheon, in the neighbourhood of this abbey, and 
lost his life ; 8 he was succeeded by Henry. 1 

1303. Maurice, Lord Kerry, died in this year; at which 
time Thomas, his fifth son, governed the abbies of Fermoy 
and Odorney. u 

1311. Dionysius was abbot. w 

1355. David Rawyr O' Kyff was abbot. 1 

1367. Henry was abbot, and in same year William 
Fleming was elected, who paid his homage as abbot of Fer- 
moy, to John, bishop of Cloyne, for the lands of Kilconan.? 

m Smith, vol. i, /. 302. n Act. SS. p. 258. lVar. man. PcmbridgJs Ann. and 
Ann. B.V.M. Dubl. &c. T>War. Bps. p. 575. *A'ing, p. 359. r /</. /. 282. 
Id. p. 358. */</./. 283. *Lodge, vol. 2, p. 103. "King. p. 359. *Jd. p. 282. 
y ^-A359- 

( To be continued.) 


FEBRUARY, 1871. 



Early Life of Finning; He enters the Order of St. Francis; 
Accompanies F. MacCaghivell to Rome; His Letters from 
the Eternal City; The Lives of Irish Saints, St. Peregrines, 
St. Andreiv, &c., in the Roman Libraries ; Death of Mac- 
Caghzvcll ; His Memoir, composed by Fleming ; F. Fleming 
at Ratisbonne ; The Irish Monasteries there; Various 
places where Lives or Relics of Irish Saints are preserved on 
the Continent ; F. Fleming is appointed First Guardian of 
Prague; His devotion to St. Colnmbanus ; His Martyr- 
dom; The "Collectanea Sacra;" Notes of Fleming on the 
" Cambatta" of St. Colnmbanns : the Saint's Journey to 
Rome : the Monastery of Banger, &c. ; The " Three Orders 
of Irish Saints;' Great value of the "Collectanea" at the 
present day. 

PATRICK FLEMING was born at Bel-atha-Lagain, in the 
parish of Clonkccn, county Louth, on the i/lh of April, 1599. 
The ruins of his family mansion arc still pointed out, close by 
the modern Lagan Bridge, near the junction of the three 
counties of Louth, Meath, and Monaghan. He was connected 
by birth with the noble houses of Slane 1 and Delvin, but his 
virtues and learning, still more than his family honours, 
reflected a bright lustre on his name. From a short 
biographical notice which was composed by Coljjan, and 
prefixed to Sirinus's edition of the CoLLl-x JAM A SACRA, 
we learn that Fleming received in baptism the name of 

1 See his Genealogical Table in Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. ii., page 254. 

194 Irish Historical Studies 

Christopher, and that from his infancy he gave proofs of that 
piety, sedateness, and diligence, which characterized his after 
years. At the age of thirteen he was sent to the Continent, 
to preserve him from the danger of proselytism, which was 
as imminent from the Court of Wards to the children of the 
Irish nobility, during King James's reign, as it is to the 
children of our poor from the birds' nests of the present day. 
The Rev. Christopher Cusack, uncle of Fleming, was at this 
time administrator of the Irish colleges for the secular clergy 
in Flanders ; and, indeed, these institutions mainly depended 
on his munificence for their support. Under his guidance 
Fleming pursued the humanity studies in Douay, and passed 
thence to the College of St. Anthony at Louvain, where, on 
the i /th of March, 1617, at the hands of F. Anthony Rickey, 
he received the habit of St. Francis, and assumed in religion 
the name of Patrick. 

In 1623, Father Fleming, having completed his philo- 
sophical and theological course, was chosen by Hugh 
MacCaghwell, then Definitor-General of the order of St. 
Francis, and soon after promoted to the Primatial See of 
Armagh, to be the companion of his journey to Rome. 
Passing through Paris he contracted a close friendship with 
Hugh Ward, to whom he promised a zealous and devoted 
co-operation in searching out and illustrating the lives of the 
early saints of Ireland, " in the hope," says his biographer, 
" that by promoting piety towards these holy men, their 
example might be imitated by our people, and those golden 
years be renewed amongst us which shed such lustre and 
glory on our country." 

In the last chapter we have seen the letters which were 
addressed to Ward by Father Patrick Fleming as he journeyed 
on towards the Eternal City. His subsequent letters from 
Rome furnish us with additional interesting details regarding 
his researches in the cause of Irish "history. He had passed 
through Bobbio, and discovered there, with other monuments 
of our ancient church, the precious fragments of St. Colum- 
banus, which were afterwards published in the Collectanea 
Sacra. These he forwarded without delay to Ward, and on 
the feast of St. Mary Magdalene (22nd of July), 1623, wrote 
to him as follows : 

" Write as soon as possible to let me know whether you 
have received the bundle which I sent you with the Rule of 
St. Columban, that we may no longer be in anxiety about it. 
Should you not have received it, I will transcribe these docu- 
ments again for you. The other works which I saw in Bobbio 
have not yet come to hand, but there are copies of them here 

In the Seventeenth Century. 195 

in Rome, so that'Mcssingham may be sure to have them for 
an appendix to his work, or they will suffice for a separate 
special volume, especially as the Lives I sought for, can in 
part be procured here. Thus, instead of one small volume, 
I think you may be able to publish two volumes, which will 
be far more becoming for our island of saints. 

" That you might have some idea of the treasure which I 
hope, with the blessing of God, to send you, I went with Father 
Wadding (to whom you will return due thanks for all the 
trouble he has taken with me in this matter) to the library of 
the Oratorians, where Baronius composed his Annals, and I 
found there the Life of St. Percgrinus in four large manu- 
script sheets, from which, it appears, that he was a true saint, 
and a glorious despiser of mundane vanity. I found there, 
also, the Life of St. Donatus of Fiesole, with a lengthy 
appendix of a Benedictine monk, named Cajetan, who, 
amongst other things, proves him to have come from Ireland ; 
the Life of the same saint, which is in the Minerva Library, 
where, however, it is hard to find anything, as its books are 
all upside down, states that he was ex Scotia ubi nnllum vivit 
animal vcncnosmn, which manifestly refers to Ireland. Some 
olher Lives, as, for instance, of St. Patrick and St. Brendan, 
I found there also ; but you do not require these. There are 
also some poems on St. ./Emilian, but I could not find his 
Life. I hope, in the course of time, to find much more in 
this library; and rest assured, I will not be slothful at the 
work. If I had a Religious to accompany me in the present 
great heat, I would myself copy the above Lives. Father 
Hugh MacCaghwell, however, cannot bear the heat at all, 
and thus I am obliged to defer this toil for the present. 
There is a pretty full Life of St. Andrew 'of Fiesole, who is 
espressly called Hybernus, which Father Luke Wadding has 
promised to translate into Latin for me. I will be able to 
have, without much trouble, the Life of St. Frigidian, for his 
congregation is established at Lucca, where he founded a 
monastery, still so famous throughout Italy, that there are 
some cardinals connected with it. Our Primate (Peter Lom- 
bard) saw this Life, and thinks he has a copy of it among his 
papers, and promises it to me. There are some persons in 
this city who celebrate St. Frigid ian's office, and I am sure 
we will find his Acts with some of them. 

" Be careful to mark the place and library from which you 
receive each work, that thus your history may be the more 
trustworthy, for that is a very important point, as Father Luke 
Wadding assures me, and hence he constantly marks them in 
his writings. I have in my possession the commentary of our 

196 Irish Historical Studies 

Primate, Lombard, on the affairs of Ireland ; but if you except 
the history of the last centuries, he has scarcely anything 
that I had not seen before. He is more full, however, than 
others on the question of the nomenclature, as he illustrates it 
copiously from Bede and other writers. 

" This is the third day that the Cardinals are in conclave for 
the election of a Pontiff. Pray to God that we may have a 
Pope who, by word and example, may instruct the fold of 

The many lives of our Irish saints enumerated by Fleming 
in this letter are all still preserved in the Oratorian Library at 
the Chiesa Nuova. The most interesting, perhaps, and at the 
same time the least known, is the life of St. Pellcgrino, or Pere- 
grinnsfcy which name our countryman is now known among the 
faithful of Italy. Having made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, 
he chose for himself a hermitage there in a desert place, and for 
several years practised in his daily life all the austerities of 
the early anchorets. In the first Saracen irruptions he was 
made prisoner, and suffered a great deal. The leader, how- 
ever, of these marauders was so struck by some miracles which 
the saint performed, that he restored him to liberty. The 
holy man then journeyed back to Italy, and chose for himself 
another hermitage in a mountainous and woody district on the 
borders of the territory of Lucca, where he soon after passed 
to a better life. After his death many miracles attested his 
sanctity. An oratory was erected over his remains, and pil- 
grims, to the present day, flock thither to invoke his interces- 

The St. Andrew to whom Fleming refers, was a deacon 
and brother of St. Donatus. A small church dedicated to St. 
Martin, situated on the declivity of the hill of Fiesole, and on 
the banks of the Melsola, was repaired by him, and enriched 
with valuable possessions. His remains are now enshrined 
under its high altar, and the memory of St. Andrew is cherished 
with warm devotion by the inhabitants of the surrounding 

On. the 1 6th September, 1623, Father Fleming again wrote 
to Hugh Ward, who had now passed from Paris to Louvain. 
He had written, he states, five letters since his interview with 
Ward in Paris, and had as yet received no letter in reply. A 
note, however, had come to hand from Messingham, to the 
effect, that his work was hastening to a close, but that he was 
still ready to fulfil his promise of adding any important docu- 
ments that might be forwarded to him. " It would grieve me," 
adds Fleming, " if through your fault this present opportunity 
should be lost to us, which, perhaps for years, may not occur 

In the Sci'cntetnth Century. 197 

again. The present time is specially favourable to us ; for 
the Sacred Congregation has imposed a precept on Dempster 
to abstain in future from treating of such historical matters, 
ami whilst this precept lasts it would be important for us to 
set forth our state of the question ; wherefore, whatever you 
may have in Louvain send it without delay to Paris to Mes- 
singham, and hereafter, if God gives us the means, we our- 
selves can republish the same documents more elegantly and 
accurately." The conclusion of this letter is altogether 
characteristic of the writer : 

" If you are suffering from sickness, as I have heard, you 
will do well to depute Father Gallagher to maintain corre- 
spondence with me till such time as you may be restored to 
health. In the meantime, invoke our countryman, St. Pere- 
grinus, who, during life, obtained the privilege from God that 
those who implore his aid for anything conducive to their 
greater good should obtain the wished-for favour. I pray 
you, dear father, be firm in your resolve, and be friendly with 
me. God forbid that you yourself should cease to enjoy the 
blessings of light, now that you are preparing to restore our 
saints to that light of which they have been so long deprived." 

His next letter is dated the ist of June, 1624. In the 
interval, Fleming had been busily engaged in preparing for 
his public thesis in Rome, and hence had been able to do but 
little in exploring the libraries of the Eternal City. The 
first page of this letter is very much effaced ; but from the 
few sentences that remain, it appears that Ward had been 
for some time dangerously ill, and hence Fleming now exhorts 
him to allow no longer any delay in carrying out his holy 
project in regard to the saints of Ireland. He then continues : 

" You ask me to send you all that I have collected here : I 
would willingly obey, were it not that the thesis which I had 
to defend in public before several Cardinals occupied all my 
time. With the blessing of God I will be free from this 
trouble in fifteen days' time, and then you will know by 
experience how firm I am in my resolution ; for, as soon as 
I shall hear that you have printed what I already sent to 
you, I will transcribe and forward the Lives of St. Frigidian, 
St. Andrew, St. Brigid, St. Pcrcgrinus, St Marinus, Bishop ; 
St. Silas, Bishop ; and also the Life of St. Coemghen, which I 
procured from the Jesuit Library of Ingolstadt. 

" As regards the Irish saints who flourished in Italy, two only 

remain to be sought for, i.e., St. Donatus, the brother of St. 

Cathaldus ; and St. ./Emilian, whom, however, I know to have 

been called a Scot. I have already told you what you may 

ect in the next parcel. I forgot to mention the Bull for the 

198 Irish Historical Studies 

canonization of St. Virgilius, taken from the Regesta of the 
Roman Pontiffs : it is drawn up in the same style as that 
published for the canonization of our holy founder St. Francis. 
From this you will be convinced of my diligence in exploring 
the records of Rome. But, would to heaven that I were free 
to pursue these studies. I am now here for a year, or there- 
abouts, and yet I have only been able to visit four or five 
libraries in this city. You know how this happens, and hence 
I need say no more. Nevertheless, my noble Hugh, be not 
dispirited ; we will yet, with the aid of Him who glorifies the 
saints, do something to add lustre to the saints of Ireland, 
despite the clamour of those who pursue the vain fictions of 
their own imaginations. 

"One of the librarians in charge of the Vatican Library 
promised to let me see the catalogue of all the books which 
have been sent by the Duke of Bavaria to the Sovereign 
Pontiff: they formed that most celebrated collection which 
was called the Palatinate Library. I expect to find many 
treasures there as soon as they are arranged in order. I saw 
amongst them some noble manuscripts, but I was not able 
at the time to examine them. 

"Rev. Eugene Swiney some time ago wrote to us from Paris, 
stating that he had discovered the writings of some Irish 
philosopher, which he is about to publish, and asking me to 
forward to him the Homiliae Sancti Columbani, that both might 
be published together. It is too bad that we should have all 
the labour, whilst others of the secular clergy thus bear away 
all the honor of publishing these homilies, which are more 
precious than the purest gold. This should undoubtedly 
annoy us, were it not that we seek to promote the glory of 
our saints, and not our own glory. The fact is, the homilies 
have not yet come from Bobbio, but they will be .sure to come 
shortly ; for two friars will be sent expressly to bring them 
to us. In the meantime, therefore, see what can be done with 
them in Paris, for I will not send them thither till I hear from 
you. Should I have a moment of time, I will transcribe one 
of them that I brought with me from Bobbio, together with 
the Rule of St. Columbanus, which you will shortly see in 
the pages of Messingham's work. 

" Indeed you should not have accepted your present post 
in Louvain, relinquishing your former important work. Father 
Gallagher might have been appointed to teach, for it is folly 
to select him, so unexperienced in such studies, for so im- 
portant and so urgent a work. 

" Lest I should seem to send you an empty letter, I enclose 
a concise and compendious history of St. Frigidian, and a 

/// the Seventeen tli Cftituty. 199 

similar account of St. Patrick, which contains some particulars 
either omitted, or not clearly expressed, by Jocelyn. 
The other fragments which I send are most curious, and to be 
highly esteemed ; and they arc the more authoritative as 
they were written by a holy Martyr. I am sure if you show 
these things to those who are there with you, they will say 
they are spurious, so be careful not to cast such pearls before 
swine. Keep them to yourself, and with the blessing of God 
we will soon find a place for them. I will omit to mention 
several fragmentary notes which I have extracted from the 
Martyrology of Canisius. I have searched in vain for the 
work of Florus ; I pray you to enquire about it from all those 
who are versed in such matters, and especially from Myraeus, 
who lives in Brussells. Ask also about the life of St. Livinus, 
written by Bonifacio, which I know not where to find. 

"See then, my dearest Father in Christ and in his saints, 
what a long letter I have written through my anxiety to con- 
verse with you about everything. We may soon be together : 
for, if God permits, I will proceed to Louvain after the General 
Chapter, laden with documents. In the meantime, let us pray 
for one another, that our holy desires may be fulfilled. I now 
end this homily, for which I have stolen a few hours from my 
study time. Dear Father, be ever mindful of me, 
"Your truly faithful friend, 

" Rome, 2\st June, 1624." 

On the 27th of July, Father Fleming again wrote to Ward, 
stating that on the preceding day he had received his letter 
with exceeding joy. He had also received a letter from Dr. 
Fleming, Archbishop of Dublin, giving the news that the 
Religious of Louvain were thinking of publishing the Lives of 
the Saints of Ireland, and of appointing Father Gallagher 
to this work. " They do not seem in this (adds Fleming), 
to have maturely pondered the matter ; for this Father, though 
qualified for the task by his memory, and his style, is 
deficient in the knowledge of our ancient histories : wherefore 
I have sought to dissuade them from their choice, and have 
urged them to leave the whole burden on your own shoulders." 
Father Fleming subsequently exhorts Ward to begin his 
series of works, with a treatise DC viris illustribus Hibcrniae, 
for which abundant materials were at hand : he complains 
that Messingham had failed in the promise which he had 
made to them, and, therefore, it now only remained for them 
to work on without him. " I have sent to you (he thus con- 
cludes) some little notes with the nephew of the deceased 

2OO Irish Historical Studies 

Archbishop of Dublin (Dr. Eugene Matthews). I -have, at 
length, received from Bobbie the Homilies of St. Columbanus. 
But in the middle of my news, I am now obliged to bring 
my letter to a close. I congratulate you with all my heart, 
on the many important documents you have found." 

The last letter of Father Fleming from Rome, is dated the 
24th August, 1624. In it he consoles Ward on his appoint- 
ment to teach Philosophy, even though this should distract 
him from the great work on the Saints of Ireland, in which 
he was engaged : " obedience, he says, is better than sacrifice ; 
our zeal in publishing the Lives of the Saints will not, I trust, 
be lessened on this account, but will be increased by time, 
and as our reward we may be enabled to shed greater light on 
the early monuments of our country." He subsequently adds : 
"Lay aside then the Annotations, which, perhaps, you con- 
template : these require a great deal of leisure, and a good 
supply of books, both of which are now wanting to you, and 
undertake rather to translate from the Irish language those 
Lives of the Saints which you have collected, and add them 
to the Latin Lives which you already have, and give a com- 
pendium of all in one small volume, De riris illustribus Hi- 
berniae, giving merely the place of each one's birth, his manner 
of life, and his death. This may be published at but little 
expense, and you can promise in it a longer treatise on the 
Saints of Ireland. This work would cost you little trouble, 
and you might take for your model the work of Pitseus De 
Scriptoribus Angliae. By doing this you will avoid dis- 
pleasing Messingham, and besides, the Continental readers 
seeing reference made to so many saints not named oh their 
calendars, will be the more desirous of having your treatise on 
the Lives of these Saints. 

" All this I already wrote to you and to the Archbishop of 
Dublin (Dr. Thomas Fleming), but you yourself must judge 
whether it be possible or not. There are many of our saints 
about whom so little is known, that they would have no place 
in the Lives of our Saints; but in such a work as I have 
mentioned, they could easily be introduced. At all events, 
rest assured that I will labour here untiringly in extracting 
from various books everything connected with our saints, 
which will serve in future time to illustrate their Lives. 

" What you write to me about my journey to Louvain 
(i.e., to visit the different libraries on the way), I fear cannot 
be accomplished ; for where will I find a companion, and how 
could I intrude myself into houses where I am not invited ? 
There are three Irish Religious here, two in Rome and one in 
Naples. Write to me by return of post how a cohipanion can 

In the Seventeenth Century. 20 1 

be secured. At all events, by the desire of my Superiors, I 
will set out for Louvain next Pentecost. 

" Messingham has written here to say that you promised to 
send to him any documents you have, if he wished to publish 
them. If human glory were our object, we should feel hurt, 
indeed, that for such a treasure as the Rule of St. Columban, 
no acknowledgment is made of those who communicated it 
and discovered it. But have courage, dear Father ; I have 
the Homilies of St. Columbanus, and there are some letters of 
the same Saint in this city, though it is not easy to procure 
them. It is said that one who resides in the palace of the 
Cardinal, to whom my thesis was dedicated, has several 
works of St. Columbanus. What truth, however, there is in 
this, you will soon know with certainty. 

" I have not yet received the Life of St. Coemghen. St. 
Fulco is called Scotus ; but perhaps I may get some details 
concerning him when I pass through Pavia. Father Edmund 
MacCaghwell tells me that he saw in Ireland, in Latin, the 
Life of St. Adamnan, which you say is still preserved (in Irish), 
and easily met with. I particularly congratulate you on the 
Acts and the lists of the kings which you have received. Why 
not give us, in the course of time, a History of the Kings of 
Ireland, such as other nations have. Leave nothing undone 
that the Library may be enriched with all books necessary 
for the work ; and make sure to carry out your purpose 
of sending Brother Clery to Ireland to collect the MSS. 

It was probably before his departure from Rome that 
Father Fleming composed a sketch of the Life of Dr. 
Hugh MacCaghwell, whom he had accompanied to the 
Eternal City, and who was in the meantime promoted to the 
Primatial See of Armagh a dignity which he held only for a 
few weeks. This work of Fleming was incorporated by 
Vernulaeus in the elegant panegyric on the deceased Primate, 
which he delivered at Louvain ; and its chief facts are pre- 
served by Lynch in his MS. History of the Bishops of 
Ireland. As MacCaghwell himself rendered no small service 
to Irish literature in the beginning of the I7th century, not 
only by his labours in Louvain, of which we have already 
spoken, but also by his edition of the works of Duns Scotus, 
and his vindication of the claim of Ireland to be the birth- 
place of that great writer, a few passages from the work just 
cited may not be out of place here, or uninteresting to the 

MacCaghwell, in Irish MacCathmhail, was born in the 
county Down, in Ulster, about the year 1571; and in his 

2O2 Irish Historical Studies 

youth was sent to the island of Anglesey, to be trained in the 
higher branches of science. There he shone as the light of 
the school, honoured by all his companions as a prodigy of 
genius, and as a guide in every path of virtue. From the 
school he was summoned by Hugh O'Neil, to be at the same 
time his counsellor and the tutor of his children. He dis- 
charged the duties of this arduous post with such devotedness 
and diligence, that the great O'Neil presented him with a 
sword, the highest mark of esteem which the warlike chieftain 
could then bestow. Towards the close of the century he was 
sent, together with Henry, the son of Hugh O'Neil, on a 
mission to the Spanish monarch, to solicit aid in the religious 
war which the Irish septs were then waging against Elizabeth. 
This mission was eminently successful ; but other thoughts 
now engaged the mind of MacCaghwell ; and laying aside all 
the hopes and honours which the world presented to him, he 
enrolled his name at Salamanca among the children of St. 
Francis. We need not enter into the details of his life in the 
cloister. Suffice it to say, that his biographer attests that, as 
heretofore, he surpassed his compeers in human science, so now, 
among his religious brethren, he, " like an angel," pursued the 
higher paths of religious perfection. Amongst his penitential 
exercises, it is specially mentioned that he constantly wore a 
rough hair-shirt next his flesh, and that he generally pro- 
tracted his daily fast until sunset. He taught Sacred Theology 
in Louvain : the same charge was subsequently entrusted to 
him in Rome, and he discharged its duties with universal 
applause ; and whilst the title of Professor Emeritus was 
awarded to him by his superiors, he became generally 
designated by his brethren as " Hugh the Angelic." Twice he 
made the journey to the Eternal City on foot, and frequently 
he, in like manner, visited the houses of the Order in Spain. 
It is added, that during his stay in Rome he made, once each 
month, and sometimes more frequently, the pilgrimage of its 
seven chief basilicas. At the same time he was instrumental 
in founding the college of his order at St. Isidore's ; and he 
used all his influence with Cardinal Ludovisi to procure a 
similar college in the Holy City for the aspirants to the ranks 
of the secular clergy. This latter project, soon after his 
demise, was realized through the exertions of his friend and 
associate, Father Luke Wadding ; and throughout the whole 
long era of Ireland's gloom, it continued to confer many 
blessings on our Church. He also, in opposition to many, 
who feared lest the appointment of new bishops to the vacant 
sees in Ireland might reawaken the embers of persecution, 
procured the appointment of four bishops for our island. 

/// the Sci'tntft-nt/t Centtny. 203 

On the death of Peter Lombard, this holy religious, at the 
urgent request, of John O'Neil, Karl of Tyrone, was selected 
by Urban the Eighth to fill the see of Armagh. 1 In this 
exalted dignity he pursued unchanged the same practices of 
a devoted Franciscan, and was a model of observance to 
all his brethren. He asked and received permission to select 
any six priests of his order, to bring them with him as com- 
panions and fellow labourers in his new mission. 

Many other special privileges were also accorded to him, 
one of which was a plenary indulgence for those who should 
visit the church of SS. Patrick, Brigid, and Columbkille in 
Down and Connor. However, he was not destined to revisit 
the shores of his loved country, for, in the designs of God, 
his labours already merited their crown. He had already taken 
his leave of the Holy Father, and received a farewell blessing 
for his flock ; he wished, however, to make, fort he last time, 
his usual penitential pilgrimage to the seven chief churches of 
Rome. On the way he was seized with fever, and so violent 
was the attack that his companions feared he should expire 
on the road-side. Conveyed back to the convent of Aracoeli, 
the last benediction for the dying was sent to him by the 
Pontiff. He bequeathed his cross and ring to Edmund 
Dungan, Bishop of Down and Connor, who proved himself 
worthy of this gift by laying down his life for the faith in 
prison in 1629 ; and his only request to his Holiness was that 
none should be chosen as his successor in the see of Armagh, 
but one whom John O'Neil, the Earl of Tyrone, would 
nominate. He 2 was interred in the church of St. Isidore, and 

1 From the Consistorial Acts we learn that he was appointed Archbishop of 
Armagh on the 2nd of April, 1626, and was consecrated on the 7th of the Ides 
of June, the same year. 

* The following list of MacCaghwell's works is given by Wadding : 
" Hugo Cavellus, Hibernus Dunensis, vir aeque pius ac doctus, provinciae S. 
Jacobi, ac caenobii Salmanticensis alumnus, ex primis fundatoribus et directori- 
bus insignis Collegii S. Antonii Lovaniensis Fratrum Minorum Hibemorum, cui 
nuiltis annis praefuit, et semper usque ad mortem profuit, Sacrae Theologiae 
quam Lovanii, et in urbe ad insigne Aracoeli caenobium professus est, Lector 
emeritus, sui ordinis defmitor generalis, et demum Archiepiscopus Armacanus, 
totius Hil>erniae primas, disciplinae regularis, uti exactissimus observator, ita 
etiam perpetuus promoter et fautor. Mirum quantos pro ea retinenda et restitu- 
enda subierit labores, toties in Hispnniam et Italiam ex Belgio pedes ad ordinis 
comitia generalia profectus, a laxioris vitae fautoribus Parisiis, anno millesimo 
sexccntessimo vigessimo primo multa pcq>essus, ad extremum usque vitae discri- 
men. Neque minus admirandum qunt ,-nus inter tot itinerum, negotiorum domus- 
que regendae distractiones debili corpoiis extenuati constitutione potuerit adeo 
studiis incumbere, ut summo omnium applausu ediderit : 

1. " Scoti I'ommcntarios in quatuor lil>ros sertentiarum a se recognitos, cum 
aiitu|uise(litionibus et vetustissimo codice MS. collates. 

2. ' Scoti vitam," quam pracdictis cmmentariis praemisit. 

3. '* Appendicem Diffusam ad questionem primam distinctionis tertiae libri 
teuii positam in calce ejusdem libri pro asserenda Immaculata Conceptione 

204 Irish h istorical Studies 

an epitaph, with the following inscription, was erected to his 
memory : 

D. O. M. 

Illustrissimo et Reverendissimo Domino 

Fr.Hugoni Cavello, 

Ordinis minorum strictioris observantiae 

Lectori, Definitori General! 

Archiepiscbpo Armacano 

Primati Hiberniae 

De patria, religione, litteris benemerito 
Cujus mortem merita 
In patriam reditum 

Mors praevenit 
Excellentiss. D. Joannes O'Neil Tironiae comes 

Hunc lapidem poni fecit. 
Obiit XXII. Septembris, M.D.C.XXVI. 

But to return to Father Fleming. Whilst journeying from 
Rome to Louvain, we first meet with him at Ratisbonne, now 
Regensburg, at the famous Irish monastery of St. Peter, and 
O'Sheerin informs us that he wrote there a compendium of 
the ancient chronicle of that monastery. This chronicle is 
frequently referred to by the various writers of our history in 
the 1 7th century, and many passages from it are published 
by Ward, Lynch, and others. The monastery of St. Peter 
was founded by St. Marianus, an Irish pilgrim, who, in the 
year 1067, set out from Ireland with two companions, John 
and Candidus, with the intention of visiting the sanctuaries 

Virginis Mariae" omnia prodierunt Antwerpiae apud Joannem Keerbergium, 
anno 1620. 

4. " Ejusdem Scoti Commentaria, seu, Reportata Parisiensia." 

5. " Questiones quodlibetales," quae simul cum Reportatis prodierunt post 
ejus mortem. 

6. " Quaestiones in Metaphysicam." Venet. an. 1625, apud Marcum Gina- 

7. " Quaestiones in libros de anima." 

8. "A'pologiam apologiae supra dictae pro Scoto scriptae," in qua respondet 
Nicolao Jansenio Belgae ord. praedicatorum, Abrahami Bzovii partes suscipienti, 
non sine gravi Scoti et regni Hibemiae injuria. Prodiit Parisiis sub nomine 
Hugonis Magnesii discipuli Cavelli. Apud Michaelem Sonnium, anno 1623. 

9. " Tractatum Parisiis compactum.dum simul cum Benigno (Jenuensi Ministro 
Generali ageret de Reformatione magni conventus." 

10. " Tractatum alterum Communium argumentorum, &c." Prodierunt simul 
hi duo tractatus Parisiis, anno 1622. 

11. " Speculum Poenitentiae," lingua et charactere Hibernico ab omnibus Euro- 
paeis diverse, exaratum ; Lovanii in Collegio Fratrum minorum, anno 1628, im- 

Scribebat Pias Meditationes et Preparatoria praeludia pro morte Christiane 
obeunda ; sed morte praeventus absolvere non potuit." 

/;/ the Seventeenth Century. 205 

of Rome. Being kindly received by a religious community 
at Ratisbonne, they remained some time in that city, copying 
missals and other sacred books. They found at the monas- 
tery called Obermiinster a holy Irishman named Murchertach, 
who was leading a hermit's life, immured in a cell. This re- 
cluse exhorted Marianus to abandon his journey to Italy, 
and to stay where the rising sun should first dawn on him. 
It was near the church of St. Peter, at the southern gate of 
Ratisbonne, that he met the rising sun. That church, and 
the adjacent ground, were soon bestowed upon the Irish pil- 
grims, and so many were the religious who flocked to this 
monastery, especially from the province of Ulster, that before 
the year 1090 it was found necessary to found another monas- 
tery to receive them. This was called the monastery of 
St. James, and became, in the course of years, one of the 
richest monasteries of Europe. The history of its foundation 
is one of the most interesting portions of the Ratisbonne 
Chronicle. From it we learn that Isaac and Gervase, two 
Irishmen of noble birth, accompanied by two others of the com- 
munity, were sent by the Abbot of St. Peter's to Ireland to 
collect funds for the new monastery. They were kindly received 
by Corichobhar O'Brien, King of Ireland, and being loaded 
with rich presents, returned to Ratisbonne. With the money 
thus brought from Ireland, the site for St. James's monastery 
was purchased on the western side of the city, and the new 
monastery erected : "Be it known," writes the chronicler, " that 
neither before nor since was there a monastery equal to this, 
in the beauty of its towers, columns, and vaultings, erected 
and completed in so short a time, because the plenteousness 
of riches and of money bestowed by the king and princes of 
Ireland was without bound." Soon, however, the treasury of 
the monks was exhausted ; and Christian, now abbot of the 
monastery of St. James, and descended from the princely 
family of the MacCarthys, undertook a journey to his native 
country, Ireland, to seek the aid of King Donnchadh O'Brien. 
He is said to have been most successful in his mission : 
he received numerous presents and gifts, but when preparing 
to return sickened and died, and was buried before St. 
Patrick's altar in the cathedral of Cashel. The treasure 
which he collected, was subsequently forwarded to its destina- 
tion, and with it were laid the foundations of that princely 
estate with which this famous monasterium Scottorum was ever 
afterwards endowed. 

There is one fact connected with the building of the monas- 
tery which is characteristic of our Irish pilgrims. 1 " Whilst 

f in Ulsttr Journal of Arck., vol. vii. page 244. 

206 Irish Historical Studies 

the building of the monastery of St. James was in progress," 
writes the German narrator, " one of the monks pursued his 
journey, accompanied only by a boy, till he reached Kiev, 
then the residence of the King of Russia : here the king and 
his nobles made him rich presents, so that he loaded several 
waggons with very valuable furs, to the amount of a hundred 
silver marks, and arrived at home in safety, accompanied by 
some merchants of Regensburg. The money obtained by the 
sale of the furs was turned to account, and with it the buildings 
belonging to the monastery were erected, and the roof put on 
the church." 

Wadding, in his short notice of the life of Father Fleming, 
after stating that he was wholly devoted to the saints of 
Ireland, adds, that for the purpose of illustrating their lives 
he visited the principal Libraries of Italy, France, Belgium, 
and Germany. 1 It was probably on the occasion of his 
present journey that he made this visit, and a short paper, 
apparently drawn up to serve him as a guide in this literary 
tour, is happily preserved in the library of St. Isidore's : 

" At Verdun, in France, in the monastery of St. Michael, is 
preserved the Life of St. Malcalinus, Abb., who was Abbot 
of that monastery. 

" In Virssenaken, in the Duchy of Brabant, the Life of St. 
Himmelin, whose relics are preserved in that city. 

"At Fosses, in the Diocese of Namur, the Life of St. 
Ultan, who died there. 

" In the monastery of the town of Bury, in Cornwall, the 
Life of St. Buriena, Virgin. 

" In Brussels, the Life of St. Rumold published by John 

" At Liessies or Fecau (Laetiis vel Fisiaci], in Hainaut, the 
Life of St. Etto, who reposes in the former place. 

"In the district of Cumberland, in England, the Life of St. 
Bees (S. Bcgae), Virgin. 

" In the city of Condy, in Hainaut, the Life of St. Was- 
nulph, who reposes there. He was the brother of St. Etto. 

"At Cologne, in the church of St. Chunibert, repose the 
two brothers Ewald. See the chronicle of Sigebert, at the 
year 693 ; and Molanus in his additions to the Roman Martyr- 
ology, at 3 rd of October. 

*' At Wansor ( Wakiodorum), in the territory of Liege, the 
Life of St. Eloquius, Abbot, who reposes there. 

"At Vienna, in Austria, is enshrined the body of St. 
Colman, Martyr. 

1 Wadding " Scriptores, Ord. S. Francisci," page 2J2. 

In the Seventeenth Century. 207 

"In the monastery of Brie, near Paris, the Life of Syna, 
who reposes there. 

" At Louvain, the Life of St. Abbuin, Bishop of Fritzlar, 
who reposes there. He was Bishop in the city of Burback. 

" In the city of Mecklenburg, in the province of the 
Vandals (near Wismar), the Life of St. Ivan, a Scot, who 
was Bishop, and suffered martyrdom there, in the year 1067. 

"At Malogne (Maloniae), near Namur, the Life of St. 
Bertuin, Abbot, who rests there. 

"In the territory of Aries (in territorio Atrebatensi), at 
Albiniacke, the Life of St. Kilian, who rests there. There is 
a college of Regular Canons there. 

" At Cologne, in the monastery of St. Martin, the Life of 
St. Mimborin, a Scot, who was Abbot of that place. 

"At Wurtzburg, in Germany, the Life of St. Machair 
(sancti Macarii}, a Scot, who rests there. 

"At Pontoise (Pontisarae), in Picardy, the Life of St. 
Sadoch, of whom mention is made in the Life of St. Riquier, 
in Surius. 

"At Ingolstadt, the Fathers of the Society of Jesus have a 
Life of St. Kevin." 

In Louvain, Father Fleming was engaged in the Chair of 
Philosophy and Theology during the following years, till he 
was, in 1630, chosen first Superior of the newly established 
Convent of the Order at Prague. One of his last letters from 
Louvain is dated iSth February, 1630, and is addressed to 
Father Robert Rochford (also known as Father Robert a 
Sancta Brigida), who was then in the College of St. Francis, 
in Alcala. He invites Father Rochford to hasten his journey 
to Louvain, where everything was prepared to welcome him. 
Their present Lecturer of Philosophy, he says, Father Francis 
Ferrall, had been appointed to the Chair of Theology in the 
Argentine Province, and, "as for myself," he adds, "if other 
duties be not assigned to me, I will, at least, devote myself 
to my ' Columbanus! " Saint Columbanus was a favourite saint 
of Father Fleming, and the fervent Religious seem to have 
devoted each leisure hour to collect and prepare for the press 
his hitherto scattered writings. 

In 1630, St. Anthony's was found too small for their ever 
increasing numbers, and Father Malachy Fallon proceeded to 
the court of Ferdinand II., to pray for the site of a second 
Convent, " in which the exiled students of the Irish Province 
might be gathered together to glorify God, and to prepare 
themselves for the mission in their native land." 1 This 
prayer was granted, and a site in the city of Prague being 

1 From an original copy of the petition preserved in Archrv. S. Indori. 

208 Irish Historical Studies 

assigned to them, Father Patrick Fleming was selected to 
proceed thither as first guardian and founder of the new 
convent. In the official report of the foundation, sent to 
Rome by the Superiors in Louvain, Father Fleming is styled 
" Lector in Sacred Theology, who having completed all his 
studies in Louvain, subsequently held the post of Lector of 
Philosophy and Theology there, and, what was of more im- 
portance, was at all times remarkable for the lustre of his 
virtues." Fleming, accompanied by another Irish Franciscan 
named Father Geraldine, set outonfootfor Prague inthe begin- 
ning of November, 1630, and having overcome a thousand diffi- 
culties which such a journey in Germany, especially in the 
wintry season, presents to a poor Franciscan, arrived at his 
destination before the close of November, and in the next 
month the first students were sent thither. Some fragments 
of Fleming's letters from Prague have fortunately been pre- 
served. On the 1 2th of April, 1631, he writes to Father 
Robert Rochford, now Lector of Philosophy at St. Anthony's, 
Louvain, " There is here the greatest scarcity of books, and 
hence, too, they are very dear. Only one or two booksellers 
can be found in the whole of this triple city. One of our 
greatest difficulties will be to form a library unless we get the 
books from Frankfort, as, undoubtedly, we will have to do 
after a time ; and, indeed, this will be less expensive than 
to purchase them either bound or unbound here." On 
the /th of June, writing to Father Malachy Fallon, Lector 
of Theology in Louvain, he gives a few details concerning the 
new convent : " We have formed a choir capable of con- 
taining thirty Religious, and underneath we have laid out a 
chanel, opening on the street, where formerly there was a 
smith's forge." 

Writing again to Father Rochford, on the 6th August, 1631, 
he states that he was to start on the following day for 
Vienna, to arrange some difficulties that had arisen with the 
secular authorities regarding his convent. He sent also a 
copy of the seal of the new Convent, having for its motto, 
"Nodus originahs non est in te," and adds, "these words 
are attributed to St. Ambrose, and are given by Father 
Hugh (Mac Caghwell) in his Rosary of the Immaculate 
Conception, and, therefore, I added them on the seal." 
Father Fleming continued in Vienna till the middle of 
October, when he returned to Prague. On the 25th of that 
month, he writes from his Convent there that for some d 
they were all in suspense in consequence of the rumours of war. 
He adds, " we are all well, and when these law-suits and wars 
will have ceased, we will have many consolations here." 

In the Seventeenth Cetitury. 209 

In a second letter of the same day, he writes " Colum- 
banus is promised to me by the printer for the next Fair- 
day ; be good enough to tell Moretus not to print the 
Poenitential of St. Cummean till I send him a more correct 
copy, together with a dedicatory letter to the Abbot of St. 
Gall's. I have not been able to compose this as yet, owing 
to the many distractions I have had. Our own work- 
shops are in good order. The Prince de Coravite is our 
most especial friend. Your Reverence will kindly ask Father 
Francis Fleming to transcribe for me what Messingham has 
on the Purgatory of St. Patrick, for I am anxious to print 
here the Tract of the soldier George, and other visions 
about it, and to dedicate them to this worthy Prince, who 
has often spoken to me about that Purgatory, and he is so 
interested in it, that he would wish to make the journey to 
Ireland to seethe place." 

Some further details concerning the Convent of Prague and 
its devoted superior, are given in the preface of O'Sheerin 1 to 
the writings of St. Columban. It was on the 2nd of July, 163 r, 
that the Franciscans were publicly inducted to their new 
establishment in Prague by Cardinal Harrach, Archbishop of 
Prague and Primate of Bohemia. His Eminence and all the 
other civil and ecclesiastical authorities of Prague being 
present, a discourse composed by Father Fleming was 
delivered with great earnestness and effect by a young Reli- 
gious, in deacon's orders, named Matthew Hoar, 2 who was 
destined in a few months to be the companion of Father 
Fleming in martyrdom. Six friars thenceforward devoted 
themselves there to the exercises of piety with unremitting 
fervour. They had to contend against many difficulties, but 
Father Fleming, to uphold the courage of his companions, con- 
tinually referred in his discourses " to St. Columbanus, towards 
whom he cherished a most tender devotion. He set before 
them the many and almost superhuman difficulties this saint 
had to encounter, and to secure his patronage and that of 
their other patron saints, he caused the Litanies of the Blessed 
Virgin to be recited each day, with prayers to St. Francis, St. 
Patrick, St. Columbanus, St. Ambrose, St. Catherine, and other 

1 O'Sheerin states that these details were extracted in 1665, by Father Anthony 
Donnelly, O.S.F. Sac. Theol. Lector Jubilatus, from a work entitled De incun- 
abulis Collegii Praxetisis, composed by Father Francis Magennis, companion of Father 
Fleming in his flight, and subsequently guardian of the Franciscan Convent there. 

The writer adds, that Fr. Hoare was chosen on this occasion " ob eminentis 
ingenii judiciique acumen, felicis memoriae foecunditatem, dicendique gratiam, cum 
omnimoda morum honestate conjunctam, coram tot ac tantis Magnatibus fiducialiter 
declamandam eaque ab ipso adeo proeclare, venuste ac plane Angelice, omnium 
cum stupore. perorata, ut solemnitatem et auditorum devotionem minim in raodum 

adauxent. " 


2IO Irish Historical Studies 

In the month of October, however, the Elector of Saxony 
invaded Bohemia, and, after the victory of Leipsic, ravaged 
the country without opposition. The Lutheran peasantry at 
the same time formed themselves into armed bands to plunder 
the Catholic inhabitants and to wreck the religious houses, 
scattering or murdering the inmates. Being warned of im- 
pending danger, Father Fleming, with three companions, 
resolved on yielding before the storm, and seeking safety in 
flight, whilst the other two religious were commissioned to 
remain in Prague, and to continue, if possible, in possession of 
the monastery. During the Octave of All Saints the fugitives 
set out on their perilous flight, but had not proceeded very far, 
when, on the 7th of November, Father Fleming and the Deacon 
Hoare were overtaken by a band of Lutheran peasants, and 
barbarously murdered. The remains of these worthy Religious, 
who thus merited to lay down their lives for Christ, were 
devoutly translated to the town of Noticium, and interred 
there under the pulpit in the Franciscan Church. 

Before Father Fleming set out for Prague, he consigned his 
" Collectanea Sacra" containing the life and writings of St. 
Columbanus, and other valuable tracts connected with our 
early Church, to Moretus, a publisher of Antwerp. The death, 
however, of the holy martyr prevented its publication, and it 
was only in the year 1667, that, through the exertions of 
O'Sheerin, this precious monument of Fleming's learning and 
industry was printed and preserved to us. In addition to the 
extant works of St. Columbanus, and the documents connected 
with the life of that saint, the " Collectanea Sacra" presents 
the Life of St. Comgall, founder of Banger ; the Life of St 
Molua, patron of Killaloe and founder of Clonfert-Mulloe, in 
the Queen's County ; the Life of St. Mochaemog (or Pulckerius) 
a companion of St. Columbanus in Bangor, whose feast is kept 
on the 1 3th March ; also the Penitential Rule of St.'Cummian, 
and other important tracts. One of its most curious frag- 
ments is the " Mystical Interpretation of the names which 
occur in the Genealogy of our Saviour," by St. Aileran, or 
Aireran, as his name is sometimes written. St. Aileran has 
received from our Irish writers the epithet of an Egna, i.e., 
" the Wise." He was lecturer in the famous monastery of 
Clonard ; his feast was observed on the 2Qth December, and his 
death is marked in the Annals of Ulster and the Four Masters, 
in the year 674, where he is styled Aileranus Sapiens. This 
" Mystical Interpretation" was known to Ware and Usher, 
both of whom refer to it in their writings. Centuries earlier 
it was inserted by Sedulius in his Commentary on St. Matthew, 
who prefaces it with these words : " Here begins the typical 

In the Seventeenth Century. 211 

and figurative signification of the genealogy of Christ, which 
St. Aileran, the wisest of the Scottish nation, explained." 
Fleming found an ancient, though imperfect, copy of this 
Tract in the Library of St. Gall's, and preserved it to us by 
inserting it in his Collectanea Sacra. 

Many of the extracts from MS. Lives of our Saints, and 
the incidental remarks of Fleming himself, are full of the 
deepest interest. Thus, at page 362, he mentions that the 
cambatta, or staff, of St. Columbanus, which was sent by that 
holy abbot to his great disciple St. Gall as a token of pardon, 
was still preserved in the monastery of Fosse, in Rhetia. He 
adds, that " this cambatta is of the wood which is called in 
the Irish language ciiileann (i.e. holly), which the Germans call 
baxholder;" and that Stephen White, S.J., was of opinion 
that this was the very pastoral staff of St. Columbanus, which, 
perhaps, derived its name cambatta from the Celtic word cam, 
which means "crooked." In the same monastery was pre- 
served the portable reliquary of St. Magnus, which he ever 
carried around his neck, and which contained relics of the 
Holy Cross, of the Blessed Virgin, of St. Maurice and com- 
panions, and of St. Columbanus and St. Gall. 

Speaking of the wooden church erected by St. Columbanus, 
Fleming remarks that this was more Hibemico, as is instanced 
in the church of St. Finan, in Lindisfarne (see Bede H. E. 
lib. 3, chap. 25), and in the oratory of St. Malachy, which, as 
St. Bernard writes, was formed of planed planks of wood, 
closely and firmly united together. St. Attala, the disciple 
of St. Columbanus, erected a large wooden cross before the 
oratory of his loved master, and many miracles were performed 
at it through his intercession. 

The question has been warmly controverted, did St. Colum- 
banus visit Rome? Fleming adopts the opinion that he did; 
and he mentions in confirmation of it, that on the ancient 
monument of the saint in Bobbio, he was represented as 
kneeling at the feet of the Roman Pontiff, and receiving from 
his hands the venerable reliquary which had ever since 
been zealously guarded at that monastery. A very old paint- 
ing was also preserved there, representing St. Comgall im- 
parting his blessing to St. Columbanus and his twelve 
companions, when setting out on their distant mission. One 
of these figures had the inscription, " St. Kilian, companion 
of St. Columbanus, on his journey to Rome." 1 I may be 
allowed to add, that other ancient records connected with 
the monastery of Bobbio, and now preserved in the Barberini 
Library, Rome, fully confirm this opinion of Father Fleming. 

l "S. Culianus comes S. Columbani Romam euntis." Fleming, page 320. 

2 1 2 Irish Historical Studies 

Speaking of the monastery of Bangor, where St. Columbanus 
had been trained to piety and science, Father Fleming thus 
writes : " This seminary, indeed, merited that its site should 
be marked out by an angelic vision, and be watered into more 
abundant increase and growth by the grace of the Holy 
Spirit . . . There still may be seen, on the spot were the Bangor 
monastery stood, some structures, and vast walls of white stone, 
and various enclosures, all of which betoken its former 

In a valuable commentary on the Life of St. Columbanus, 
Fleming treats of the various persons and places mentioned 
in the memoir of the Saint by Jonas, as also of the conversion 
of Ireland, of its ancient name of "Scotia," its fame for sanctity 
and the glories of the monasteries with which it was enriched. 
He has another special dissertation on the Rule of St. Colum- 
banus, in which he inserts the Catalogue of the Three Orders 
of Irish Saints, subsequently published by Usher. Fleming 
tells us that his text of this famous Catalogue was taken from 
" a very ancient and accurate Life of St. Patrick," and that he 
had also another copy of it, made by Father Matthews, Pro- 
vincial of the Order of St. Francis, in the year 1626, from two 
MS. volumes of the ancient Life of St. Finnian, one of which 
was in Usher's Library, and the other in the monastery of 
the Island of All Saints in Lough Ree. There are some 
important variations between Usher's and Fleming's text of 
this Catalogue, and Dr. O'Connor, in his Rer. Hib. Scriptores 
(vol. II., page 162), and the most learned of our later 
writers, give the preference to Fleming's text. I am sure no 
apology is needed for inserting in full this most important 
fragment from our ancient church : 

"Here begins the Cata- "Incipit Catalogus ordi- 

logue of the orders of Saints num Sanctorum in Hibernia 

in Ireland, according to the secundum divisa tempora. 
various periods. 

" The first order of saints " Primus ordo Sanctorum 

was in the time of Patrick ; erat in tempore Patricii ; et 

and then they were all tune erant Episcopi omnes 

Bishops, illustrious and holy, clan et Sancti, et Spiritu 

and full of the Holy Ghost, Sancto pleni, quadringenti 

four hundred and fifty in quinquaginta 1 numero, Eccle- 

number ; the founders of siarumfundatores.unumcaput 

Churches, worshipping the one Christum colentes, et unum 

head, Christ, and following ducem Patricium sequentes, 8 

the one leader, Patrick, hav- unam tonsuram habentes, et 

1 Usher's text has " cccl. numero." (Usher's Works, vol. vi., p. 478.) 
1 Usher has " Unum caput Christum et unum ducem Patricium habcbant." 

In the Seventeenth Century. 


ing the one tonsure and one 
liturgy of the Mass, and they 
kept one Easter, viz., after 
the vernal equinox, and what 
was excommunicated by one 
church was excommunicated 
by all ; they did not reject the 
ministrations and society of 
women, because, founded on 
the rock Christ, they feared 
not the blast of temptation. 
This order of saints continued 
throughout four reigns, that 
is, from the time of Laoghaire 
the son of Niall, who reigned 
thirty-seven years, and of 
Oilioll, surnamed Molt, who 
reigned thirty years, and of 
Lugadh, who reigned seven 
years; and this order of saints 
continued down to the latter 
days of Tuathal, who was 
surnamed Moelgarbh, and 
they all continued holy 

" But the second order of 
saints was as follows. For in 
this second order there were 
few Bishops and many 
Priests, in number three hun- 
dred, worshipping the one 
head, the Lord ; they had 
different forms of Liturgy 
and different rules of life, 
and they celebrated the one 
Easter on the fourteenth 
moon. And they made an 
uniform tonsure, viz., from 
ear to ear. They also shun- 
ned the society and ministra- 
tions of women, and they 
excluded them from their 
monasteries. This order 
also lasted for four reigns, 
that is from the latter days 

unam celebrationem Missae et 
unum Pascha, scilicet post 
aequinoctium vernale, celc- 
brabant, et quod excommuni- 
catum esset ab una Ecclesia 
omnes excommunicabant,mu- 
lierum administrationem et 
consortia non respuebant, quia 
super petram Christum fun- 
dati, ventum tentationis non 
timebant. Hie ordo Sanc- 
torum per quaterna duravit 
regna, hoc est, a tempore 
Leogarii filii Neill qui regnavit 
xxxvii. annis, et Alildi cog- 
nomento Molt, qui xxx. 
annis regnavit, et Lugadii qui 
vii. annis regnavit ; ct hie ordo 
Sanctorum usque ad tempora 
extrema Tuathalii, cogno- 
mento Moelgarbh duravit ; et 
Sancti Episcopi omnes per- 
manserunt. 1 

" Secundits vero ordo Sanc- 
torum talis erat. In hoc enim 
secundo ordine pauci erant 
Episcopi et multi Presbyteri, 
numero trecenti, unum caput 
Dominum colentes, diversos 
celebrandi ritus habebant et 
diversas regulas vivendi, et 
unum Pascha xiv. luna cele- 
brabant. Et hi uniformem 
tonsuram scilicet ab aure 
usque ad aurem faciebant. 
Mulierum quoque consortia, 
ac administrationem fugiebant 
atque a monasteriis suis eas 
excludebant. Hie ordo per 
quaterna adhuc regna duravit, 
scilicet ab extremis Tuathalii 
cognomento Moelgarbh tem- 
poribus, et xxx. annos, quibus 

1 Usher has the additional sentence " Hi omnes episcopi de Komaniset Francis 
et Britonibus et Scotis, exorti sunt." 


Irish Historical Studies 

of Tuathal Moelgarbh, and 
during the thirty years that 
Diarmait MacKervaill reigned 
and throughout the time 
of the two grandsons of 
Muiredach, who reigned for 
seven years, and throughout 
the time of Aedh son of 
Ainmire, who reigned for 
thirty years. They received 
a form of Liturgy of the Mass 
from the holy men of Britain, 
viz., from St. David, and from 
St. Gildas, and from St. 
Docus. And their names are 
these, viz., Finnian, Enda, 
Colman, Congall, Aedh, 
Kieran, Columba, Brendan, 
Bricquinus, Cainnech, Coem- 
gen,Laisrean, Laisre, Lugeus, 
Barrinde, and many others 
who were of the second order 
of saints. 

" The third order of saints 
was as follows : for, they 
were holy Priests, and a few 
Bishops, in number one 
hundred, who dwelt in desert 
places. These lived on herbs 
and water and the alms of 
the faithful, and despised all 
earthly things, and wholly 
avoided all murmuring and 
detraction. They had different 
rules and different forms of 
Liturgy, and also a different 
tonsure, for some wore the 
crown and others the hair, 
and they had a different 
Paschal solemnity, for some 
celebrated it on the four- 

Dermitius MacKearvaill reg- 
navit, et pro tempore, quo duo 
neportes Muredachi qui vii. 
annis regnaverunt, et pro tem- 
pore quo Aidus filius Anmirei 
qui xxx. annis regnavit. Hi 
ritum celebrandi Missamac- 
ceperunt a sanctis viris de 
Britannia, scilicet a S. David, 
et a S. Gilda, et a S. Doco. 
Et horum nomina sunt hi (sic) 
scilicet Finnianus, Endeus, 
Colmanus, Congallus, ./Cde- 
us, Queranus, Columba, Bran- 
danus, Bricquinus.Cainnechus, 
Caimginus Lasreanus, Lasre- 
us, Lugeus, Barrideus, 1 et alii 
multi qui erant de secundo 
gradu sanctorum. 

" Tertius ordo Sanctorum 
erat talis; erant enim Presby- 
teri Sancti et pauci Episcopi 
numero centum, qui in locis 
desertis habitabant. Hi oleri- 
bus et aqua et eleemosynis 
fidelium vivebant et omnia 
terrena contemnebant et om- 
nem susurrationem et de- 
tractionem penitus'evitabant. 
Hi diversas regulas et varies 
celebrandi ritus habebant et 
diversam etiam tonsuram ; 
aliqui enim habebant coronam, 
aliqui caesariem, et hi diver- 
sam solemnitatem paschalem 
habebant ; alii enim xiv. luna, 
alii XIII. 2 celebrabant. Hie 

1 The names as given by Usher are : " Duo Finiani, duo Brendani, Jairlathe a 
Tuama, Comgallus, Coemgenus. Ciaranus, Columba, Cainecus. Eogenius Mac- 
Laisn u~, Lugeus, Ludeus, Moditeus, Cormacus. Colmanus, Nesanus, Laisreanus, 
Barrindcus, Coemanus, Ccranus, Comanus, et alii multi." He adds, in parenthesis, 
as given by some other MS., " ndtus t Aedcus. Byrch inns." 

1 Usher has, " alii enim rfsurrfftiflnem xiv. Inna rr/ xvi. cum juris inkntiontbus 
celebrabant" without any second member of the sentence. 

/// the Seventeenth Century. 


teenth moon, others on the 
thirteenth. This order con- 
tinued throughout four reigns, 
that is, during the time of 
Aedh Allain, who reigned 
for only three years, and 
during the time of Domhnall, 
who reigned for thirty years, 
and during the times of 
Moelcoba, and during the 
time of Aedh Slaine. And 
this order continued till that 
great mortality. These are 
their names : Petran, bishop; 
Ultan, bishop ; Colman, 
bishop ; Aedan, bishop ; 
Lomnan, bishop ; Senach, 
bishop. All these and many 
others were bishops. But 
the priests were these, viz. 
Fechin, the priest, Airendan, 
Faillan, Cummian, Colman, 
Ernan, Cronan, and many 
other priests. 

" It is to be remarked that 
the first order was thrice holy ; 
the second order, holy in the 
second degree ; and the third 
order, holy. The first order 
glows like the sun with the 
fervor of charity, the second 
is pale like the moon, the 
third shines like the aurora. 
The Blessed Patrick, taught 
by a divine revelation, fore- 
knew these three orders, 
when in that prophetic vision 
he saw all Ireland filled with 
a glowing fire ; then only the 
mountains seemed to burn ; 
and afterwards he saw lights 
only burning in the valleys." 

1 Usher has "fliorum Kfailcobi," which is correct. 
' Usher's text adds, " Murgnts Episcopus. 
* Usher has, " Lomanus Ep., Senackus Ep. 
4 Usher instead of Cumenianus has " Comanus, Comianus." 
"Instead of this concluding sentence, Usher's text has "Primus sicut sol 
ardcscit, >ecundus sicut luna, tertius sicut stellae." 

ordo per quatuor regna dura- 
vit, hoc est, pro tempore Aidi 
Allain, qui tribus annis tan- 
tum regnavit et pro tempore 
Domhnalli qui xxx. annis reg- 
navit et per tempora Moelca- 
vae x et pro tempore Aidi Slane. 
Et hie ordo usque ad mortali- 
tatem illam magnam duravit 
Quorum nomina sunt hi, Pe- 
tranus Episcopus, Ultanus 
Episcopus, Colmanus Episco- 
pus, 2 ^Edanus Episcopus, Lom- 
pnanus 8 Episcopus, Senochus 
Episcopus. HiEpiscopiomnes 
et alii plures. Hi vero presby- 
teri : Fechinus Presbyter, Air- 
endanus.Faillanus, Cummeni- 
anus, 4 Colmanus, Ernanus, 
Cronanus et alii presbyter! 

" Nota quod primus ordo 
erat Sanctus Sanctissimus, 
secundus sanctior, et tertius 
Sanctus. Primus 6 sicut sol in 
fervore claritatis, calescit, se- 
cundus sicut luna pallescit, 
tertius sicut aurorasplendescit. 
Hos tres ordines B. Patricius 
superno oraculo edoctus intel- 
lexit, cum in visione ilia pro- 
phetica vidittotam Hiberniam 
flamma ignis repletam, deinde 
montes tantum ardcre, postea 
lucernas ardere in vallibus 

216 Letters of Balniez. 

The " Collectanea Sacra" is a quarto volume of 480 pages, 
and its usual marketable price is fully proportionate to its 
worth. At Heber's sale it sold for 40 ; and in 1849, a 
copy was marked in Thorpe's London Catalogue for .31 lOs. 
A few years ago, one of the Oxford Colleges secured the 
work for ,22, and another copy was purchased by the late 
Protestant Primate of Armagh for 20. The splendid copy 
bequeathed with so many other valuable books to the R.I. A. 
by William Elliott Hudson, Esq., was purchased by him for 
24. A copy which belonged to the Rev. Charles O'Connor, 
was purchased at the sale of the Stowe collection by the 
late Dr. Todd, at whose demise it was again sold, in November, 
1869, f r >7S- It is to be desired that a book so valuable and 
so much sought for should be republished, and thus made 
accessible to the students of our antiquities, most of whom are 
at present practically excluded from the use of it. 



MY ESTEEMED FRIEND I find it is useless to attempt to 
confine you to a connected discussion on the dogmas of 
religion, and the principles on which they rest, for, faithful 
to your system of observing no system, and inviolably ob- 
serving the rule of your method, which is to observe none, 
you skip like a butterfly from flower to flower ; so that when 
one believes you absorbed in some capital question, and 
decided on prolonging the attack commenced on some point 
of the walls of the Holy City, you suddenly raise the siege, 
sit down in some other quarter, and there threaten to open 
a new breach, expecting me to fly to the defence of the point 
menaced, but only to find you directing your steps to some 
other place, uselessly fatiguing me without obtaining the 
result I desired. No ; I made a mistake when I said I was 
uselessly fatigued ; for though it is true I have not been able, 
up to the present, to withdraw you from your error, because 
you have ever refused to subject yourself to the trouble of 
a discussion sustained with due order and connexion, yet I 
flatter myself with having succeeded in removing some of 

Letters of Halmes. 2 1 7 

the prejudices which obstructed your advance in the road to 
faith, hoping that some day, with your understanding 
illuminated by superior inspirations, and your heart moved 
by the grace of the Lord, you may resolve to seriously pursue 
it, and burst the bonds that detain you, and so escape from 
your present unhappy state, in which I hope the hour of 
death shall not find you. 

Apologising for this preamble, which you may regard as 
inopportune, but which I consider a salutary inopportunity, 
I come now to answer the difficulties you propose to me 
on one of the virtues most extolled by the Christian 
religion. I am very glad we have escaped from the disputes 
which were the subject of the last letter ; for though it 
treated of a very transcendent and highly important matter, 
the subject was of a nature so delicate and fragile, that it 
was necessary to measure one's words, and go in search of 
expressions, which, while permitting the truth to appear, 
might closely veil whatever could offend decency and the 
delicate considerations due to modesty. But humility is a 
subject on which we can talk without periphrasis, there being 
no danger of making the blood rise to the cheek by an un- 
measured word. You are somewhat Voltarian when speaking 
of this virtue, and ironically apply to it the epithet sublime, 
which Christians are fond of calling it. You appear to have 
formed very mistaken notions about the nature of humility, 
for you go so far as to assure me that no matter how you 
might desire it you could not possibly be humble after the 
fashion mystic works require, simply because you do not think 
it possible to deceive oneself, and all the efforts to do so 
would be in vain. I almost laughed when I found you 
imagined you had proposed an unanswerable difficulty to me 
when you said you could never persuade yourself you are 
the most stupid among men, for you meet many who 
evidently do not possess the knowledge, be it little or 
great, which your education and instruction procured for 
you ; or that you are the most perverse of mortals, for you 
do not rob, assassinate, nor commit other acts with which 
some men stain their hands ; and, nevertheless, you say, if we 
accept the doctrine of mystics, this is the perfection of humility, 
which the most distinguished saints and those most advanced 
in this virtue, have attained. I do not wonder you feel 
no inclination to run out on the streets and feign madness, 
that you might be despised, and so have an opportunity of 
practising humility ; but what I do wonder at is, that you 
should consider such arguments invincible, and, proclaiming 
your victory beforehand, intimate that one must either swallow 

2 1 8 L f tiers of Balmez. 

the absurdities resulting from these maxims and examples, or 
condemn the lives of great saints, and cast the works of the 
most famous mystics into the fire. I think the dilemma is 
not so perfect as to leave no means of escape. I rather 
believe it will neither be necessary to devour the absurdities 
ncr engage in the repugnant occupation of Don Quixote's 
housekeeper and the village priest. 

I think you, who are so noble-hearted, cannot be at variance 
with St. Teresa of Jesus, to whom, though you regard her as 
a visionary, you cannot deny the eulogy so well deserved by 
her eminent virtues, her pure soul, her good heart, her clear 
and penetrating talent, and her pen, as amiable as sublime. 
You know this saint had some experience in the Christian 
virtues, and from all she had meditated and read, and con- 
sulted besides with wise men, should know in what humility 
consisted, and how this virtue was understood and explained 
in the bosom of the Catholic Church. And do you believe 
the saint thought that, to be humble, she should begin by 
deceiving herself? I would wager anything you could not 
guess the definition she gives of humility the admirable de- 
finition, which, I might say, appears selected on purpose to 
answer your difficulty. The saint relates that she did not 
comprehend why humility was so agreeable to God ; and 
thinking on the matter one day, she found it was so, because 
humility is truth. You see there is no talk here of deceit, and 
humility, so far from urging us to it, dissipates it ; for its most 
solid merit, the very title on which it is agreeable to God, is 
its truth. 

I shall explain in a few words that beautiful sentence of 
St. Teresa of Jesus ; and I shall require no more than this 
luminous observation of our saint's to make you comprehend 
what humility is, in its relations with ourselves, with God, and 
with our neighbour. 

Is it opposed to the virtue of humility that we should 
know the good qualities, natural or supernatural, with which 
God has favoured us ? No ; on the contrary, read all the 
works of scholastic and mystic theologians, and you shall find 
that they all agree that this virtue is not opposed to any such 
knowledge. If a man constantly experiences that he com- 
prehends with great facility whatever he hears or reads, that 
it is enough for him to fix his attention on the most abstruse 
questions to make them appear clear and simple, there is no 
inconvenience in the world in his being inwardly convinced 
that God has bestowed this great favour on him ; nay, more, 
it is impossible for him not to entertain this conviction, which 
has for its object a fact ever present to his mind, and of 

L etters of Balmez. 2 1 9 

which his conscience assures him, or rather a series of acts, 
that continually accompany his existence, and constitute his 
intellectual life that intimate life, of which we are as certain 
as of the existence of our body. Can you imagine St. Thomas 
was persuaded he was as ignorant as the lay brothers of his 
convent ? Was it possible for St. Augustine to believe he 
knew as little of the science of religion as the lowest of the 
people to whom he was explaining it? Shall we say St. 
Jerome, who had such a profound knowledge of the learned 
languages, and of all the other things necessary for the correct 
interpretation of the Sacred Scriptures, believed in his heart 
he knew Greek and Hebrew but tolerably, and that the in- 
vestigations with which he ascended to the sources of eru- 
dition were totally fruitless. No ; Christians utter no such 
absurdities. A virtue so solid, so beautiful, so agreeable to 
the eyes of God, cannot require of us any such extravagances; 
it cannot require us to shut our eyes to what is clearer than 
the light of day. 

Real humility brings with it the clear knowledge of what 
we are, without adding or subtracting anything. If a person 
have wisdom, he can be interiorly aware of it ; but he should 
at the same time confess he has received it from God, and 
that to him is due all the honour and glory. He should also 
acknowledge that this wisdom, though it raises his under- 
standing above that of the ignorant, or of those less wise than 
himself, leaves him, nevertheless, very inferior to other wise 
men, who are far before him in comprehensiveness and pro- 
foundness. He should also consider that this wisdom gives 
him no right to despise any one; for, as he has it by a special 
beneficence of God, so might others have possessed it, if the 
Creator had deigned to bestow it on them. He should 
remember that this privilege does not exempt him from the 
weakness and miseries to which humanity is subject, and by 
how much the more the favours are with which God has distin- 
guished him by how much the more capable his understand- 
ing may be of knowing good and evil, by so much the more 
strict shall be the account he must render to God, who has 
so made him the object of his bountiful munificence. If a 
person have virtues, there is no inconvenience in his knowing 
it, but he should acknowledge they are due to particular 
graces from heaven ; if he does not commit the evil acts with 
which other men stain themselves, it is because God holds 
him by the hand ; if he does good and avoids evil by means 
of grace, this grace has been given by God ; if, from his very 
disposition, he is inclined to certain virtuous acts, and has a 
horror of the contrary vices, this disposition has also come to 

2 2O L ettcrs of Balmez. 

him from God : in a word, he has motives to be content, but 
not to become proud, on the supposition that he would be 
unjust in attributing to himself what does not belong to him, 
and defrauding God of the glory that is rightly His. 

Listen to that great saint, to the man who soared so high 
in all Christian virtues, especially in humility to St. Francis 
de Sales ; and see how he not only agrees that it is lawful to 
know the perfections we possess, but also permitted and often 
salutary, to fix our attention on them, and stop to consider 
them at leisure : 

" But, Philothea, you will desire me to lead you forward in 
humility, what I have said on it up to this appearing rather 
like wisdom than humility. Forward, then, I go. There are 
many who do not like, or do not presume to think on and 
consider, the graces and favours God has bestowed on them, 
fearing they might fall into vain glory or complacency, but 
in this they are undoubtedly deceived ; for as the great 
Angelical Doctor says, the true means of coming to the love 
of God is the consideration of his favours, as by how much 
the more we consider them, by so much the more we shall 
love Him ; and as particular favours move us more than 
general ones, so they should be more attentively considered. 
It is certain nothing can humble us so much before the mercy 
of God, as the multitude of His benefits; nor can anything 
humble us so much before His justice as the multitude of 
our transgressions. We should consider what He has done 
for us, as well as what we have done against Him ; and as we 
often consider our sins, so let us often consider his graces. 
There is no fear that the knowledge of what He has given us 
shall make us vain, so that we attend to this truth, that 
whatever good is in us is not ours. Tell me, do mules cease 
to be dull and peevish beasts because they are loaded with 
the precious wares and odours of princes ? What good have 
we that we have not received ? And if we have received it, 
why do we glory ? (i Cor. iv. 7). On the contrary, the lively 
consideration of the favours received makes us humble, 
because knowledge engenders gratitude ; but if, on beholding 
the beneficence God has employed towards us, any sort of 
vanity should come to disquiet us, it will be an infallible 
remedy to recur to the consideration of our ingratitude, our 
imperfections, and our miseries. If we consider what we did 
when God was not with us, we shall see that what we do 
when He accompanies us, does not spring from our own 
industry. We shall be truly glad, and shall rejoice because 
we have some good ; but we shall glorify God above as the 
author of it. Thus the Blessed Virgin confessed that God did 

Letters of Balmez. 2 2 \ 

great things in her ; but this was to humble herself and exalt 
God : ' My soul,' she says, ' doth magnify the Lord, 
because He hath done great things in me'" (Luke i., 46, 49). 
St. Francis de Sales In trod, to a Devout Life, part $rd t chap. 5. 
There could be no more conclusive testimony in favour of 
the doctrine I was explaining. You see there is no talk of 
deceiving oneself, but simply of knowing things as they 
are. " Then," you will object, "how is it great saints say 
roundly they are the greatest sinners in the world, that they 
are unworthy the earth should sustain them, and are the most 
ungrateful among men ?" Understand the true sense of 
these words ; recollect they are accompanied by a sentiment 
of profound compunction ; that they are pronounced in 
moments in which the soul annihilates itself in presence of its 
Creator ; and you shall see they are susceptible of a very 
rational interpretation. I shall simplify it by an example. 
When St. Teresa of Jesus said she was the greatest sinner on 
earth, can we imagine she believed she was guilty of the 
crimes of other women, when she knew well the purity of her 
body and soul, and the ineffable favours with which God had 
enriched her ? Clearly we cannot. Nay more ; can we 
suppose she believed she had one single mortal sin on her 
soul ? Certainly not, for othenvise she would not have dared 
to receive the august Sacrament of the Altar, which she 
nevertheless received so frequently, and with such ecstasies of 
gratitude and love. Well now : the saint was not ignorant 
that in the world there were many persons guilty of grievous 
and very grievous sins in the sight of God ; for she herself 
was the first to deplore it, and to pray heaven to look on those 
wretches with eyes of mercy ; and therefore, when she said 
she was the greatest sinner on earth, she could not under- 
stand it in the rigorous sense in which you appear desirous 
of interpreting it. What then did it signify ? Here it is, very 
simply. Let us assist at one of the scenes represented in her 
mind, and we shall perfectly comprehend the sense of the 
words which are a stumbling block to you. Placed in the 
presence of God, with lively faith, with ardent charity, with a 
contrite and humble heart, she examines the hidden folds of 
her conscience, and observes, now and then, some slight 
imperfections as yet unconsumed by the fire of divine love ; 
and she also recollects times past, when, notwithstanding that 
she was very virtuous, she had not fully entered on the 
sublime path which led her to that height of sanctity which 
constituted her an angel on earth. The light faults into 
which she had fallen, her want of promptness in following the 
inspirations of heaven, occur to her ; and comparing all with 

232 L etters of Balmez. 

the natural and supernatural favours heaped on her by God, 
and measuring it with her lively faith, her ineffable charity, 
and that intimate presence of God, which raised her above 
this mortal life and placed her in superior regions, she sees in 
all its blackness, the foulness of even venial sins ; she con- 
siders the ingratitude of which she was guilty by not attend- 
ing at once, with much more ardour than she did, to the calls 
of the Lord ; and then comparing the sanctity of her soul 
with the divine sanctity, her ingratitude with the favours of 
God, her love with the love manifested for her by God, she 
annihilates herself in presence of the Most High she loses 
sight of all the good she possesses, and with her eyes fixed 
on her weakness and misery alone, she exclaims she is the 
greatest sinner among women, the most ungrateful among 
God's creatures. Do you find anything irrational or false in 
this ? Can you presume to condemn the expansion of an 
humble heart, which, annihilated in the presence of the Lord, 
acknowledges its defects, and in its lively consideration of 
them exclaims they are the greatest sins of the world ? Do 
you not discover in this the expression of an ardent charity 
rather than words of deceit ? 

I may tell you, Christian humility is most suited for forming 
true philosophers, if true philosophy consists in making us 
see things as they are in themselves, without adding or sub- 
tracting anything. Humility does not cramp us, for it does 
not prohibit the knowledge of the good qualities we may 
possess : it only obliges us to recollect we have received them 
from God ; and this recollection, far from depressing our 
mind, encourages it : far from debilitating our strength, 
increases it ; because, by keeping the source from which all 
good has come to us ever present to our mind, we know that 
by recurring to the same spring with lively faith and recti- 
tude of intention, copious floods shall flow again to satisfy all 
our necessities. Humility lets us know the good we possess, 
but does not allow us to forget our evils, our weaknesses, 
and our miseries : it allows us to know the grandeur, the 
dignity of our nature, and the favours of grace ; but it does 
not permit us to exaggerate, nor allow us to attribute to our- 
selves what we do not possess ; or if we possess it, to forget 
from whom we have received it. Humility, then, inspires us, 
with regard to God, with acknowledgment and gratitude, and 
makes us feel our nothingness in presence of the Infinite 

With respect to our neighbours, humility does not allow us 
to exalt ourselves above them by aiming at any pre-eminence 
which does not belong to us. It renders us affable in our 

Letters of Balmce. 223 

daily intercourse with them, for it makes us feel our own 
weaknesses, and, consequently, tolerant of those to others ; 
and by excluding envy from the heart, which always accom- 
panies pride, it compels us to respect merit wherever we meet 
it, and frankly acknowledge it by offering it due homage, 
without dreading its prejudicial effect on our own glory. 

As I have just pronounced the word glory, I would like to 
know whether you take it ill that humility does not allow us to 
take pleasure in the praises of men, but inspires us with sen- 
timents superior to that smoke which turns the heads of so 
many. If you do and I have no doubt of it a single 
reflection will suffice to convince you of your error. Do you 
think everything is good which makes man great ? I believe 
you will not hesitate to say yes. Very well ; the world re- 
gards him as a hero, who, after performing actions worthy of 
praise, pays no attention to it, but despises it, and on feeling 
the fragrant aroma, passes quietly on, his head full of elevated 
thoughts, his heart swollen with generous sentiments. The 
world then does justice to the despisers of human vanity 
that is, to those who practise acts of true humility : do not be 
less just than the world. Do you want a counter-proof of 
this ? Here it is : those who are not humble seek after praise ; 
and do you know what they acquire as soon as their eagerness 
becomes apparent ? Ridicule and mockery. When we wish 
to appear well in the eyes of the world, if we are not humble, 
we pretend to be so, and exteriorly allow it to be understood 
we make no account of praise, and if offered to us, we resist 
it, and say it is undeserved. See, my esteemed friend, how 
wise, how noble, how sublime is the Christian religion, for in 
the very virtue which apparently brings so much debasement 
with it, is concealed the means of acquiring solid glory even 
among men, who offer it willingly to whoever deserves, but 
does not seek it, but ridicule and despise him who solicits it. 
Such is the state of things, that pride itself, to quench its 
thirst of glory, is compelled to deny itself, and assume the 
mantle of humility. And thus is verified, even on earth, that 
sentence of the Sacred Scripture : " He who exalts himself 
shall be humbled, and he who humbles himself shall be 

But enough to-day on humility. I think you are now con- 
vinced, that to be truly humble, conformably to the spirit of 
the Christian religion, you do not require to run through the 
streets as a madman, or to look on yourself as deserving im- 
prisonment or the block, or to think your acquaintance with the 
sciences or literature is as contracted as that of those who do 
not know how to read. If at any time you meet in the lives 

224 The "Leabhar na-Huidhri" 

of the saints some fact you cannot explain by the foregoing 
rules, remember we have no difficulty in saying there are 
many things rather to be admired than imitated ; and besides, 
you should not attempt to judge by mundane considerations 
what marches by paths unknown to the generality of men. 
These are what we call mysteries and prodigies of grace, and 
what you, philosophers, will regard as the excitement and 
exaggeration of religious feeling 

I remain your ever fond and affectionate friend, 



1 HE Royal Irish Academy has rendered good service to the 
causeof Celtic Literature by publishing, inastylethat approaches 
as near as possible to fac-simile, the oldest of the now extant 
" Ancient Books of Erin," written in the native language. 
This volume has long been known to Irish scholars as the 
LEABHAR NA-HUIDHRI, i.e., "The Book of the Dun Cow," 
although it only borrowed thisdesignation fromanother far more 
ancient MS. of Clonmacnoise, from which the greater part of its 
contents were copied : for it is related in the Life of St. Kiaran 
of Clonmacnoise, that, when he left his father's house to 
pursue the paths of a religious life in the solitude of the 
cloister, he was followed by a pet dun cow, the hide of which 
was subsequently used by that Saint and the Religious of the 
Monastery when recording the early history and traditions of 
our country. 

The present MS., called "Leabhar na-Huidhri," as appears 
from a memorandum inserted at page 37, was written by 
Maelmuire, the son of Ceilechar, who wasthe^son of Conn- 
na-mbocht, i.e., " Con of the Poor," a surname given to him 
on account of his boundless charities. This remarkable man 
possessed a rich patrimony in Ulster, but, renouncing the 
world, retired to the hallowed precincts of Clonmacnoise, and 
there spent his life in deeds of devotion and charity. He died 
in the year 1031, and his sons and grandsons are famed in our 
annals for the high literary eminence they attained in the 
schools of that great monastery. 

The following is the entry at page 37, to which we have 
referred : " Pray for Maelmuire, the son of Ceilechar, that is, 
the son of the son of Conn-na-mbocht, who wrote and 
collected this book from various books. Pray for Domnall, 
the son of Muirchertach, son of Domnall, son of Tadhg, son 

The " Leabhar na-Huidhri." 225 

of Brian, son of Aidrias, son of Brian Luighnech, son of 
Toirrdealbach Mor O'Conor. It was this Domnall that 
directed the renewal of the name of the person who wrote 
this beautiful book, by Sigraid O'Cuirrndin ; and is it not as 
well for us to leave our blessing with the owner of this book 
as to send it to him by the mouth of another person. And It 
is a week from this day to Easter Saturday, and a week from 
yesterday to the Friday of the Crucifixion, and there will be 
two golden Fridays on that Friday, that is the Friday of the 
Festival of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the Friday of the 
Crucifixion, and this is greatly wondered at by some learned 
persons." All the data here given accord with the vigil of 
Palm Sunday in 1345, on which day the decaying name of the 
original writer was happily restored by Sigraid O'Cuirrndin, 
who, as we learn from the Annals of the Four Masters, was a 
learned poet of Breffny, and died in the year 1347. 

Of Maelmuire (whose name literally means devoted to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary), the compiler and scribe of the valuable 
MS. of which we treat, nothing more is known than what is 
thus briefly registered in the Annals of the Four Masters : 
"In the year 1106, Maelmuire, son of the son of Conn-na- 
mbocht, was killed in the middle of the Daimhliag of Cluain- 
micnois, by a party of robbers." 

In compiling this work he availed himself of other books now 
lost, besides the ancient Leabltar na-Huidhri already referred to. 
Thus some of his tracts are cited from " The Yellow Book of 
Slane," " The Books of Eochad O'Flannagan," " The Books of 
Monaster," " The Books of Drom Sneachta," " The Leabhar 
Gt-arr, or the Short Book," "The Yel|ow Book," and Nennius. 
The contents, as they now stand, are for the most part 
historical and romantic tales, with a few very valuable religious 
tracts. It is to be lamented, however, that the greater part 
of the original MS. has long since been lost, and the frag- 
ment that now remains to us consists of only sixty-seven folios. 

In a philological point of view the present publication is 
invaluable, as some of its poems are reckoned among the 
most ancient compositions in the Celtic language, which even 
in the 1 2th century required glosses and explanatory notes 
to render them intelligible to Irish readers. Some of the 
romantic tales are also important as detailing to us the daily 
life and usages of our fathers long before the light of Christian 
faith shone upon the nation. They chiefly regard Cuchulain, 
and the celebrated palace called the " Royal Branch," which 
was the chief monarch's residence in the royal Emania till 
that city was destroyed by the Collas, three chieftains of the 
Heremonian race, one hundred years before the mission of 

Vul.. VII. 15 

226 The "ItfaWtar na-Huidhri? 

St. Patrick to our island. Cuchulain was a native prince 
of Ulster, and inheritor of the districts of Cuailgne and Muir- 
thenme, lying between the present town of Dundalk and 
Drogheda, and comprising the greater part of the present 
county Louth. His chief residence was Dun-delga, the modern 
Dundalk. He was also one of the most distinguished of 
that band of Ulster heroes, who, by our ancient writers, were 
styled " the champions of the Royal Branch," and as such he 
was entitled to reside in the chief monarch's palace. In the 
famous poem called Tain-bo-cuailgne, i. e., "the Cattle-spoil 
of Cuailgne," the following description is given of the war 
chariot of Cuchulain : " Then the valiant champion mounted 
his armed battle-chariot, with its thin swords, with its hooks and 
hard spikes, with its champion-slaying spears, with its opening 
machinery, with its galling sharp nails, which were disposed 
on the axles, and straps, and shafts, and ropes of that chariot. 
Such was that chariot, with its narrow dry entrance to its body, 
high-mounted, straight-shouldered, champion-like, in which 
would fit the arms of seven chiefs; with the fleetnessof the swal- 
low, or of the wind, or of a fox coursing over the plain. That 
chariot was yoked upon two fleet, bounding, furious steeds, with 
small heads, small tufts, small legs, sagacious, broad-hoofed, 
red-breasted, switch-tailed, streaked, easy yoked, easy of 
motion, under the splendid timbers of the car." The great 
value of such a chariot appears from a subsequent passage, in 
which Meave, Queen of Connaught, offers as a prize a chariot 
worth four times seven cumhals, i. e., worth eighty-four cows. 
Of the same queen it is also added, that when setting out on 
her expedition to plunder the herds of Cuailgne she had nine 
chariots appropriated to herself alone " two chariots before 
her, and two chariots after her, and two chariots at each side, 
and her own chariot in the middle of them. And the reason 
that Meave went forth in this order was, that the sods thrown 
up by the hoofs of the horses, and the foam of their bridle- 
bits, and the dust of the great army, should not tarnish the 
queen's golden diadem." (Leabhar iia-Huidhri, p. 55, seqq.) 

It is principally, however, with the religious tracts of the 
Leabhar na-HuidJiri that we are interested, and we are happy 
to be able to enrich our pages with a few extracts from them. 
At page 5, commences the historical introduction to the 
famous elegy of the poet Dallon Forgaill on the death of 
St. Columbkille, known as the Amhra Cohiimcille, which was 
composed before the close of the sixth century. The following 
is a brief account of the origin of this poem : 

About A.D. 575, a dispute arose between Aedh, son of 
Ainmire, King of Ireland, and Aedan, son of Galbran, King 

The " Leabhar na-Huidkri." 227 

of the Scottish Dalriads, on the question to which of them 
the Dalriads of Scotland should be subject. To arrange this 
and other matters of controversy, a convention of the states 
of Ireland was held at Druim-ccta, in the diocese of Derry, 
to which the king of the Scottish Dalriads was invited. He 
accordingly came to the convention, and St. Columba also 
hastened to it from his great monastery in lona. The mat- 
ter in dispute between the two kings was referred to the 
arbitration of a wise and holy man of the Dalriads of Ireland, 
by name Colman, son of Comgellan ; and he decided that 
the valour and military prowess of the Dalriads should be 
always with the men of Ireland in their hostings and war- 
like expeditions, but that their rents and tributes should be 
with the men of Alba, or Scotland. Another weighty matter 
to be arranged at their meeting was the case of the poets 
and literary men of Ireland, who at this time had become 
so numerous and burdensome that many of the chiefs were 
anxious to banish them altogether out of the country. St. 
Columba, however, himself skilled in poetry, pleaded in their 
favour, and it was agreed that for three years they should 
continue to be maintained, but with the condition that the 
hitherto extravagant number of their attendants should be 
reduced to a certain standard. These and other matters 
having been arranged, all the poets who had assembled m the 
vicinity of the place of meeting, came in a body to the 
presence of Columba, and sang a laudatory poem which they 
had composed for him, set to a peculiarly noble and melodious 
air. Among the rest came the chief poet of Ireland, Dallon 
Forgaill, /. t., " the blind Forgaill," who repeated the introduc- 
tion to a poem he was about to extemporize on the spot in 
praise of Columba ; but the saint prevented him, saying, that 
such elegies should not be composed till after death. He, 
however, promised the poet to make his death known to him 
no matter when or where it should happen ; and he also 
promised him, in reward of his piety, that his sight should 
be restored to him whilst composing this poem, all which was 
verified at the death of Columbkille. . 

At page 17 there is a curious tract, but imperfect, describ- 
ing the condition of Enoch and Elias in heaven, and their 
future conflict with Antichrist, which will precede the day of 
judgment. Two other more perfect copies of it are preserved 
in Trinity College Library, numbered H. 2. 16. and H. 2. 18., 
in which it receives the title : " The Two Sorrows of the 
Kingdom of Heaven." Its language is very ancient, and 
brings us back, at least, two or three centuries before the 
Leabhar na-Huidhri was compiled. It thus begins imperfectly 
\n\\\eLtabharna-Huidhri: " . . . Elias, so that he is 

228 The " Leabhar ua-Huidhri." 

beneath the Tree of Life in Paradise, and a Gospel in his 
hand for preaching to those birds. There the birds go till 
they are eating the berries of the tree. Large berries, indeed, 
are these. They are sweeter than all honey, and they are 
more intoxicating than all wine. They then continue to eat 
the berries. After that Elias opens the Gospel ; at this the 
birds press their wings to themselves and their feet, without 
moving wing or foot until the preaching is ended. It is on 
the day of judgment that he preaches to them that is, all 
that will be given of punishment to the souls of men on the 
day of judgment, namely, the four rivers around Mount Zion 
shall be a-burning the souls for ten thousand years, and ten 
hundred years in each thousand. That is a long trial to any 
one who shall have sins ; it is good, however, to anyone who 
shall have a good-deserving at last, even in that day, though 
it were no more than that It were good that no one should 
sleep on the meditation of this while he is alive. In addition 
(he preaches), the coming of Christ with the nine orders of 
heaven, and with the men of earth, all that have been born, 
and shall be born till judgment, and the family of hell. It is 
how, again, the same Jesus Christ will come to them that is, 
his red cross upon his shoulders, to avenge his crucifixion 
upon the wicked, and to protect the just from the mouth of 
Satan. Immense is the host that will be there. It is in the 
presence of this host every one shall declare his works, both 
good and bad ; each one in his turn shall declare unasked 
what his eyes have seen, and what his lips and tongue have 
spoken, and what his hands have done, and what his feet 
have gone over. Christ, the Son of God, and the angels of 
heaven, and the men of earth, and the men of hell, listening 
to each one till he has finished his declaration, his guardian 
demon reminding him of every evil he had done ; for he will 
be continually on his left hand a-vvatching him ; but his 
guardian angel on his right hand reminding him of whatever 
he had done of good." 

At page 34 a tract begins, entitled, Scela na Esergi i.e. 
" Tidings of the Resurrection." The following passages will 
give an idea of this work : 

" Let every one bear in mind that judgment will come. It 
is then all men shall arise through the proclamation of the 
Son of God. In that day, that is, in the day of judgment, 
heaven and earth shall be confounded, and all the creatures 
that are in them : they shall be dissolved, and shall melt with 
the heat of the fire of judgment : but all these shall be put 
into a form which will be more beautiful and more lovely by 
far than the form in which they were, after their being burned 

The " Leabhar na-huidkri" 229 

and their being purified through the fire of judgment. It is 
then that fire of the day of judgment shall possess vigour and 
strength like unto the fire into which were put the three 
children by order of Nebuchadonosor. That fire burned not 
the holy children, but it burned the impious servants who 
were around the furnace of fire. It is in that manner the 
glowing fire of judgment shall burn all the sinners and all 
the impious, but shall do no harm to the bodies of the 
righteous ; for that fire shall be like a soothing drop to the 
saints, but it shall burn the sinners. . . . 

" Now, it is asked, which is the particular place from which 
the resurrection of each one shall be. Even from their graves 
for a certainty, after the example of the body of the Lord, 
which arose from its own tomb. That portion, however, who 
have been devoured by beasts, and who have been dispersed 
in different places, these shall arise according to the will of 
the Lord, who shall gather them and renew them, from the 
place which he wishes ; yet it seems more likely in this case 
that it is there they shall arise, where they were drowned and 
where they were dispersed, for that is what is regarded as 
their tomb. . . ^ 

" The Church, however, holds the opinion that the bodies 
of the holy martyrs shall, after resurrection, bear the marks of 
the wounds which they suffered for Christ, without having any 
defect or diminution of figure or beauty, for the manifestation 
of their victory and their triumph, and also for the manifesta- 
tion of the great reward to which they are entitled from the 
Lord for their martyrdom ; according to that example of the 
body of the Lord, which bears in it, after resurrection, the 
marks of the wounds which he suffered from Jews, for the 
manifestation of his perfect submission to the Heavenly 
Father, and also for an increase of pain and punishment to 
the Jews, from whom he suffered these wounds." 

Another tract, in some respects similar to the preceding 
one, is given at page 31. It is headed: " Scela lai Bratha" 
i.e. 'tidings of the Judgment Day,' and is described by 
Eugene Curry as " a very interesting ancient sermon on the 
day of Judgment." We give the following passages from 
this valuable Tract, the more interesting as few Sermons 
of our ancient Church have been preserved to us : 

" May God bless the hearers. Let every one of you 
separately give his mind, and his contemplation fervently to 
the truths of the day of judgment, that is, how the Lord will 
give welcome to the saints and to the just to the possession 
of the heavenly kingdom ; how on the other hand he will 

230 The " Leabhar na- Huidhri." 

give condemnation to the sinners and to the unjust when 
banishing them into hell. Jesus Christ, the Son of the 
living God, the Saviour of the whole world, one of the three 
persons of the noble Deity, who is co-eternal and co-powerful 
with the Father and the Holy Ghost, it is he who spoke these 
truths a little while before his suffering, in order to declare 
the glory he shall have himself on the day of judgment with 
his saints and with his just, and to strengthen his apostles 
and his disciples, so that sadness should not seize upon them 
for his suffering ; for he knew that the time of his suffering 
was drawing nigh. 

" Matthew, son of Alpheus, a Hebrew sage, one of the twelve 
men whom Jesus chose into his communion, one of the four 
men who wrote the Dominical Gospel it is he who wrote 
and furnished these truths of the day of judgment, as he 
heard them from the lips of his Master, that is, Jesus, so that 
he left them in remembrance with the Church, and spoke in 
the following manner : ' When the Son of God and of man 
in one person will come with honour and with dignity, and 
all his angels with him, he will then sit on his royal chair and 
on the seat of his dignity, and then all men will be gathered 
into his presence, and he will then make a separation and a 
check of them afterwards,' 

" It is certain also that four divisions will be made of the 
human race in the day of judgment. One division of them 
indeed will be made to submit to judgment, and after their 
being judged they will go to pain and punishment. It is to 
these the Lord will say this terrible saying when banishing 
them from him : ' Depart from me, O cursed, into the ever- 
lasting fire which has been prepared for the Devil and his 
wicked family.' Those are they who fulfil not in act the good 
they promise with their lips. The name of this class is in the 
Scriptures malinon valde, that is, bad, whose evil is Hot intense. 

" There is another division of them that will not be made to 
submit to judgment, but will go at once without any judgment 
at all to hell, and will be pained there for ever and ever, without 
the mercy of God to relieve them (for they impose neither 
restraint, nor law, nor rule on the commission of their sin and 
their vices here, but every bad thing they are most capable 
of, it is that they do) : the name of that division is malt valde, 
that is, the worst of the human race. 

" Another division of them will be made to submit to judg- 
ment, and after their judgment will go to reward, Those are 
they who through compunction of heart do fervent penance 
here, and correct their previous evils through virtues and good 
works, and also give alms of food and lodging; to the poor in 

The " Lcabhar na-Huidhri" 231 

the name of the Lord, so that these cover the sins which they 
committed before, and that the Lord does not remember to 
them beyond the evils they committed here. It is to these 
the Lord will say in the day of judgment, while calling them 
to him into heaven : " Come ye now, O blessed, to the posses- 
sion of the heavenly kingdom." The name again of this 
division in the sacred Scriptures is, boni non valdt, that is, 
good whose good is not intense. 

" Another division of them that are not made to submit to 
judgment, but will go at once, without being judged at all, 
to heaven and a glorious reward it is those that think it not 
enough of good to fulfil what the divine Scripture enjoins on 
them to do, but abound through their virtues and their own 
benevolence, and until they do more of good than is enjoined 
upon them in the divine commandments. . It is to these Jesus 
promises and prophesies this great good which is related in 
the Gospel, so that he says to them when seeing them com- 
ing towards them in the great convention of the day of 
judgment: 'Since ye have forsaken,' says Jesus, 'every 
good thing ye had in the world for the sake of my familyship 
and companionship, come ye now to me, that ye may be with 
me on twelve thrones, without undergoing judgment.' "... 

The chief monster of hell, and its abode, are thus de- 
scribed : A A hundred necks on it, and a hundred heads 
on each neck, and five hundred teeth in each head. A 
hundred hands on it, and a hundred palms on each hand, 
and a hundred nails on each palm a place in which exis- 
tence will be without companions or friends, in thirst, in 
hunger, in great cold, in great heat, and in the want of 
every goodness, and in the completion of every evil ; in 
the disunited union of demons and of the family of hell. 
There will also be there woe and shouting, crying and com- 
plaints, groaning and anguish on every mouth ; and cursing 
without ceasing from the sinners on their tempter, that is, 
on the Devil, for it is he that brings them to suffer punish- 
ment every evil they committed through his temptation : 
and cursing from him on his children around him, that is, on 
the sinners, for his own pain is the greater for every evil they 
committed through his persuasion to them while persuading 
them of every evil. Very terrible, however, and ugly is the 
prison which the Lord made for the Devil and his demons, 
that is, hell. Low and deep is its position, for though a 
mill-stone were dropped into the mouth of hell, not more than 
at the end of a thousand years would it have reached its 
bottom. The journey of a soul, too, after leaving its body is 
for a space of thirty years from its top to its bottom, as is the 
opinion of some." . ... 

232 The " Leabhar na-Huidhri? 

"In one word, were a person sent into seven ages, and that a 
thousand years were in each age of them, not more than the 
one twenty-first part of the ills of hell could he relate. These, 
however, are the chief informations regarding hell and its 
pains. No joy upon earth is it, though the chief sovereignty 
of the world were in the possession of him to whom is to be 
as an habitation that habitation, and to whom will be destined 
the residence of that prison. The saints, however, and the 
just, who fulfilled the commandments of the Lord and his 
doctrine, will be invited with great dignity, with honour, with 
reverence into the everlasting life on the right of God for ever 
and ever ; that is, the band of meekness and of gentleness, 
of charity and of mercy, and of every other benevolence ; the 
band of virginity and of penance, and widows faithful to 
God." . I . . . . . wi/ vil . 

" Ineffable, however, is the extent and the breadth of the 
heavenly kingdom ; for the bird of quickest flight in the 
world could not arrive at the circumference of heaven from 
the beginning of the world to its end. Immense also is the 
fertility and the brightness, the beauty and the firmness of 
that city ; its ease and its great sweetness, its position, its 
splendour, its smoothness, and its gleaming"; its purity, its 
lovingness ; its whiteness, its melodiousness, its sanctity, its 
saint-purity, its loveliness, its gentleness, its height, its splen- 
dour, its dignity, its reverence, its full peace, its full union. 
Now, no creature is able to relate the hundredth part of 
the goodness of that city, but only it is better to relate 
this small portion of it than to be silent. Blessed, how- 
ever, is he who will be with good deserving and with good 
works, and who will be brought to the possession of that 
city in the day of judgment, for he will be for ever without 
end or limit in the union of the church of heaven and of 
earth, in the union of noble fathers (patriarchs)- and of 
prophets, of the Apostles and disciples of Jesus Christ ; of the 
saints and holy virgins of the world; of the angels and 
archangels of the Lord, in the union which is nobler than all 
union, in the union of the holy, noble Trinity, of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

There is only one other tract to which, for the present, 
we need call attention. It is the " Vision of St. Adamnan," 
(p. 27.), in which the writer vividly describes the joys of 
heaven and the pains of hell, as seen in vision by St. 
Adamnan, and as described by that saint in his sermons to 
the faithful. It thus begins : 

"The Lord of the elements is noble and is admirable, and 
his strength and his power are great and are wonderful. He 

Tht " Leabliar na-HuiJhri." 233 

is gentle and he is mild, he is merciful and .he is charitable ; 
for he unites in heaven, to himself, the flock of charity and 
of mercy, of gentleness and forbearance ; but he brings and 
prostrates into hell the impious, unprofitable congregation of 
the sons of malediction ; for he prepares the various secrets 
and rewards of heaven for the blessed, but brings a multitude 
of various pains to the sons of death. 

" Now there are many of the saints and of the just of 
the Lord of the elements, and of the apostles and disciples of 
Jesus Christ, to whom were manifested the mysteries and 
secrets of the kingdom of heaven after that manner, and the 
all-glorious rewards of the just, and also to whom were mani- 
fested the various pains of hell, together with the beings 
that are in them. To Peter the apostle, indeed, was manifested 
the four-cornered vessel which was let down from heaven, and 
four ropes out of it. Sweeter to listen to it than to all music. 
Paul the apostle, too, was taken up to the third heaven, so that 
he heard the unspeakable words of the angels, and the ad- 
mirable conversation of the family of heaven. Further, also, 
on the day of the death of Mary all the apostles were brought 
so that they witnessed the miserable pains and punishments 
of the unhappy when the Lord enjoined upon the angels 
of the west to open the earth before the apostles, that they 
might view and contemplate hell with its many pains, 
according as he himself had promised this to them a long 
time before his passion. And lastly to Adamnan ua Thinne, 
the chief sage of the west of the world, was revealed what is 
related here when his soul went forth from his body on the 
festival of John the Baptist, and when it was brought to 
heaven with the angels of heaven, and to hell with its vile host. 

" Now, when the soul went out from the body, her 
guardian angel while she was in the flesh, immediately ap- 
peared to her, and led her with him firstly, to view the king- 
dom of heaven. And the first land to which they came is 
the land of the saints. A land rich and bright then is that 
land. Various and wonderful assemblies are there with casnltis 
of white linen about them, and fine white cncullas over their 
heads. The saints of the east of the world are in their 
assembly apart in the east of the land of the saints : the 
saints of the west of the world again in the west of the same 
land ; the saints of the north of the world again, and of the 
south of it, in their two very large assemblies, south and north. 

" There is also a circle of fire about that land, quite all 
round, and every one (goes) into it and out of it, and it does 
no harm. Meantime the twelve apostles and Mary the per- 
fect virgin are in her assembly apart about the powerful 

234 The " Leabhar na-Hui<thri" 

Lord : patriarchs and prophets, and the disciples of Jesus 
are near the apostles. There are also other holy virgins to 
the right of Mary, and but a short space between them ; 
children and young persons about them on every side, and 
the music of the birds of the family of heaven delighting 
them. Bright troops of the angel guardians of the souls are 
attending and ministering among those assemblies in the 
presence of the king continually. . 

" Now such of the people of the world as reach not 
that city from their life, and to whom is destined its pos- 
session after the trial of judgment, it is where they throng 
unsteadily and restlessly, in forts and in hills, in morasses 
and in caverns, their habitations until the day of judgment 
comes for them. And it is thus these hosts and assemblies 
are, namely, the guardian angel of every individual soul 
among them, serving and ministering to it. 

" When now the guardian angel had manifested to the 
soul of Adamnan these visions of the kingdom of heaven, 
and the first adventures of every soul after leaving its body, 
he led it with him afterwards to visit hell beneath, with the 
multitude of its pains and its tortures, and its punishments. 
The first region they came to is a dark, black region, and it 
bare, burned, and no pain in it at all. On the further side 
by it, is a valley full of fire, and an immense flame in it, so 
that it passes over its borders on every side ; its lower part 
is black, its middle and upper part red. There are eight mon- 
sters there, their eyes like masses of fire. There is also an 
immense bridge over the valley ; it extends from one brink to 
the other. Its middle part is high, but its two extremities 
low. Three hosts are attempting to pass it, and it is not all 
that get quite through. For one host of them the bridge is 
wide from beginning to end, so that they pass quite safe with- 
out fear and without terror over the fiery valley. -Another 
host also is trying it ; it is narrow for them at first, but wide 
finally, so that in consequence they pass, after great danger, 
over the same valley. As for the last host, however, the 
bridge is wide for them at first, narrow and confined finally, 
so that they drop from the middle of it into the same dan- 
gerous valley into the throats of the eight fiery monsters 
which keep their residence in the valley. The class for whom 
that way was easy are the virgins, devout penitents, red mar- 
tyrs devoted to God. The party, again, for whom the way 
was confined at first, and for whom afterwards it became 
finally wide, are, the throng who are by compulsion pressed 
into doing the will of God, and afterwards turn from their 
compulsion to pleasure in serving God. They, however, to whom 

The " Leabhar na-Huidhri." 235 

the bridge was wide at first, and to whom it was confined 
finally, are the sinners who listen to the teachingof the word of 
God, and after hearing it do not fulfil it 

" This, therefore, is the teaching which Adamnan was wont 
to use towards the multitudes thc-nceforth while he lived. It 
is it also he kept proclaiming in the great convention of the 
men of Erin, when the law of Adamnan was imposed upon 
the Goedhcls, and when the women were freed by Adamnan 
and by Finnachta Fledach, king of Erin, and by the chiefs of 
Erin besides. The first announcement, also, which Patric, the 
son of Calpuirn, was wont to make, is to relate the rewards 
of heaven and the pains of hell to those persons who used to 
believe in the Lord through his teaching, and who, at the 
promulgation of the gospel, used to commit their soul-friend- 
ship to him. It is also the teaching which Peter and Paul 
and the rest of the Apostles most frequently practised, that 
is to relate pains and rewards which were manifested to them 
after the same manner. It is it, also, Sylvester, Pope of 
Rome, employed towards Constantine, son of Helen, monarch 
of the world, in the great convention, when he bestowed Rome 
on Paul and on Peter. It is thus, also, Fabian, the successor 
of Peter, employed towards Gordian, king of the Romans, 
when he believed in the Lord, and when many thousands 
more believed at that time. This is the first king of the 
Romans who believed in the Saviour Jesus Christ." 

There is one special feature of these extracts to which, 
before concluding, we wish to call the attention of the 
reader: it is, that like every other document handed down to 
us from the early ages of Celtic piety, they contribute to es- 
tablish in the clearest manner the oneness of faith of the 
Catholic Church of the present day with the ancient Church 
of our fathers, Thus, they teach us that virginity was es- 
teemed a holy state, meriting for " the virgin-saints" a par- 
ticular rank in proximity with the all-perfect Queen of 
Virgins in the heavenly kingdom. Again, they prove how 
fully the Catholic doctrine of the angels-guardian was 
cherished by our ancient pastors and people, and it is clearly 
taught that this guardianship over each one's soul does not 
cease till the irrevocable sentence has been pronounced by 
the divine Judge, decreeing eternal life or eternal torments. 
At the same time they also show that for some imperfect 
souls there is a temporary punishment after death, a punish- 
ment, however, which, after a time, will be exchanged for the 
enjoyments of Paradise. Such was the teaching of St. 
Adamnan, St. Columbkille, and the other great fathers of the 
Irish church such still is the faith that quickens the heart of 
their spiritual children. 




" May it please your Grace We, your children of the 
clergy and laity of this diocese, full of joy and gratitude to 
God, on beholding you again in your old and honoured place 
at the head of this Christian family, gather round you in filial 
love and reverence, to offer to you our most earnest and heart- 
felt welcome. 

" But we are not here to-day merely to comply with a custom 
however venerable, or to perform certain formalities however 
appropriate. No ; our presence in such numbers has a signi- 
ficance which we desire to be distinctly understood. It is 
the heartfelt expression of our unbounded confidence in your 
Grace as a father and spiritual guide, whom we love and trust, 
and of our deep veneration for you as a prelate of whom we 
.are justly proud. We wish this also to be an occasion of 
testifying to you our sincere gratitude for the years of labour 
you have spent in our service, and for the great blessings 
conferred upon us during that time, by your most wise and 
active administration. Ingrates indeed should we be if 
twenty-nine years of disinterested devotion to our welfare 
could be by us forgotten or unappreciated. Time has but 
served to intensify our devotion to you, for each year brought 
forth new proofs of your self-sacrificing zeal for our interests. 
We have seen you during these long years, leading a life of 
apostolic poverty in order to afford the more to the poor and 
suffering of your flock. We have seen you founding and 
fostering vast religious and charitable institutions the special 
glory of your episcopate until now we behold within their 
walls more than four hundred Religious of various orders 
employed in maintaining over three thousand inmates, includ- 
ing widows, orphans, foundlings, penitent women, the sick, the 
aged and the insane. Within sight of this very edifice is one 
such institution that has within its precincts nearly three 
hundred inmates. Your words and example enkindled the 
flame of charity in the breasts of others, who came forward to 
aid you in these noble works. Under your auspices we have 
seen numerous churches, which never would have been erected 
without your generous aid, and splendid educational institu- 
tions arise and flourish, until now we behold St. Louis unsur- 
passed in these particulars by any of her sister cities inthis Union. 

Document. 237 

" Pardon us if we pain your modesty by reference to these 
meritorious works. But if we were silent, these monuments 
themselves must speak aloud. For now, as you re-enter your 
city comforted and beautified by them, these ' works praise 
you in the gates/ and you have to permit your children, 
within as well as without their walls, to fulfil the words of 
Scripture, and ' rise up and call you blessed.' 

" And, independently of all your Grace has done for churches 
and charitable and educational institutions, we come to speak 
our gratitude for the exalted position which your personal 
character and official action as our representative has given to 
religion in this city. 

" We can never forget your dignified firmness on many an 
important and trying occasion. When political storms raged 
around your flock, you were ever found the fearless shepherd 
of your people. We have never known you to yield one iota 
of principle to the most pressing demands of temporary 
expediency. You have ever held and acted out the true 
doctrine, that in permanent institutions, such as the Catholic 
Church is by excellence, that any timid sacrifice of principle, 
though it may afford safety for the time to individuals, must 
finally prove prejudicial to the general interests of the entire 
body. Hence,' during the test-oath agitation and persecution, 
when you beheld your priests and Sisters of Charity and of St. 
Joseph arrested and imprisoned, and still more persecution 
threatened, if you did not succumb, you, Most Rev. Father, 
were found alone amongst the presiding churchmen of this 
state, in boldly denouncing the iniquitous enactments against 
the Christian liberty of the people, and denouncing it with a 
courage, a dignity, and a promptitude worthy the character of 
Thomas a Becket. 

" These, and innumerable other benefits, we shall never for- 
get ; and, on a great public occasion like the present, so rarely 
afforded us, their remembrance wells up from the grateful 
hearts of your children, and we cannot but speak ' the things 
we have seen and heard,' even though we feel you would much 
prefer our silence. 

14 We need not say how earnestly we watched your course, 
as far as we could ascertain it, in that great assembly of your 
peers the Council of the Vatican. We knew enough of your 
character to feel unlimited confidence that there, as here, you 
would be influenced by the ruling purpose of your life, the 
glory of God, and of His spouse, the Catholic Church. 
Though we beheld you stand with the minority, we saw 
around you great and holy men, who shared your sentiments, 
and many of whom looked up to you for counsel. \Ve felt, 


in the reported words of the Sovereign Pontiff to a French 
prelate, who shared your Grace's views, that you were bound 
to act according to your convictions and your conscience, 
until a new reason should arise to influence both namely, 
the supreme deciding voice of church authority, which, to the 
Catholic, is the commanding voice of God. 

" We know, from the reiterated teaching of the same 
Pontiff, that the Catholic Church is the guardian, not the 
destroyer, of the dignity of the human reason, and that she 
asks it to pay ' the homage of the understanding ' to God 
alone. Far dearer to you and to every true man, than was Isaac 
to Abraham, is that reason, the distinguishing gift of the 
Supreme Being that elevates man above the brute creation. 
This reason can never be offered up except on ' the mountain 
of God,' and in obedience to the divine behest most certainly 
ascertained. And even then, like the only son of the 
patriarch, it is offered, but never slain, for God preserves it 
by affording the very highest rational arguments, founded on 
His own divine veracity, and thus reason triumphs in her own 
submission to essential truth. Thus we behold in act that 
wonderful principle of Catholic unity, that perfect compati- 
bility of intellectual liberty, with simple docile obedience, 
which can exist in an infallible church alone. With heartfelt 
gratitude we hail your submission to this church authority. 
By us it was of course expected, for we knew too well that 
your great learning and exalted position had in nothing 
diminished your humility. By those outside the Church who 
know you personally, or by character, this submission must 
be productive of most serious thoughts and salutary effect. 
No man has ever dared to accuse you of moral cowardice. 
No one can think that, after having sacrificed personal 
interests, and perhaps somewhat pained life-long friends by 
your course, after a life, too, of such unswerving adherence to 
principle, that now, in the evening of your days, you would 
belie the record of that life by submission from any other mo- 
tive than the deep conviction that God speaks through His 
church ; and it is man's greatest glory to obey her voice. 
Here must thinking men behold the secret of Catholic unity 
the principle of ecclesiastical authority and the conserving 
power of the everlasting church. Finally, most beloved and 
venerated Father, we, in the name of 150,000 Catholics of 
your diocese, in the name of the poor and helpless whom 
you have succoured in the name of the priests and people, 
we beg for them and ourselves your paternal blessing, and 
wish you many years of health, and peace, and prosperity." 

Document. 239 


" Words would be insufficient to express my feelings of 
thankfulness at the sentiments which have been uttered in 
the address just now read. I shall say nothing of that part 
of the address which refers to me personally. ' Praise not a 
man during life,' says the Scriptures. Death, and death only, 
puts the seal on his character, and every human praise given 
to his actions is necessarily incomplete without the approval 
of God, the judge of the secrets of the heart. With regard 
to that portion of the address that refers to my course in the 
Vatican Council, I will state briefly the motives of my action, 
and the motive of my entire and unreserved submission to 
the definition emanating from that authority. Up to the 
very period of the assembling of that council I had held as 
a theological opinion what that council has decreed to be an 
article of Christian faith ; and yet I was opposed most 
strongly opposed to the definition. I knew that the miscon- 
ceptions of its real character would be an obstacle in the way 
of the diffusion of Catholic truth at least I thought so. I 
feared that in certain parts of Europe, especially, such a defi- 
nition might lead to the danger of schism in the church, and 
on more closely examining the question itself, in its intrinsic 
evidence, I was not convinced of the conclusiveness of the 
arguments by which it was sustained, or its compatibility with 
certain well ascertained facts of ecclesiastical history, which 
rose up strongly before my mind. These were the motives of 
my opposition ; the motive of my submission is simply and 
singly, the authority of the Catholic Church. That submis- 
sion is a most reasonable obedience, because of the necessity 
of obeying and following the authority established by God ; 
and having the guarantee of our Divine Saviour's perpetual 
assistance is in itself evidence that cannot be gainsayed, by 
any who profess to recognize Jesus Christ as his Saviour and 
his God. Simply and singly on that authority I yield 
obedience, full and unreserved submission to the definition, 
concerning the character of which there can be no doubt, as it 
has emanated from the council and was subsequently 
accepted by the greater part even of those who were in the 
minority on that occasion. In yielding this submission, I say 
to the church in the words of Peter and of Paul : ' To whom, 
O Holy Mother, shall we go, but to thee ? thou hast the 
words of eternal life, and we have believed and have known 
that thou art the pillar and the ground of truth.'" 





[N.B. Thetextofthe "Monasticon" is taken vtrbatim from Archdall : the notes 
marked with numbers are added by the Editors.] 


1480. The abbot Nicholas O'Henesa was made bishop 
of Waterford in this year.* 

26th June, 33rd Queen Elizabeth, a grant was made to Sir 
Richard Greneville, Knt., and his heirs, of this monastery, 

*War, Bps., p. 536. 

Fermoy; The ancient name of the place now called Fermoy was Magh Meine, and 
thus it was called till the siege of Drom Damhghaire, which is recorded to have 
taken place about the year of our Lord 220. Munster was at that time invaded by 
Cormac Mac Airt, who, full of confidence in his Druids and in the valour of his 
trotfps, encamped at Drom Damhghaire, in the S.E. of the County Limerick, since 
called Cnoc Longa (Knocklong), i.e. hill of the encampment. In this emergency 
a famous Druid, named Mogh Ruth, hastened from his residence in Oilcan Dairbre, 
now the Island of Valencia, to the aid of the Munster army, and through his skill 
and bravery a brilliant victory was achieved. The troops of the monarch, adds the 
ancient tale, were pursued by the men of Munster, led by their Druid, Mogh Ruth, 
in his chariot drawn by wild oxen, till driven beyond the borders of the province, 
and into Magh Raighne, in Ossory. The men of Munster now returned home 
in triumph, after having repulsed the invader, and called a convocation of the 
states and people of the provinces to give thanks to their frien'l and deliverer. 
Mogh Ruth, after which they unanimously agreed to give and confirm to him and 
his descendants for ever the possession of the plain and country then called Magh 
Meine (or the mineral plain) in reward for his great services 

Magh Meine was thus handed over to Mogh Ruth, and hence it was called Fearn 
Moga, or the land of Muga, as written in some old MSS. His tribe and family, 
who settled down in this territory, took the tribe name of Fer Mugai. i.e. the men 
of Mugai, anglicised Fermoy ; and the race of Mogh Ruth continue to inhabit 
there even to this day, in the families of O'Dugan, O'Cronin, and others in that 
and the neighbouring districts The following ex:ract from an ancient- tract further 
illustrates its names : 

" They then sent for the clay of Comlehaille Meic Con, i.e. the Caile (or land) of 
Mcne, son of Ere, son of Deaghaidh, which is called Fir Mulghe. i.e. Fermoy, 
to-day. The reason it is called Caile Meic N-Eirc is because his sons dwelt there, 
namely, Mene, son of Ere, and Uatha, son of Ere, and Ailbhe, son of Ere. 
Another name for it was Fir Muighe Mene, so called because of the abundance 
of the minerals contained in the mountains around it, and because there are mine- 
rals in all the fields around it also. Another name for it was Corr Chaille Meic 
Con, because it was the patrimony of the Clann Daiiine, and it is in it Rossach- 
na-Righ is, i.t. Ross-na-Righ, the ancient burial place of the kings of Munster. 
and it is there Mac Con was till the time of the battle of Ceann Abrath." (See 
Forbas Drom Damhghaire, Book of Lismore, and O'CunVs Copy, C.M.D., p. 42, 
and O'Curry's Lectures on Manuscript Materials of Irish History, pp. 171-2, and 
Second Series, vol. i., pp. 212, 278, &c., &c.) 

The hitherto unpublished tract on the Topography of Fermoy. in the same old 
MS., is interesting, as preserving the names and boundaries of the political ami 
ecclesiastical sub-denominations of this district, and the names of many of the old 

County of Cork. 241 

containing three acres, with the appurtenances, and a parcel 
of land of the following denominations : Garricula, Ardeval- 
Icgge, Aghavanister, Kilcroige, Coulevalintcr, Venosige, Kil- 
valinter, Venosige, Forraghmore, Downbahenie, Kilcoman, 

ecclesiastical foundations of the place, with special references to the most remark- 
able families, civil and ecclesiastical, of ancient Fermoy. It runs thus : 

" Crichadh-an-Chaillc 1 of valour, 
Is there one of you to tell [its history] 
It was given to the son of Sonax [i.e. Mogh Ruth] 
For his having relieved the Forbas, &c., c." 

"This country was in two Triuchs 2 before it was given to Mogh Ruth, and 
there were eight Tuaths in each Triuch. and the line of demarcation between 
those two Triuchs was, namely, the course of Glaisse Muilinr. Mairteil 3 in Sliabh 
l ain.* and Loch Luinge 8 on the Machaire, and Gleann na n-Dibergachael on Moin 
Mor. 6 and when being given to Mogh Ruth they were made into one Triuch, in 
order to lessen the [political] influence of the race of Mogh Ruth after him, and 
securities for preserving that freedom to him, Mogh Corb, 7 son of Cormac Cas. and 
hi> descendants after him ; and after that it was arranged into ten Tuaths, eight 
Tuaths to constitute the [political extent of the] country, and two Tuaths as border 
lands. 8 . 

" The first Tuath of these that is mentioned is the Eoganacht of Gleann Oni- 
nach (now Glanworth). for it is the noblest of them, because it is one of the free 
Tuaths of Cashel. with its border Tuaths, and Hi Ingaire. which is called Magh 
Fece, is the noblest Baile of that Tuath, and Ceapach Inghin Ferchair is opposite 
it on the other side ; and Gleann Caintinn, out of which are Hi Caimh (if. 
O'Keeffe) and Hi Digi ; and Corr Tuath, out of which are Hei Finghin ; and 
I ,ileithibcl, and Daire Hi Tnuthghaile ; Cathair Droinne, 9 out of which are Hi 

1 Crichadh an Chaillc, one of the ancient names of the place now called Fermoy. 
' Triuch an ancient sub-denomination of land, supposed by some to be repre- 
sented by the modern barony ; but the two Triuchs mentioned here comprised the 
baronies of Ferraoy, Condon, and Clongibbon. Tuath, an ancient political sub- 
denomination of land. See \V. K. Sullivan's Introduction to O'Curry's Lect., 
Vol i. s Glaisse Muillinn Mairtel, i.e. the stream of Mattel's [or Mortar] mill, 
which flows southward through the glen called Leaba Molaga [or St. Molaga's 
bed] into the river Fuinshion, north-west of Marshalstown, now called Abham 
Carraig na m-Brointe [or the river of the rock of the Querns] ; others suppose this 
to be the Sheep River to the west of the above mentioned stream. 4 Sliabh Cain, 
i.e. the range of mountains extending from the Galtees westward to Buttevnnt. 
* Loch Luinge Probably the lake from which Baile an Locha, south of 
Mitchelstown, has its name. The boundary line between the baronies of Fermoy 
and Clangibbon passes through this townland. which is marked on Petty's Map of 
the County of Cork as Baile de Locha. Moin Mor This place probably com- 
prised the greater part (if not the whole) of the present Nagle Mountains, and the 
coarse land on the northern and southern slopes of this range. This appears from 
the fact that the monastery of Baile na Mona. situate four miles south of Mallow, 
on the road to Cork, was in Moin Mor, and the glen called Gleann-na n-Diberga- 
i-haile was, in all probability, to the east of, or somewhere about, Ballyhooley. 
7 Mogh Corb, son of Cormac Cas There is evidently a mistake in our text here ; 
Mogh Corb was son of Oiliall Olum, not of Cormac Cas He is mentioned in the 
Annals of the Four Masters, at the year A. n. 195, as one of the seven sons of Oilioll 
Olum, who were slain in the battle of Mngh-Muchruimhe by Mac Con and his 
forces. Cormac Cas was second son of Oilioll Olum, and ancestor of the Dal-g- 
C'as tribes of Munster. 8 Two Tuaths of border land These were the two Tuaths 
f[Uirainn or] mountain land surrounding Fermoy on the north and east sides, 
namely, Hi Rossa and Hi Cuccraidhc Sleibhe. ' Cathair Droime, now Caher 
J>roinge, situate about midway between Mitchelstown and Kilworth. The site <>f 
Mi. rn. 16 

242 Ancient Monasteries of Ireland. 

lying south of the Blackwater, Ballymabene, Granesheagh, 
Ballinegehie, Corrowharden, Carrigincroughere, and Glasi- 
ganishe, containing by estimation five hundred and fifty acres, 
at the 1$ 1 8s. $., Irish money . M 

**Aud. Gen. 

Annratham (i.e. O'Hanrahan), DunMaelclaigh, i.e. the chief fortress of the 
Eoganacht ; and Achad Loiscthi, 10 out of which are Hi Lachtnain, 11 Hi Dubh- 
thaigh, Hi Leannain, and Hi Draighnein (i.e. O'Drennan, or O'Drynan), i.e. 
Ceall Ghallan ; 12 and Moin Banba, out of which are Hi Daronaigh and Lis na 
Caille, out of which are Hi Dubhghaille and Hi Cleirigh ; and Rath Mor, out of 
which are Hi Darnain ; Leath Baile Hi Conchobhair, for O'Conchobhair was 
chief of Hi Inghaire, i.e. of Magh Keige, and the [sub] denominations of this place 
are Dun Loibinn. i.e. Teach an Turtain, and Cluain Dallain, 13 and Moin Luachra, 
and Ceall Garbhain ; and its boundaries are the line of road which leads from 
AirgeaUand 14 to Cnocan Dun Martain, and which passes down through that 
place to Abhann Mor, and the ditch west of Gort an Grain extending by Gort 
Droma Airthir to Leiscnen, along the course of Abhan Mor, and Hi Dallain; 
are the hereditary occupiers of Cluain Dallain and of Moin Luachra and of Gort 
an Grain, the church of Eoganacht Gleann Ommach is the principal church 
and a third of the land of Brigh-Gobban belongs to that Tuath, i.e. Carrac- 
Cormaic and Ceall-Danain, Cul Domhnann, Cluain Locha, Cluain Lena, Cluain 
Cairbreach, Ceall-Bracain, Coirrlis Da Conall, Craes Cru, Tipra-Gruagain, 
Tulach Aedha, Ard Catha, Cainn-Innse and Dun Draighnein to the east of Aith 
Lis Ceindfaelaidh. 

"Since the two Tuaths of O'Cuain, namely Hi Maille Machaire, 'and Hi 
Ingardail' were united into one Tuath, the chief Bailie of Hi Ingardial, i.e. 
Conbaid (hound drowning), because Finn's hounds were drowned there, and out 
of this place came Hi Buadhaigh. The Martra, i.e. Ath Ubhla, out of which 
are Hi Aichir, Ceall Achid, out of which are Hi Lomthuile. The Creg, out of 
which are Hi Riagain, Leitir, out of which are Hi Corcrain. The Recles, out of 
which are Maeilluaigh, Cill Conaim is the chieftain of Hi Cain, and before they 
were united into one Tuath O'Riagain was of Hi Ingardail. 

" Hi Maille Machaire, i.e. Leac Glas and Cul Baedain out of which are Hi 
Taimhainigh and Hi Fogartaigh, Leathnocht. in which are twelve tribe names, 
viz. : O'Conbhaidhe from Cathair Meic Maille, Hi Gonnachain, from Lis 
Dormchada, Hi Uallachain, from Cuirr Hi Uallachain, Hi Lachtnain from 
Fidhrus ; Meic Cuirc, from Cill Feichin, Hi Ceithernaighe, from Cnocan 
Tulaird, Hi Caelbheannaighe, from Cuirr Hi Cacilbheannaighe. Hi Cuicneachain, 
from Greallach, Hi Cuicneachain, Cill Cromglaisse, out of which are Hi Cuain, 
Laiche Hi Fiaich, out of which are Hi Finneachta ; Ard Fleada, out pf which are 
Hi Finneachta; Ard Fleada, out of which are Hi Cinnfhaelaidh, Manann, out of 
which are Hi Britain, Garran O'Ceamaighe, out of which are Hi Ciannaighe. 
Cill Cruimtir, is the Church of this Tuath. 

"And one third of Ternmn Brigh Gobun, belongs to Hi Cain, i.e., the two 
Ceannacans and Cul Lugdach. Moin Mucrinde, Ceall Droma, the Marbhthir, the 
Lianans, Cnocan Hi Chrbinghilla and Beallach na Ko.s. 

Tualh O'Cuscraidhe, i.e. Liathmuine and Cul na n-Aracul, out of which are 
Hi Liglula Cluain Meic Carthaind out of which are Hi Artuir, Li> an Cnuic, 
out of which are Hi Donnchada, Cill Mochuille, out of which are Hi Heachagain, 

this Cathair [or fortress] is now marked by the ruins of an old castle, which com- 
mands a good view of the country many miles around, and which is marked on the 
Ordnance Map of the Countv of Cork, sheet 19. 10 Achadh Loischi, now St.Nath- 
alis, north of Glanworth. * l Hi Lachtnain, now O'Lachtnan. sometimes written 
< fl.aughnane, and Laughnane. 12 Ceall Gallain The old church which 
name to the parish of Kill Gullain. north-west ot Mitchelstown. See Ordnance 
Map of County Cork. 13 Cluain Dallain, now Clandillane, east of the town of 
Fcrmoy. u Airgeatlaind, now Araglin. 

County of Cork. 243 

The church of the abbey, now the parish church, was a mean 
Gothic building.* 

Glandy, is said to be in the diocese of Cork, where the abbey 
of the Vale of God was built, and which abbey, continues our 
author, was a daughter of the abbey of Jerpoint, in county of 
Kilkenny. b 

Glanore, or Glanworth ; bb has its situation on the river 
Puncheon, in the barony of Fermoy. The family of Roche 
founded a monastery here in the year 1227, for friars of the 
order of St. Dominick ; d but Bourke says, this foundation 
(dedicated to the Holy Cross) was at some later period. 8 

Grange ; formerly called Grany, is seated on the river 
Bride, in the barony of Muskerry, and a mile east of Kilcrea. 

* Tour through Ireland, p. 131. *Allemande. ^i-e.The Golden Vale. "Smith, 
vol. I.,/. 351. A War. Mon..*Bourke, p. 33^. 

Hi Dunadhaighe, Hi Riagain, Daire Faible, out of which are Hi Adnachain, 
Loch Arda O'Cullin, out of which are III Cuinn Leath, Bailie, Hi Finn, out of 
which arc Hi Finn, and its other half Bally, the Arda in Terman, Brigh 
Ghobunn, Liagan Lig Uanach, out of which are Hi Ithfearnan, Durmach, out of 
which are Hi Dunadaighe, and the church of this Tuath is Ath Cros Molaga, out 
of which are Hi Corrcrain, Hi Ceamsain, Hi Aengnsa, Hi Muircheartaigh, and 
Hi Duibheidigh, and a third of Termann Brugh Ghobunn belongs to this Tuath, 
i.e. the Baileof Brigh Ghobunn itself, Cluain Aei, Carraic on Furnaidhe Garran 
Hi Adhnachain, Baile Hi Mhasilmordha, Baile Hi Chuind, Cnocan Muighe 
Ginne, Cluain Garbhain, Cul Aithlis Cindfhaclaidh Gort na Fuinnsion, (Jill 
Seanaidhe and they are the family names which belong to this church, i.e. 
O'Machnorda are its Comarbs, and O'Finghin, its Aisdre O'Brian, O'Deargain 
O'Mulalaidh, O'Flannagain and Meic Brcathnuighe and .Hi Artuir, are the 
chieftains of thisTuath. 

" Tuath O'Conail, from Gleann Cubhra to Lebglaise and Hi Dubhlaidh are the 
chieftains of that Tuath, and Liattruim, from Airgeadlonm, eastward to Lebglaisc, 
is the patrimony of O'Dubhlaidhe, and that is O'Xaibelain, Baile Idir da 
Abhainn, i.e. Ard Meic Cuillair, and Uamh Croine, and from that eastward to 
Dun O n-Gennli these are one Baile, and out of it are Hi Aengusa Magh Drisen, 
on the south side of the river and on the north, these arc one Baile. and out of it 
are Hi Manog, Feic-Beg is a half Baile, out of it are Hi Riain and Hi Fean;u-a. 
Rath Siadhail and the Corran are its other half Baile, and out of it are Hi Cuain, 
Cil Uird is the church of this Tuath, and out of it are Hi Mongain ami Hi 
Cuillinnain and Hi Brocain. 

" Hi Cuscraidh Sleibhteis the borderland of this Tuath we have mentioned, i.e. 
Cill Mithne Gort Aicde, Maelrach, Lurga, Daire Leith Re Meic Meada, Gleann 
Domhainn, Ceapachna Fian, Gort Ruadh, Ceapach Hi Mcadhra Daire Leathan ; 
Eidhnen Molaga, \\ith its Terman, is the church -of this Tualh ; the Comarb of 
that church is Mag Floinn, and the clerk of its crozier is O'Coscrain. 

" The most noble of the Tuaths of the other half of that country is Tuath Muighe 
Tiim in which Cathair Dul.haghain is, out of which are Hi Dubhaghain, and the 
breadth of this Tuath is from the middle of Relig na m-hanleagh eastward to Ab- 
hann na Carcrach. Hi Daerghala are its her.-ditary people. Maistre-Meic na gam- 
. hnaighe. Daire Hi Diarmata, i.e.. Hi Di.irmada ami Hi Cochlain are its heri'di- 
tary occupiers. Dun Tulcha Cill Cumain , Croch, out of which are Hi D.uhail of 
C'roch. Ard Ceanannai.i and Dun ar aill are one Baile, ami out of it are Hi 
Faclain and Hi Uirisi. Cill Fadais the burial cemetery of that Tuath, and it was 
Mac ConGairbh, i.e., Mac Coemoc, that consecrated that church. Hi Macil Bile 
are its Coin irbs. Hi Amhradlia and Hi Labhra and Hi Eire are its hereditary 
people, and the Hi Duibh, of Trochin.iel. were chiefs over them. 

244 Ancient Monasteries of Ireland. 

From Colgan we learn, that St. Cera, who died A.D. 679, 
built a nunnery at Kilcrea,* but in the records it is said to be 
at Grany.* 

*Act. SS. p. 15. *Smith, Vol. I, /. 21 1. 

" I have another Tuath yet to describe, i.e. Madh O'Cathail, i e., Messignighe and 
Carraigh Leme-Laeghaire, out of these are Hi Domh-naill, chiefs of Magh Cill 
Guile, out of which are Hi Fearghala ; Baile Hi Fiachain, out of which are Hi 
Fiachin Cluain Caisil and Daire na Teide, the chief Baile of Hi Annadha, out of 
which are Hi Annadha, Garran O'n-Gnima ; Cuil-Baile Hi Einn, out of which are 
Hi Finn, Claen Uir is their burying place. The Comarbship of that church is the 
hereditary privilege of the Hi Annadha, and Hi Cennagain are its Mac Cleircach ; 
the Hi Brain from Clettigh are in this Trian, and the Meic Cairtin, and they are 
of the people of Rathan, and this Trian is the hereditary lordship of Hi Domhnaile 
(O'Donnell), and he is also entitled to the other two Trians when they have not a 
chief of themselves. 

"The third Trian of them which I have not described, i.e., Magh Nale, with its 
subdenominations, out of which are Hi gormain ; the Brugh and Flaithneim, out 
of which are Hi Ardghala ; Tulach-Finnleithid, out of which are Hi Cuilean ; 
Magh Lis an Ibhair, out of which are Hi Donnagain ; Baile Hi Mulghuala, out of 
which are Hi Macilghnala and out of it also are hi Macilmuala ; Cil O'n-Gerbhin- 
nain, out of which are Hi n-Geibt-nnain and Hi Claen. Clacnuir is the burial 
place of those two [families] and of O n-Gormain ; and Rathan is the burial place 
of all the other families of this Trian after them, and the Meic Finnen are the 
Comarbs of Rathan. The other family names are Hi Crainchi, Hi Conaill, Hi 
Conaic, Hi Brain Meic Coirtein, and O'Hardgala is the hereditary chief of this 

" Hi Bece Abha, i e. Dun Cniadha, out of which are I Laeghnire ; the Rindi, 
around the river, out of which are Hi Cairbre and Hi Cathail, Cill Laisre, at both 
sides, out of which are Hi Cleirigh ; Moin Ainmneat both sides, out of which are Hi 
Kogum ; Ath an Crainn, at both sides, out of which are Hi Buachalla ; Cill Cuain, 
out of which are Hi Fiadhain [or Uan], and Hi Lacghaire are their chieftains. 

" The other half of that Tuath is Hi Bece upper, i.e., Sonnach Gobann and 
Cluain Lochluinn near Abha Bee east and west, out of which are Hi Gobunn ; 
Baile Hi Grigin, on the same river, out of which are Igrigin ; Gleann Tuircin to 
the west and east on the river ; Daire Hi Ceinneidigh, out of which are Hi Cein- 
neidigh, Ceall Ossain Luimneach Beg, extending west of Taedan, and from that 
eastward to Lochluingi, with its other patronymics. O'Gobunn is hereditary 
chief over them, and he is entitled to the other half of Ibh Bece when there is not 
a chief of the Ui Lacghaire. Cill Commuir is the burial place of Hi Bece on 
either side, and Hi Dathail are comarbs of that church, and Hi Cochlain are its 
Mac Cleireachs. 

' Tuath O Fiannaidh, from Baile Hi Gormain, west to the road in Druim Raite. 
and to Ath na Ceoll, and from Abhan mor to the limit of Magh Finne, and the 
chief of that Tuath is Ma-g Fiannadhnighe, and its patronymics are Hi Etromain, 
and Hi Annratham, and Hi Fireidhin, and Hi Brain Fhinn, and Hi Dubhain. Cill 
Cluaise 15 the burial place of that Tuath. 

Tuath O'n-Dunnin, and its length is from the summit of Sliabh Cain to Each- 
lascaib Molaga, and its breadth is from Glaise Muibim Mairteil to Beam Mic 
Imhair, O'Lannainis chief of this Tuath ; Hi Cineadha, and Hi Leansain, and Hi 
Dungasa, and Hi Dungaile are its patronymics, and Cill Maincheas is their burial 

"The borderland of one half [side] of that country is Rossach na Righ and 
< 'athair-Gobhunn, and Cluas Droighe, and the Carcuir, and the burial place of 
this Tuath is Cill Colmain Grec. and its proper name is Hi Rossa, and its length is 
from the summit of Sliabh Cain to Abha Beag et reliqua." 

( To be continued.) 




MARCH, 1871. 


" Hail to thy pile, more honoured in thy fall 

Than modern mansions in their pillar'd state : 
Proudly majestic frowns thy massive wall, 

Scowling defiance on the blasts of fate." BYRON. 

HE fortress of Castleknock, situate about four miles west of 
Dublin, is, in many respects, one of the most interesting ruins 
in this part of the country. The name Cnucha frequently 
occurs in our ancient annals. It is described as a hill near 
the Liflfey, in the territory of Magh-Breagh, 1 and all our anti- 
quarians are now agreed that this place, so famous in former 
days, is no other than Caislean-Cnucha, now Castleknock. 2 

According to the Four Masters, a battle was fought at 
Castleknock by King Conmael at so remote a period as 400 
years before Christ. We know nothing of the particulars of 
this event ; it is simply recorded under the date A.M. 3579. 

Another battle, much more remarkable, was fought at Castle- 
knock in the second century, a long account of which is given 
in an ancient Irish poem, entitled " The Battle of Cnucha," 
which is preserved in some old and valuable manuscripts 
of the R.I.A. The Book of Ballymote also makes men- 
tion of this battle. From these it appears that at Castle- 
knock, in the second century, was fought a memorable engage- 
ment, when Cumhal, or Coohal, father of the celebrated Fin- 
mac-Coohal, contending for the crown of Leinster, was aided 

1 Magh-Breagh, the ancient inheritance of the monarchs, included the northern 
part of the county Dublin, and the county Meath. From its great fertility it was 
called " the land of the beautiful face." Tara and Cnucha were in Magh-Breagh. 

1 See Four Masters, vol. i., 325 and 597. 

VOL. VII. 17 

246 Old Castleknock. 

by Mogh Neid or Eogan More, King of Munster ; whilst on 
the other side were arrayed Conn of the Hundred Battles, 
Goll, leader of the renowned Clanna Morna, and a number 
of other heroes remarkable in the legendary history of Ireland. 
The great event of the day was the death of Coohal ; it decided 
the fate of the battle in favour of his great rival, Conn. He 
fell by the spear of the valiant Goll, son of Morni, and, for 
centuries after, the death of Coohal furnished the favourite 
theme of the bards 

" Coohal of the Hosts was slain 
Upon the ensanguin'd field, 
By Morni's son, who ne'er in vain 
Upraised the golden shield." 1 

The large green mound which stands at a little distance 
from the present castle is supposed to be the tomb of Coohal, 
and the hill upon which stand the venerable ruins of the 
Castle, so famous in later history, was probably occupied at 
this time by a rath, or fort, such as has been often described 
in books of Irish antiquities. 2 From the above facts it would 
seem that Castleknock was a place of celebrity before the 
light of Christianity appeared amongst us, and that it was 
cotemporary with the ancient Tara and Emania. Often, 
may we suppose, did the chieftains set out from the old fort 
to join the Taltine games, and take part in the festivities of 
ancient Temora ; often did they listen to the Seanachies as 
they recounted the exploits of that bloody day, and mourn 
over the death of Coohal, the father of Finn, the father of 
Ossian, the father of Osgar, who fell by the hand of Carbre. 
These memories throw a halo of antiquity round our ancient 
history. They were days of rough chivalry, but brighter "days 
were yet to come. The Lord looked down upon this Isle, and 
saw here men of unselfish hearts men who required but a 
noble cause to achieve noble deeds ; and He blessed the land, 
and it fructified, and its fruits were scattered over the nations. 

Years rolled by, and things went on in the old way in old 
Erin, till the arrival of our national Apostle. There is a tra- 
dition which connects his name with Castleknock, which it may 
be interesting here to mention. Whilst sojourning in Dublin, 

1 See Miss Brooke's Relics of Ancient Irish Poetry. Keating, in describing the 
actions of Lugaidh-mac-Con, A.D. 182, refers to another very ancient poem, which 
begins with these words : 

" Cnucha cnoc os cion Liffe." 
Cnucha's hill o'er Liffey's stream. 

* Both these hills are within the demesne of St. Vincent's College. 

Old Castlcknock. 247 

he visited, they say, the old fort, and there preached to the 
prince and his people; but the prince, Morinus by name, slept 
during the discourse, and dying soon after, they attributed his 
death to a curse which they supposed the saint must have 
pronounced, that as he preferred to sleep rather than listen to 
the word of God, he might never rise from that sleep till the 
day of judgment. So they took him and carried him fast 
asleep as he was and laid him in the cave beneath the hill, 
where, say they, he has little chance of waking till the time 
appointed by the holy man. 1 Whatever we may think of some 
of the circumstances of the story, the fact of his visit is sup- 
ported by grave authority. St. Evin, bishop of Ross, in Ferns, 
who lived towards the close of the sixth century, relates that 
St. Patrick visited Castleknock, with the hope of converting 
Morinus, or, as Colgan reads it, Fullenus, but the prince 
refused to see him, and sent him word that he was going to 
sleep. 2 What success the Saint had amongst the inhabitants 
of the district, we are not told ; probably, like the people of 
Dublin, they embraced the faith about that time. 

After this followed three centuries, the brightest in our his- 
tory. Every ship that left our shores carried with her the 
learned and holy from the Island of Saints, to preach the faith 
in distant lands, whilst Saxons, Gauls, Italians, Egyptians, and 
Greeks, thronged to our schools. 3 These were the days of 
Bancor and Clonard, Armagh and Lismore, when the sons of 
Erin taught and preached in sunny Italy, and on the banks 
of the Rhine, and kings longed to lay their bones amongst 
the saints of lona. During this period our modern historians 
take little notice of princes or heroes, for the glory of the 
lance was eclipsed by the glory of the cross, and the achieve- 
ments of the warrior forgotten for the triumphs of the mis- 
sioner. Still, the chieftains were to the good, and one of them, 
Congalach by name, seems to have been remarkable amongst 
the princes of his time. Four of our ancient annalists record 
his death. 

" In the year 726," say the Four Masters, " died Congalach 
of Cnucha." In the old translation of the annals of Clon- 

1 According to tradition there is a cave beneath the hill, which communicates 
with the Liffey, about a Quarter of a mile distant 

A well in the Phoenix Park, on the road leading to Knockmaroon, is called St. 
Patrick's well. Pilgrims formerly resorted thereto. 

1 See Lynch's Life of St. Patrick. 

3 St. Aengus, in his Martyrology, amongst the saints who lived and died in Erin, 
enumerates Gauls, Italians, and Egyptians. There is sometimes mention of Greeks 
in our ancient annals ; there was a Greek Church in Me.ith, and the Irish mis- 
Moners on the Continent were so famous for their knowledge of Greek, that 
Ledwidge thinks it a proof that Ireland received the faith from the East. 

248 Old Castleknock. 

macnoisc, he is called " Konolagh of Castleknock." 1 In the 
Annals of Ulster we read " Congalach Cnucho moritur ;" 
and in the Annals of Tigernach " Congalach Cnuchaensis 
moritur." We know nothing respecting Congalach, but that 
he died at his fort, Cnucha, towards the beginning of the 
eighth century. 

During these early centuries, the Irish princes exhibit a 
strange contrast of deep religious feeling and strong warlike 
propensities. Sometimes we find them waging a fierce war 
against their neighbours, and at other times seeking to atone 
for the slaughter of the battlefield by donations to the monas- 
teries, and contributions to the support of the strangers. Yet 
they did good service in the end. When the Northmen 
landed on our shores, they found there no despicable foe, 
but men like themselves, of daring courage and ever ready 
for battle. For two hundred years the strife continued with 
various success ; sometimes victors and sometimes vanquished, 
the old inhabitants still held out, while the land was laid 
waste with a long and weary war. During this period, Cas- 
tleknock continued a royal residence, and Niall, 2 monarch of 
Ireland, and one of the greatest princes of his time, dwelt 
there. This king revived the Taltine games, which had been 
for some time discontinued, and checked the power of the 
Danes. Unlike most of his cotemporaries, he never sullied 
his glory by alliances with the enemies of his country, and was 
slain in a great battle near Rathfarnham, where the Danish 
generals, Imar and Sitric, defeated the Irish, leaving the 
monarch Niall and many of the princes and people, dead upon 
the field. 3 This battle, which was long remembered by the 
people, was fought on the i/th of October, A.D. 917. An 
ancient poem, composed on the occasion, is preserved in the 
Annals of the Four Masters, from which the following is an 
extract : 

" This is a pity, O beloved Magh Breagh, 
Country of the beautiful face ; 
Thou hast parted with thy lordly king ; 
Thou has lost Niall, the wounding hero; 

1 See the MS. translation of the Annals of Clonmacnoise, made by Connel 
Mageoghegan more than two hundred years ago, and at present preserved in 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

8 Surnamed Glundubh. From him the ancient and royal family of the Hy Neills 
of Ulster derive their pedigree. 

3 " Celedabhaill, confessor of Niall, was he who had requested Niall to come to 
this battle, and it was he that gave the Viaticum to Niall." Annals of Four 

Old Castlcknock. 249 

Where is the chief of the western world ? 
Where the sun of every clash of arms? 
The place of great Niall of Cmicha 1 
Has been changed ; O, ye wretches !" 

Thus died, at a premature age, one of the greatest of the 
monarchs of Erin. Niall, however, did not die without a suc- 
cessor. His son, Murkertach, afterwards Roydamna, or heir- 
apparent, inherited the virtues and valour of his father. He 
is described by historians as one of the greatest heroes and 
most spotless characters in Irish history, and spent his youth, 
in all probability, at the residence of his royal father, "green- 
banked Cnucha." Murkertach defeated the Northmen in 
many battles, "and died, as for the greater part of his life he 
had lived, in fierce conflict with the Danes, leaving, as a 
poet of that day strongly expressed it, all his countrymen 

It was, probably, on the death of Niall that Castleknock 
became a Danish stronghold, for that it was once in the hands 
of these invaders, seems generally admitted. Moreover, the 
two last lines of the stanza quoted above, seem to refer to this 
change and the Danes who caused it. It was a great change. 
The sign of salvation was replaced by the raven standard, and 
that spot believed to have been hallowed by the footsteps of 
the blessed Patrick, was profaned by the rites of Woden. 
But the day of retribution quickly came. The monarch 
Brian appeared at the head of the national forces, and 
crushed the power of the invader for ever, A.D. 1014. 

The tempest from the north had now passed by, but the 
effects remained. That Church of Ireland, once the fairest 
olive in the garden of the Lord, stood broken and dismantled, 
a leafless, though not a lifeless stock. The churches were 
levelled, the people ignorant, and the monasteries, once busy 
with the hum of many nations, were silent and in ruins. 
Zealous workmen came into the field and wrought hard ; the 
devoted monks gathered round the desecrated shrine, and' 
again peopled the deserted cloisters. But the time was short 
till another hurricane burst upon the land. A band of adven- 
turers landed on our coast, and their ranks were quickly filled 
by traitor princes (1169). There was then no Brian, no 
Malachy.'no Murkertach the Roydamna, to train the men and 
lead the troops to battle ; but the people came forth a motley 

1 Tara was deserted in the sixth century, in consequence of a curse pronounced! 
upon it by an abbot of a neighbouring monastery, for a murder committed by the 
order of the monarch, From that time the monarchs had no fixed residence. 
' From that day no monarch sat on Tara." 

1 Moore, vol. iL, 79. 

250 Old Castlcknock. 

group, more like an army in rout than soldiers prepared for war. 
Well may we apply to this period what the chronicler wrote 
of another time. " Without law to guide her, with rulers 
treacherous, false, and factious, the realm of Erin hath sunk 
into darkness." There was, however, one effort made to save 
the country. The great St. Laurence went around, and at 
length succeeded in bringing many of the princes to unite for 
the safety of their native land. A large army was collected, 
and the command given to Roderic O'Connor, monarch of 

The hopes of the nation beat high as the national army 
advanced. Dublin was besieged in form, and when Roderic 
had appointed to each of the princes his respective position, 
he took up his residence at Castleknock (ii/i). 1 

There he held his court, and consulted with the prelates and 
princes, and there did the good St. Laurence often raise his 
voice to urge more vigorous counsels. But when hope shone 
brightest, sudden disaster fell upon them. Strongbow and his 
followers, reduced to extremity, resolved to make one des- 
perate effort. They sallied out from the gates, routed the 
troops under Roderick, and spread such panic through the 
entire army, that they retired in despair from the city. 2 

After the departure of Roderic, Strongbow remained in 
quiet possession of Dublin and the surrounding district, and 
for greater security placed his trusty friend Hugh Tyrrell in 
Castleknock. At that time the old fort underwent many 
changes. Tyrrell strengthened his fortress with all the im- 
provements of modern warfare, and in a short time the Nor- 
man castle stood aloft in grim defiance, with its heavy battle- 
ments and deep double ditch. The battering ram could not ap- 
proach it, and the missiles thrown against it fell harmless to 
the ground "as hailstones from the rounded shield." 

The Baron of Castleknock had now completed his castle, 
and obtained peaceful possession of his wide domains, but 
his warlike spirit was not at rest. Philip of Worcester, the 
Lord-Deputy, was about to set out on a plundering expedi- 
tion, and Tyrrell, ever ready for adventures, joined the party. 
They arrived at Armagh about mid-lent, "and for three days," 

1 Leland, book i., c. 2., Haverty. 

At this time the Governor of Dublin was Hasculf, the Dane, says Cambrensis ; 
but the Danes were no longer the enemies of the Irish, but obedient subjects and 
faithful allies. 

It is stated by some that when Roderic O'Connor arrived at Dublin, Castle- 
knock was occupied by a Danish garrison, which willingly entered his sen-ice. 

* This attack was directed against Finglas, where the principal stores were col- 
lected, and thence continued along the line to Castleknock. Maurice Regan, 
who was interpreter to M'Murrough, expressly states in his "Fragment" that 
Roderic resided at Castleknock. 

Old Ca stick nock. 251 

says Geraldus Cambrensis, " Philip of Worcester and Hugh 
Tyrrell, his fellow scraper, plundered the town and priests of 
Armagh, and Tyrrell, among the other spoils which he took, 
had a great brewing furnace or pan which served the whole 
house, for which his doing the priests cursed him." On arriving 
at Down, Tyrrell collected his booty into one house, but at 
night the premises took fire, and all the spoils, with the horses 
which carried them, were burned. This was regarded by 
Tyrrell as a judgment on his sacrilegious conduct, and next 
day he sent back to the priests of Armagh their brewing vessel, 
and so returned to Castleknock down-hearted and empty- 
handed, without even the great pan which he hoped to place 
among the trophies of the castle. 

But the lords of Castleknock were not always enemies ; they 
soon became thoroughly Irish, and loved the land of their 
birth as though it were the land of their fathers ; the wander- 
ing minstrel was ever welcome to their hospitable halls, and 
when night set in and the wind howled among the battle- 
ments, and whistled through the rude casement, the light was 
placed in the window as in days of yore, a welcome beacon 
to the benighted traveller. 1 

Amongst the lords of Castleknock there was one more godly- 
given than his fellows, and he, Lord Richard, to the greater 
glory of God, and his servant Brigid, founded a monastery 
hard by the Castle, and brought thereto the friars of St. Austin. 
There, in the silent chapel, was he often seen at the hour of 
prayer, and there too the garrison of the Castle attended on 
Sabbath and festive days. 2 

Thus things went smoothly on, though the land was sorely 
rent with wars and civil strife, till the Bruces advanced on 
Dublin (1316). 

A short time before, Edward Bruce had been crowned King 
of Ireland at Dundalk, and thinking the time had come for 

1 The famous window of Castleknock was considered by English writers as one 
of the great curiosities of Ireland. Holinshed, who wrote in 1580, while the 
Castle was yet flourishing, thus describes it : 

"There is in Castleknock, a village not far from Dublin, a window not glazed 
or latized, but open; and let the weather be stormie and the wind bluster bolster- 
ouslie on everie side of the house, and yet place a candle there and it will burn as 
quictlie as if no puff of wind blew. This maie be tried at this daie, who so shall 
be willing to put it in practice." 

* The Abbey of St. Brigid was founded where the Protestant church 
now stands, by Richard Tyrrell, A.D. 1184, and continued to flourish till the 
suppression of the monasteries, when it was demolished, and a Protestant church 
built on the site. In ancient times Ca>tleknock furnished two canons to the 
Cathedral of St. Patrick, and even still, though that venerable Cathedral and its 
revenues are usurped by others, two Prebends of St. Patrick's derive their titles 
from Castrum Noc ex parte diaconi, et Ca-strum Noc ex parte praecentoris. 

A well in the town of Castleknock is called " Tipper Bride" Brigid 's Well. 

252 Old Cats tick nock. 

the expulsion of the English, he invited his brother Robert 
to his assistance. The King of Scotland landed in Ireland 
with a select body of troops, and, being joined by his brother, 
marched to besiege Dublin with 20,000 men. The first exploit 
on approaching the city was the taking of Castleknock. 1 It 
could not be expected that the old fortress, long deemed 
impregnable, could long hold out against the hero of Bannock- 
burn. Bruce entered, making Hugh Tyrrell prisoner, and 
fixed there his head-quarters. 

It was now believed that the liberation of Ireland was at 
hand. There was feasting and rejoicing in the Castle. The 
Irish and Scottish chieftains met at the same board, and 
plaids and bonnets mingled, with garments of saffron hue. 2 
But joy quickly gave place to gloom. Bruce soon perceived 
that Dublin was fully prepared for a siege, and well provided 
with provisions from the sea. Moreover, the ardour of the 
citizens caused him to relinquish all hope. After remaining 
a few days in the Castle, he released Tyrrell on payment of 
a ransom, and retired from the city. 3 But he had scarcely 
commenced his march, when he seemed to repent of his resolu- 
tion, and halted again at Leixlip. After a short delay he 
recommenced his march towards the south, and soon after left 
Ireland, leaving his brother to continue the war. 

For three hundred years after the departure of Bruce, the old 
Castle rested in peace, though few besides were at peace in 

At length stormy times came. When the English Parlia- 
ment proclaimed war upon King Charles, the Irish adhered 
to the Stuarts, and the lords of Castleknock joining the 
national movement, planted the royal standard upon their 
battlements. From that day their doom was fixed. 

General Monk marched from Dublin with a strong force 
and siege train, and sat down before the castle (1642). Things 
were there in the same state as in the days of the first Tyrrells. 
The lofty walls, the deep-set windows, the rooms within low 
and dimly lighted, and the heavy oak benches around, 
more like machines. of war than articles of luxury. But 
the garrison was too weak for the defence. A heavy 
cannonade commenced, and when the walls were shaken to 
their foundations, and eighty of the defenders had fallen, the 

1 Moore, vol. iii., 62., Haverty. 

"The use of this colour in their garments, continued to be a favourite fashion 
with the Irish down to so late a period as the reign of Henry VIII., when it was, 
like all other things Irish, made punishable by law." Moore, vol. ii., 80. 

3 It is not certain how long Bruce remained at Castleknock. Camden says he 
arrived there on the eve of St. Matthias' day (February 24th), and left after the 

Old Castleknock. 253 

signal was given and the place taken by assault. The gar- 
rison had acted bravely, but compassion was far from the 
hearts of the Republicans. The survivors were tried by 
cburt-martial, found guilty of fighting against the state, 
and hanged from those walls they had so bravely defended. 
Monk, on returning to Dublin, left a strong force in the 
Castle, for, though much shattered, it was still a position of 
considerable importance. But its days were numbered. 
Owen Roe O'Neill marched towards Dublin (1647), and finding 
Castleknock in the hands of the English, determined to dis- 
lodge them. An effort was made to avert the blow. Colonel 
Trevor appeared at the head of a body of cavalry, but these 
were quickly routed, and O'Neill commenced another siege. 

This was too much for the veteran fortress, already tottering 
to its fall ; it surrendered, and breathed its last in the hands 
of the Irish hero. 

A few years later (1649), the Duke of Ormond, when 
threatening to attack Dublin, encamped at Castleknock ; and 
this is the last military reminiscence of ancient Cnucha. 

Not long after, it was, by order of Government, entirely dis- 
mantled ; but it seemed like disturbing the rest of " the mighty 
dead," for life had long since departed. 

Since then, it has, like many other national monuments, 
slept in oblivion. It is now a silent ruin. 

" Still we prefer thee to the gilded domes, 

Or gew-gaw grottoes of the vainly great ; 
Still linger 'mid thy damp and mossy tombs, 

Nor breathe a murmur 'gainst the will of fate" BYRON. 

The position of the castle is commanding, and its two deep 
ditches, 1 and the ruins of its massive walls, bespeak its former 
strength. The Castle itself is thickly clad with ivy, and the 
entire hill covered with large and spreading trees. The whole 
is now reserved ground, enclosed with a strong fence. The 
solemn gloom of the place, its dark winding walks, and the 
profound silence that reigns around, make it a delightful 
solitude. The green plot of ground enclosed within the old 
walls is used as a burial place for the priests of St. Vincent 
de Paul, and many zealous missioners, cut off in the bloom of 
life, are there interred. It was a happy thought. That spot, 
purpled with the blood of many a hero, and containing within 
its bosom the relics of the " departed brave," is now a con- 

1 These ditches are very formidable, being in some places thirty feet deep. In 
them fragments of human bones and cannon balls have been found from time to 
time. Some of these are preserved in the Museum of St. Vincent's College. 

254 Old Castleknock. 

secrated cemetery. Here rest side by side the soldier and the 
priest of Erin. The one fought for Ireland's temporal interests, 
the other for her spiritual welfare. 

" Now rest they both beneath this verdant sod, 
And ever joyous may they rest with God." 



A small pamphlet entitled " Courageuse Resolution d'une 
dame Irlandaise a la prise de Chateau-knock," was lately 
found by accident in the Bibliotheque Imperiale of Paris. 

It occupies only six pages I2mo., and seems to have been a 
letter written by an Irish officer to some friends in France, 
very soon after the event took place. It was found at the 
time so interesting that it was immediately published and 
circulated through Paris. No name is given, but its date is 
1642. It is entered in the Bibliotheque Imperiale, 8vo. No. 
955, A. a. It thus commences : 

" The Earl of Ormond, a Protestant, went forth from the city 
of Dublin on the 28th of last month at the head of 4,000 foot 
and 500 horse towards the county Meath. 

"The next day he besieged with his army Castleknock, 
belonging to the Lady de Lacy, aunt of the Earl of Fingal. 
The husband of this lady was engaged in the army of the 
Catholics of Ireland. He left his wife in the Castle to 
keep it with fifty men only, being well assured that her 
courage was above her sex, in which he was not deceived ; for 
this lady, by the orders which she gave, caused 400 soldiers 
of the besiegers to be slain during the four days the siege 
lasted, and the number of dead would have been greater still, 
had not the ammunition failed, which this lady having per- 
ceived, she caused to be put in one heap all her clothes, 
money, jewels, and precious moveables, in a word, all that 
was found of any value within the enclosure of the Castle ; 
she then set fire thereto, so that there should remain no 
booty for the enemy. She also rendered useless all the arms 
which were in the place, having caused them to be broken, 
with the exception of those with which her soldiers were 
equipped, and in the light of the fire she harangued her 
soldiers thus : 

" My faithful servants, you can well judge by th action I am 

Old Castlcknock. 255 

after performing, what hope there is of favour from our enemies, 
and how little clemency I expect at their hands. I tell 
you, moreover, that you should not expect quarter from them, 
but remember the sentence which says, ' let the vanquished 
hope for nothing from their enemies.' Take courage, then, 
and combat to death for the faith of your Redeemer ; you 
can never find a more glorious end, and the sooner to find 
it, go valiantly to attack the enemy of the Cross, lest, being 
made prisoners, any of you should, by bad treatment or the 
violence of torments, fail in the good resolution you have 
taken of dying to-day for the Catholic Faith ; in which I 
desire to set you the example by marching at your head.' 

"This done, the besieged set fire to the Castle, and went 
down, sword in hand, with such resolution that, after a great 
carnage of their enemies, all that went forth remained dead 
on the field, with the exception of the lady, who was made 
prisoner by the Earl of Ormond. 

"After this the Earl sent to Dublin for reinforcements, and 
pursued his march." 

Thus terminates this interesting narrative. After this follow 
a few pages regarding the march of Ormond and the san- 
guinary nature of the war in which they were engaged. 

No. 2. 

In the year 1861, an ancient Cromlech, or Druid's altar, 
was discovered in the interior of the old Castle when digging 
the grave of the Rev. Thomas Plunket. 

The workmen, coming on a large flat stone, found it too 
heavy to remove, and immediately commenced to break it. 
They succeeded after great difficulty, but on detaching a 
portion, they found, to their surprise, an empty space beneath, 
and a human skeleton lying at full length. 

The head and larger bones were almost perfect, and with 
them were small heaps of dry, whitish dust. The men not 
understanding the nature of their discovery, placed the bones 
a little aside, and continued their work. 

It was not till the grave was filled up, and it was too late to 
remedy the evil, that the whole matter came to light. 

From the description given by different persons who were 
present, there is no doubt that the discovered grave was one of 
those ancient Cromlechs, or altar tombs, which were used as 
burial places for kings or notables during the Pagan times. 

The skeleton in this case was so old that the admission of 
air caused a portion of the bones to fall into dust ; this 

2 $6 Old Castleknock. 

accounts for the small heaps of whitish dust which were 
found with the larger bones. 

It is to be regretted that the Superiors of the College 
were not made aware of the fact before the tomb was de- 
stroyed ; the monument could then have been removed, and 
erected within the enclosure of the Castle, and the bones 
placed in an urn beneath. Such a reminiscence of the 
Pagan times would have been a highly interesting object. 
It is now, however, lost beyond recovery, but the bones still 
lie in their long resting place. 

No. 3. 


Of all the facts connected with the history of Castleknock, 
there is none that has attracted more interest at least, 
amongst a certain class than the story of Eibhleen O'Brinn. 
Dr. Burton, in his History of the Royal Hospital, Kil- 
mainham, has developed it into a tale of considerable length, 
and an anonymous writer in the Nation has commemorated 
the event in not ungraceful verse. The facts are as follows : 

In the early part of the i6th century, Hugh Tyrrell, the 
last of the name, ruled in Castleknock. During his absence, 
his brother Roger, by his violence and licentiousness, made 
the old castle the terror of the neighbourhood, and a 
" stronghold of iniquity." One summer's evening, Roger 
carried off Eibhleen, the fair daughter of O'Brinn, or O'Byrne, 
a Wicklow chieftain, who dwelt on a hill to the west of the 
neighbouring town of Chapelizod, and confined her in the 
turret of the castle. At dead of night, the maiden heard 
steps ascending the stone staircase that led to her apartment, 
and fearing the worst, opened a vein in her neck, by means 
of her breast-pin, and bled to death. Next morning the fact 
was divulged, and great indignation was expressed against 
Tyrrell. Turlogh O'Brinn had taken refuge in the pale from 
the horrors of war, and hoped to bring up his family in peace, 
under the protection of the viceroy. The affliction which 
now befel this peaceful chieftain, excited universal sympathy. 
At this time, the site of the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, 
was occupied by the Knights of St. John, and one of them, 
who, as procurator of the house, had become acquainted with 
the family of O'Brinn, resolved that so public a scandal 
should not pass unpunished. He consequently assembled 

Old Castlckiwck. 257 

his retainers, and marched towards Castleknock. Tyrrell 
finding he was to be attacked, declared that he would not 
take refuge behind his ramparts, but would meet his enemy 
in the open field. A bloody battle ensued, in which Tyrrell 
was slain. His tragical end was considered a just punish- 
ment for his many crimes ; but the death of the maiden was 
long regretted by the people, and often in the winter's even- 
ings, when the rustics gathered round the blazing hearth, 
many a tear was shed over the sorrows of O'Brinn, and the 
fate of his daughter Eibhleen. 

It was long a popular belief, that, at the hour of midnight, 
a female figure, robed in white, might be seen moving slowly 
round the castle. This, they said, was Eibhleen, and they 
called her " The Lady of the Castle." 

" When distant chimes sound midnight hour, 

The spirit pure is seen ; 
And moving round the lonely tower, 

Looks bright as moonlight beam. 
And as the moonbeams tint the walls, 

And light the turret's crest, 
" 'Twas hence," she says, " my spirit fled, 

'Tis here my bones find rest. 
And here I wander, year by year, 

For such my lot has been, 
But soon at end my penance drear, 

I'll rest in joy unseen. ' 

Her act of suicide, though wholly unjustifiable, was be- 
lieved to have been palliated by ignorance, and in making 
the rounds of the castle, she was supposed to be completing 
her purgatory. 

The Lady of the Castle has not been seen since the Congre- 
gation of St. Vincent got possession of Castleknock ; the 
priests, they say, must have " laid the spirit." 

No. 4- 

It is remarkable that in all the wars of Ireland, most [of 
the high families in the barony of Castleknock were engaged 
on the side of the patriots, and were consequently involved 
in the general confiscations. After the insurrection of 1641, 
three thousand acres of land were confiscated in this barony 
alone. Amongst the families dispossessed were the Luttrels. 
They had dwelt in their noble demesne of Luttrelstown (now 

258 Letters of Balmez. 

Woodlands, the property of Lord Annaly), for over four hun- 
dred years, but were obliged to leave all, and take the road to 
Connaught, for not being able to prove " constant good 
affection." The scenes of woe which were witnessed at that 
time can be better imagined than described. Ancient and 
opulent families, whose fathers had taken part in the festivities 
of the old castle, were forced to abandon their ancestral homes, 
amid the wailing of women and children, and receive in ex- 
change miserable hovels in the wildest districts of Connaught, 
where most of them died of misery and want. 1 

Some of these families, however, as the Luttrells and Hoares, 
regained their property at the Restoration. 




MY ESTEEMED FRIEND, I am almost inclined to believe 
you begin to feel uneasy in your religious scepticism, for you 
are apparently ashamed of it, and feel, although you do not 
like to confess it, in quite a different state from many others 
whom, with good intention no doubt, but yet most unjustly, you 
accuse of similar ideas. I could scarcely believe that the con- 
duct of many Christians should appear to you so strange as to 
make you suppose that they either hypocritically pretend 
to be addicted to religion, or else profess without understand- 
ing a single word of it. You say you cannot understand how, 
when religion teaches doctrines so sublime, transcendental, and 
even terrible, men can be found, who, though convinced of their 
truth, either practically contradict or make little or no use of 
them. You can conceive the religion of a St. Jerome, of a 
St. Peter of Alcantara, or of a St. John of the Cross men 
profoundly penetrated with the idea of the nothingness of the 
world, of the importance of eternity, and, consequently, dis- 
engaged from the things of earth, dead to all that surrounds 
them, and only intent on the glory of God and the salvation 
of their own and their neighbours' souls ; but you do not 
comprehend the religion of the vicious of men convinced of 
the eternity of the pains of hell, and yet labouring as it were 
to plunge themselves into them ; or of others, who, though 

1 See Prendergast's Cromwellian Settlement. 

Letters of Balmes. 259 

not sunk in vice, allow their days to pass with indifference, 
regardless of what may occur after death ; nor even of those 
who, though they may practise virtue, do it with great tepidity, 
without showing they are continually possessed of the idea 
that in a short time they must meet either a happiness without 
end, or torments which shall endure for all eternity. All this 
appears to scandalize you, and contribute to keep you away 
from religion ; if we confine ourselves to this view there is no 
medium between scepticism and the life of an anchorite. 

The reflection occurs to me that it is very curious to note 
the variety and contradiction of the arguments with which 
Sceptics and Indifferentists attack religion, and how discon- 
tented they ever appear when dealing with her. Is there any 
one truly Christian and very devout, who passes whole days in 
prayeij and penance; looks on the things of the world as fleet- 
ing and worthless; shows himself profoundly convinced of the 
nothingness of earth, and by his words and actions clearly 
proves that God and eternity never depart from his thoughts ? 
Well, then, it is said, religion is essentially a cramper, that it 
compresses the ideas, crushes the heart, makes men misanthropes 
and inutilizes them, and consequently is only fit for monks and 
nuns. Weareeven sometimes prudently advised that we should 
endeavour to display religion under a more jovial and affable 
aspect, and thereby prevent many from abandoning her who 
would otherwise feel inclined to follow her but cannot consent 
to become sad and taciturn, and go about through streets and 
churches with eyes cast down and bended heads. And if, on 
the other hand, there be others who, though profoundly 
religious and penetrated with the terrible truths of faith, and 
addicted, perhaps, to the practice of austere virtues, yet display 
a serene and joyful countenance, and converse in the most 
affable and agreeable manner, without indicating by word or 
act that the thought of hell ever enters their mind ; their 
conduct is immediatelycriticised andcondemned,andthosewho 
a little before were the object of mockery and contempt for 
their austerity of manner, are now quoted as examples to be 
followed, so that whether religion weeps or laughs you com- 
plain ; and if she be calm and serene, you accuse her of 
indifference. It is well to note these most unreasonable con- 
tradictions, which are incurred either from want of meditation 
or an inclination to make charges against religion. 

But letus come to the principal point of your objection, and 
see if it can be answered satisfactorily. How is it possible 
for a man of religious convictions to be vicious ? This, if I 
am not mistaken, is the principal difficulty you present ; 
and you must allow me to tell you, with all frankness, that the 

260 Letters of Baltnez. 

man who seriously proposes such an objection displays very 
little knowledge of the human heart. The life of the greater 
part of men is a web of those contradictions you are unable to 
explain. If we were to allow any importance to this difficulty, 
we should require all men to regulate their conduct by their 
convictions and live in strict conformity with them. But when 
and where has such proceeding existed ? Do we not daily 
find it verified that man, even prescinding from religious ideas, 
sees the good, approves of it, and yet does evil? Video 
meliora, proboque, pejora autem sequor. We do not the good 
we love, but the evil we abhor: Non quod volo bonum hoc ago, 
sed quod odi malum illud facio. We talk with a gambler, and 
the conversation turnson his ruling vice ; well, a preacher in 
the pulpit will not express himself with more energy against 
the evils which spring from play. " What a dreadful passion," 
you shall hear him say ; " ever restlessness, ever uneasiness 
and distress, ever uncertainty and anxiety. Now swimming 
in abundance, not knowing what to do with your money ; a 
moment after all is lost and you must borrow from your 
friends, or mortgage an estate, or part with a piece of furni- 
ture, or have recourse to some other disastrous expedient to 
supply a small sum at least with which to try your fortune 
again. If you lose, you feel yourself in a state of desperation ; 
if you win, you find yourself forced to witness the desperation of 
others ; to suffocate the sentiments of compassion that spring 
up in your breast, and mask and cover them with smart say- 
ings and jokes. What cruel moments are yours on emerging 
from the play-house, when you recollect you have, perhaps, 
wrought the misfortune of your family, and think you went 
with the hope of improving your position, but now find your- 
self sunk in the narrowest poverty. It is impossible to conceive 
how men abandon themselves to such a detestable vice. 
The gambler is a madman, who is constantly pursuing an 
illusion, though convinced it is an illusion and nothing more, 
proved to him a thousand times by his own experience and 
what he has witnessed in others. In a young man, on 
entering the world for the first time, a slip in this direction 
is perhaps not very culpable ; but in a man of some ex- 
perience, the vice has no excuse." My dear friend, have 
you heard that moralist so judicious, so severe, so inexorable 
with gamblers ? Well, you may find, he has scarcely con- 
cluded his pious discourse, perhaps while perorating, he 
hurriedly pulls out his watch, or asks the bystanders what 
o'clock it is, and do you know why ? It is because the hour 
of meeting is at hand, the table is waiting, the cloth is 
spread, his companions have already taken their respective 

/. ctters of BalmfZ. 26 \ 

seats, and arc shuffling the cards impatiently, and cursing the 
lazy laggard ; and his poor heart jumps with joy when he 
thinks that in a few moments he will begin operations, and 
the heaps of money will go whirling rapidly around, now 
before one, now another, soon a third, until in the end, at a 
late hour of the night, the game concludes, and the moralist 
of course is the conqueror in anticipation, and completely re- 
venged for his misfortunes of yesterday. All this he hopes ; 
and as soon as he finishes his sermon, he rises, takes his hat, 
and goes off, annoyed with himself for his want of punctuality. 
What do you think of such a contradiction ? Oh ! I may be 
told the man is a hyprocrite, and said what he did not think. 
It is false : he spoke with the most profound conviction, and 
if the bystanders were not gamblers, they were incapable of 
conceivihg all the liveliness with which he felt what he ex- 
pressed. In proof of this, suppose he has a son, a younger 
brother, a friend, any person at all in whom he takes an 
interest : he will advise him not to play, and will do so with 
all the truth of his heart. If he have authority, he will 
prohibit it with severity ; if not, he will beseech him with all 
earnestness, and if he can speak with entire frankness, will 
exclaim with accents of sorrow : " Believe a man of experience : 
this vice has made and is making my misfortune, woe to me! 
and I always fear it will bring me to perdition !" The un- 
fortunate wretch is not ignorant of the evil he does himself, 
he is aware of his rashness his madness ; he upbraids himself 
with it a thousand times, as well in his moments of calm and 
of sound sense, as in those of fury and desperation ; but he 
has not sufficient strength of mind to resist the impulse of an 
inclination rooted and strengthened by habit, and conform 
his actions to his words and profound convictions. 

Do you wish for another example ? It would be easy to 
quote them ad infinititm. There is a man of respectable for- 
tune, and stainless reputation, who enjoys in the bosom of 
his family all the happiness he can desire. His enlightenment, 
his morality, and even his polite and polished education, 
make him contemplate with grief the disorders he sees in 
others. He cannot conceive how they can consent to sacrifice 
their property to an incontinent passion, stain their honour 
for it, and make themselves the object of the contempt and 
ridicule of all who know them. However, after some time, 
an occasion, a frequent conversation, has involved him in a 
dangerous friendship ; and property, character, health, even 
life itself he sacrifices all to his idol. Has he lost, for all 
that, his former convictions ? Is his change of conduct the 
effect of a change of ideas ? Nothing of the sort ; he thinks 


262 Letters of Babnez. 

as formerly, he has not departed a little from his primitive 
convictions, but has only laid them aside. To his relatives 
and friends who admonish him, who remind him of his own 
words, who use the same arguments with him as he used with 
others, who exhort him to take the counsels which a little 
while ago he was accustomed to give to all he answers : 
"Yes, true; you are right immediately in time but ." 

That is to say, there is no want of light in his under- 
standing, but there is disorder in his heart. He is sure the 
gilded cup contains poison, but in his feverish ardour he raises 
it to his lips, with the risk the certainty of perishing. Go 
through all the vices, fix your attention on all the passions, 
and you shall discover this contradiction of which I speak. 
Few, very few are ignorant of the evil and harm they entail 
on themselves by their conduct, and yet how difficult the 
amendment. ? From this you can see it is no way strange 
that a person profoundly convinced of the truth of religion 
may act contrary to what it prescribes, and his want of prac- 
tical conformity is no proof that he does not believe what 
he says. 

If you had read theological and mystic works, or conversed 
with men experienced in the direction of consciences, you 
would know the sad and torturing situation in which many 
souls often find themselves ; and the patience confessors re- 
quire to suffer with and encourage those who purpose leaving 
off vice, bitterly bewail their faults, tremble when they think 
of the eternal punishments they have deserved, and through 
sheer force of counsels, warnings, remedies, and precautions of 
all sorts, have strength perhaps to resist their destructive 
inclination for some time, and yet fall again, and return to the 
feet of the confessor, and at the end of a short time yield 
again and suffer mortal anguish, until, better fortified by grace, 
they are able to stand firm, and enjoy a peaceful and quiet 

If it is not impossible, but on the contrary, often happens 
that a member of a pure and severe religious order lives in re- 
laxation, neither is it incomprehensible that others, who are 
not sunk in such misery, should nevertheless conduct them-~ 
selves with coldness and tepidity in spite of their strong, solid, 
and ardent religious convictions. The causes which can pro- 
duce and perpetuate such a state are so numerous that it 
would be troublesome to enumerate them. Suffice it to say, 
that inconsistencies and contradictions are met with at every 
turn in the life of man ; that the present affects him to such a 
degree that he generally forgets the past and the future ; 
that though he is gifted with intelligence and will, he yet often 

Letters of Balmee. 263 

suffers from the tyranny of his passions, which hurry him along 
the road of perdition, although he is perfectly aware of it. 
The foregoing examples, and the considerations which accom- 
pany them, will, I think, be sufficient to show your attack 
on religion was unfounded, and if your argument had any 
force would prove that many men have no moral principles, 
because they act contrary to them ; that others are extremely 
ignorant in what relates to their health, because by their actions 
they constantly impair it ; that he who eats to excess does 
not know it will injure him ; and that he who drinks intem- 
perately, does not suspect that wine is capable of intoxicating ; 
and thus we would be compelled to assert in general terms 
that men are ignorant of many things with which we know 
they are perfectly acquainted. Let us hold that man is in- 
constant and inconsistent ; that the things of the present affect 
him too much to allow him to conciliate the pleasure or in- 
terest of the moment with future felicity, and everything is 
explained most completely and satisfactorily, without sup- 
posing him more ignorant than he really is. 

You also appear to labour under another important mis- 
take on this matter, when you tell me in your letter that you 
think religion produces very little effect on the conduct of 
men, inasmuch as believers as well as unbelievers are accus- 
tomed to live as if they had nothing to hope for or to fear 
after death. " Men," you say, " take care of their affairs ; 
satisfy their passions or caprices ; are constantly forming 
great projects ; in a word, live so distracted, so forgetful of 
their last hour, so unmindful of what may come after, that 
as regards the morality of the greater number, it might be 
said the effect of religion is very insignificant, if any." To 
convince you of how false the fact is which you state with 
such security, it is enough to remind you of the profound 
change wrought in public morality by the propagation of 
Christianity ; for the sole recollection of it leaves no doubt 
that the teaching of religion is not incapable of modifying the 
conduct of men, but, on the contrary, is a very efficacious 
means of producing the most happy and abiding results. 
Now, as well as then, men take care of their affairs ; and have 
passions ; and amuse themselves ; and live distracted and 
dissipated ; but what a difference between the morals of the 
ancients and moderns ! If the limits of a letter would allow 
it, I could adduce a thousand proofs of this, and show with 
how much truth it has been said that more crimes were com- 
mitted then in one year, than now in half a century. Bring 
to mind the doctrines of the first philosophers of antiquity on 
infanticide doctrines which were uttered with a serenity 

264 Letters of Balmcz, 

inconceivable to us, and which reveal the dreadful state of the 
morality of those societies. Recollect the infamous vices so 
general at that time, but covered among us by the fear of 
censure and infamy; remember what woman was among the 
Pagans, and what she is in the nations formed by the Christian 
religion ; and then you shall see the infinite benefits Christianity 
has dispensed on the world in all that relates to the improve- 
ment of morals ; then you shall comprehend the mistake 
you made when you said religion has little influence on the 
conduct of men. 

It often happens that when we sit down to calculate the 
good produced by an institution, we attend to the position 
and palpable results only, prescind ing from others which might 
be called negative, but are not less real or important than the 
former. We attend to the good which it does and not to the 
evil which it averts ; when in order to calculate its force and 
character we should consider both. 

As the absence of an evil, which without that institution 
would have existed, is of itself a great benefit, we should be 
grateful to the institution for having averted it, and reckon 
this effect as the production of a good. To make the calcula- 
tion properly it would be well to suppose the institution does 
not exist, and see what would happen in that case. Thus, if 
a person denied the utility of the tribunals of justice, or en- 
deavoured to lower their importance, there would be no more 
suitable means of convincing him than the one I have indi- 
cated. If the tribunals, it might be said to him, appear to 
you of slight utility, suppose them removed, and that the 
thief, the robber, the assassin, the forger, the incendiary, and 
the whole host of evil-doers have nothing to fear but the 
resistance or vengeance of their victims, society will be at 
once converted into chaos ; one will arm against another ; 
criminals will advance much farther in their career of iniquity, 
and multiply the irnumbers at a fearful rate. What averts all 
this ? The tribunals certainly ; and the absence of such evils 
is undoubtedly the production of a great good. 

Suppose that religion does not exist ; that from childhood 
no one gives us any idea of the other life, or of God' or of 
our duties, what would happen ? We would all be profoundly 
immoral ; and the individual as well as society would sink 
rapidly into the most abject degradation. And yet, accord- 
ing to your argument, it might be objected As we take care 
of our affairs and live distracted, thinking little or nothing of 
our duties, of the other life, or of God ; what advantage do \\v 
derive from having been instructed on these points from 
having received an education in which these truths were 

Letters of Balm es, 265 

constantly inculcated ? You see when the question is pro- 
posed under this aspect, it is not possible to sustain the solu- 
tion you wish to give it, and it is cleary our method of arguing 
cannot be very strong in others, if it fail in the present 

Who told you that man so distracted, so dissipated, does 
not think of the religion he professes? Do you think he should 
be constantly revealing to you what passes in the inmost 
recesses of his heart, when he has before him a bait which 
stimulates his passions, and places him in the risk of being 
wanting to his duty ? Do you believe he should tell you how 
often religious ideas withheld him from committing a crime, 
or made him commit less than he otherwise would ? 

An evident proof of the many effects religious ideas produce 
on the conduct of men, and how present they are to their 
mind, even when they appear to have entirely neglected them, 
is the instantaneous rapidity with which they occur to them 
when they find themselves in danger of death. It might 
almost be said the instinct of preservation and religious sen- 
timent present themselves at the same moment. 

How does the instinct of preservation work on the general 
course of the actions of our life ? If we consider it we shall 
find we are incessantly concerned for our preservation without 
thinking of it ; we are continually doing acts tending to this 
end without adverting to them. What is the cause ? It is 
the fact that everything intimately connected with the life of 
man is unceasingly before his eyes. He does not look at it 
but he sees it ; he thinks of it without knowing he does so. 
What is said of material life may be applied to the life of the 
soul. There is an aggregate of ideas of reason, of justice, of 
equity, of decorum, which is constantly flitting through our 
minds, and exercises an incessant influence on all our acts. 
A lie occurs to us, and conscience says " this is unworthy of 
a man ;" and the word about being pronounced is detained 
by this sentiment of morality and decorum. A person with 
whom we are at enmity is mentioned in our presence ; the 
temptation of lowering his merit, orofrevealingsome of hisfaults 
or perhaps of calumniating him presents itself, and conscience 
says " an honest man would not do that; it is a vengeance;" 
and we are silent. We have an opportunity of defrauding 
without detection, without risk to our honour, and yet we do 
not defraud ; who prevents us ? The voice of conscience. We 
are tempted to abuse the confidence of a friend by betraying 
his secrets, or employing them to our own advantage ; and 
nevertheless, the treason is not consummated, even when 
our friend, the victim of it, could never suspect it ; who pre- 

266 Letters of Balmez. 

vents us ? Conscience. These applications, which could be 
extended indefinitely, clearly show that man, without adverting 
to it, often obeys the voice of conscience, and even when he 
does not think, or does not believe he thinks of it, or of God, 
those ideas act on his mind and impel him, and detain him, 
and make him recede and vary his course, and continually 
modify his conduct in all the instants of his life. 

If this happens even among unbelievers themselves, what 
will be the case with respect to sincerely religious men ? In 
the eyes of the world it may appear they completely forget 
their convictions ; that faith in great and terrible truths is of 
no service to them ; that heaven, hell, and eternity are regar- 
ded by them as abstract ideas, without anything practical in 
them ; but they know well that eternity, and heaven, and hell 
present themselves to their mind in the act of desiring to 
commit sin ; that now they separate them from the path of 
iniquity ; now detaining them from marching with such pre- 
cipitation. They know that when they abandon themselves 
to the impulse of their passions, they experience frightful 
remorse, which torments and makes them repent their de- 
parture from the path of virtue. There is no Christian who 
does not experience this influence of religion. If he be really 
a Christian, that is, if he believe in religious truths, he repeat- 
edly suffers the punishment of his bad works, or enjoys the 
reward of his good ones. He feels this punishment or this 
reward in the depths of his conscience ; and the recollection of 
what he has enjoyed in the one case, or suffered in the other, 
often contributes to the prohibition of disorders contrary to 
the dictates of duty. 

I have no doubt you will be convinced by these reflections, 
that what you say regarding the slight influence religion has 
on the conduct of man, is an error opposed to reason, history, 
and experience. It is true that those who profess it, do not 
always conduct themselves as they ought; it istrue you will meet 
with men who have faith, and yet are very wicked; but it is no 
less true that the conduct of religious people is in general 
incomparably better than that of unbelievers. How many 
persons have you known, who, though professing no religion, 
observe a totally irreprehensible conduct ? And when I say 
this I do not refer to the commission of crimes, from which a 
certain natural horror, the fear of justice, and the desire of 
preserving our reputation restrain us : I do not speak of a 
certain filthy and repugnant immorality, from which honour, 
decorum, and that delicacy of taste, the fruit of good edu- 
cation, recoil. I speak of that severe morality which rules 
all the acts of the life of man, and does not allow him to wander 

Letters of Balmez. 267 

from the path of duty, even when neither honor nor the regard 
of society is interested, or other considerations but those in- 
spired by sound morals are opposed to it. You will tell me 
you know some men who, although they are unbelievers, are 
incapable of defrauding, or betraying friendship, and whose 
conduct, if it be not as vigorous as I could desire, is yet far 
from dissipation or even levity. It is possible you may know 
infidels, such as you paint them ; it is possible that from edu- 
cation, honour, decorum, and that interior light which God 
has given us, and which we cannot extinguish by vain endea- 
vours, they may adjust their conduct to the law of duty, when 
no powerful motive impelling them to the contrary is at 
work ; but do not put those men to the test of a violent 

Reduce to misery that man whobelieves in nothing not even 
in God and whom you suppose so straightforward and in- 
capable of committing a fraud ; consider him struggling be- 
tween the pressure of great necessities, and the temptation of 
appropriating a sum which does not belong to him, so that he 
could do it without injuring his reputation as an honest man ; 
what will he do ? You may believe what you like : I for my 
part would not trust my money to him ; and I would venture 
to advise you not to do so either. 

You, my dear friend, who are placed in an independent 
position, without other temptations to do evil but those sug- 
gested by the illusions of youth, do not well know what that 
probity is which is not based on religion. You know not how 
fragile how brittle is that honesty presented to the eyes of 
the world with such an air of firmness and incorruptibility. 
You yet require some undeceptions, which you will meet with 
in a short time, when, on the rending of that beautiful veil 
through which we view the world in the spring-time of life, 
you begin to see things and men as they are in themselves ; 
when you enter on the age of business, and behold the com- 
plication of circumstances which has place in it, and witness 
that struggle of passions and interests, which often places a 
manin criticaland even torturing situations, in which the compli- 
ance with a duty is a sacrifice, nay, even sometimes an act of 
heroism ; then you will comprehend the necessity of a power- 
ful curb of a curb which must arise from something more 
than purely mundane considerations. 

In the meantime, I remain your most affectionate friend, 

J. B. 




Tlie names of " The Four Masters :" The OClery's : The 
Annals of the Four Masters : Poem on the Household of St. 
Patrick : TJie OGara of Coolavin : The Franciscan Con- 
Tent of Donegal : The " Succession of the Kings" and the 
" Genealogies of the Saints' of Ireland : Why this work was 
undertaken by the Four Masters: The " LcabharGabhala" 
Works composed by Cucogry O'Clery : Brother Michael 
OClery, O.S.F. :His Glossary : The " Marty rology of 
Donegal :" OClery 's merits in the matter of Irish History. 

r OUR distinguished antiquarians of this island in the 
seventeenth century, named Michael O'Clery, Fearfeasa 
O'Maolchonaire, Cucogry O'Clery, and Cucogry O'Duigenan, 
first received from Colgan,the designation of The Four Masters, 
and this distinctive title has been sanctioned by the general 
consent of later Irish writers. 

Two of this literary band belonged to the sept of the 
O'Clery's, the hereditary chroniclers of Tirconnell. Being 
descended from Guaire, surnamed " The Hospitable," king of 
Connaught, in the seventh century, this family originally 
occupied Tireragh, in the county Galway, to which territory 
they furnished several chieftains famous in our ann-als. 
"There passed, after some time," says an old chronicler, 
" from Tirawley into Tirconnell a wise man of the O'Clery's, 
whose name was Cormac MacDermot O'Clery, and who was 
a learned proficient in the two laws, civil and canon. The 
monks and ecclesiastics of the abbey of St. Bernard, called 
the abbey of Assaroe, loved him for his learning and good 
morals, for his wisdom and intellect, and detained him amongst 
them for some time. At this period O'Sgingin was the his- 
torical ollamh of O'Donnell, but there lived not of his chil- 
dren, nor even of his tribe in that country, save one fair 
daughter, whom now he gave as wife to this Cormac, and 
what he required as her dower was that their first-born son 
should be trained up in the study of history. This condition 
was accepted, and truly was the promise fulfilled." Their 
eldest son, accordingly, became chronicler to O'Donnell, and 
his grandson, surnamed " of the three schools" because he 
kept schools for general literature, history, and poetry, became 

Irish Historical Stitdics in the Seventeenth Century. 269 

so distinguished that Nial O'Donncll bestowed on him the 
lands of Creevagh, in the parish of Kilbarran. 1 A noble 
castle was soon erected there, and its ruins arc still standing 
on a rock overhanging the Atlantic, at a little distance from 
Ballyshannon. " From the singularity of its situation, seated 
on a lofty, precipitous, and nearly insulated cliff, exposed to 
the storms and billows of the western ocean," writes Dr. 
Petrie, " the reader will naturally conclude that this now 
sadly dilapidated and time-worn ruin must have owed its 
origin to some rude and daring chief of old, whose occupation 
was war and rapine, and whose thoughts were as wild and 
turbulent as the waves that washed his sea-girt eagle dwel- 
ling ; and such, in their ignorance of its unpublished history, 
has been the conclusion formed by modern topographers, 
who tell us that it is supposed to have been the habitation 
of freebooters. But it was not so. This lonely insulated 
fortress was erected as an abode for peaceful men a safe 
and quiet retreat, in troubled times, for the laborious inves- 
tigators and preservers of the history, poetry, and antiquities 
of their country. This castle was the residence of the ollamhs, 
bards, and antiquarians of the people of Tirconnell, the illus- 
trious family of the O'Clery's. The lands annexed would, 
at the present day, produce a rental of little short of two 
thousand pounds a-year. Alas ! it will be long till learning 
in the history and antiquities of our country be again thus 
nobly recompensed." 

The chief work which merited an undying fame for the 
"Four Masters" is the Annals of Ireland, now generally known 
as the Annals of the Four Masters. This invaluable work, 
translated and copiously illustrated in our own times by 
O'Donovan, has rendered the greatest service to the history 
of this country, and even when only imperfectly known through 
the translation of a part of it in the " Rerum Hibcrnicarmn 
Scriptores" merited the following eulogy from Sir James 
Mackintosh "The chronicles of Ireland, written in the Irish 
language, from the second century to the landing of Henry 
Plantagenet, have been recently published with the fullest 
evidence of their genuineness and exactness. The Irish nation, 
though they are robbed of their legends, by this authentic 
publication, are, yet, by it enabled to boast that they possess 
genuine history several centuries more ancient than any 
other European nation possesses, in its present spoken lan- 
guage. They have exchanged their legendary antiquity 
for historical fame. Indeed, no other nation possesses 
any monument of its literature, in its present spoken 

published by O'Donovan, for I. A. S., in 1844, page 75, seqq. 

270 7mA Historical Studies 

language which goes back within several centuries of these 
chronicles." 1 

The annals commence with the earliest colonies in our 
island, and register the traditional narratives of the Spanish 
warriors, who, " wafted by the mighty ocean waves," became 
the first settlers in this land of the West : 

" They came from a land beyond the sea, 

And now o'er the western main, 
Set sail, in their good ships, gallantly, 

From the sunny land of Spain. 
" Oh, where's the Isle we've seen in dreams, 

Our destined home or grave ?" 
Thus sung they as, by the morning's beams, 

They swept the Atlantic wave. 

"And, lo, where afar o'er ocean shines 

A sparkle of radiant green ; 
As though in that deep lay emerald mines, 

Whose light through the wave was seen, 
" Tis Inisfail 'tis Inisfail ! " 

Rings, o'er the echoing sea ; 
While bending to heaven, the warriors hail 

That home of the brave and free." 

With the Christian Era, the annals become still more in- 
teresting, and at every page fragments of ancient poems 
and other tracts are introduced in the oldest Celtic dialect, 
bringing us back almost to the very age of the events which 
are chronicled. It is not necessary to enter more fully into 
the contents of this great work, for thanks to the zeal and 
labours of Dr. O'Donovan it is now easily accessible to all 
students in our history. We cannot forbear, however, enrich- 
ing these pages with one short and very ancient poem, which 
gives the names of the saints who were associated with our 
Apostle in the conversion of this country. It is inserted in 
the annals at the year 448 : 

" The family of Patrick of Prayers, who had good Latin, 
I remember, not feeble was the court, their order, and their 

names : 
Sechnall, Patrick's Bishop without fault ; Mochta, after him, 

his priest ; 
Bishop Ere, his sweet-spoken judge ; Bishop M'Carthan, his 

champion ; 

Benen, his psalmist ; Colman, his chamberlain ; 
Sinell, his bell-ringer ; and Aithcen, his true cook ; 
The priest, Mescan, without evil, his friend, and his brewer ; 
1 Mackintosh, " History of England," vol. I., chap. 2. 

In tJu Seventeenth Century. 271 

The priest, Bescna, sweet his verses, the chaplain of Mac 

Alpraind ; 
His three smiths expert at shaping, Macecht, Laebhan, and 

Fortchern ; 
His three artificers, of great endowment, Aesbuite, Tairhill, 

and Tasach ; 
His three embroiderers, not despicable, Lupita, Ergnata, and 

Cruimthiris ; 
Odhran, his charioteer without blemish ; Rodan, the son of 

Braga, his shepherd ; 
Ippis, Tigris, and Erca, and Liamhain, with Eibeachta (his 

sisters ;) 
For them, Patrick excelled in wonders, for them he was truly 

miraculous : 
Carniuch was the priest that baptized him ; German, his 

tutor, without blemish ; 

The priest, Manach, of great endowment, 'twas he that sup- 
plied the wood ; 
His sister's son was Banban, of fame ; Martin, his mother's 


Most sapient was the young Mochonnoc, his hospitaller ; 
Cribri and Lasra, of mantles, beautiful daughters of Gleag- 

hrann ; 

Macraith, the wise ; and Ere he prophesied in his three wills : 
Brogan, the scribe of his school ; the priest, Logha, his 

helmsman ; 

It is not a thing unsung, and Mochai his true fosterson. 
Good the man whose great Family they were, to him God 

gave a crozier without sorrow ; 
Chiefs, with whom the bells are heard, a good Family was 

the Family of Patrick ; 
May the Trinity, which is powerful over all, distribute to us 

the boon of great love ; 
The King who moved by soft Latin, redeemed through the 

prayer of Patrick." 

It was in the Franciscan Convent of Donegal, that the 
annals were transcribed ; and in addition to the Four Masters, 1 
other learned antiquarians assisted, for a time, at least, in their 
compilation. The annals being completed in 1635, the 
superiors of the convent gave the following attestation, which 
has preserved to us many interesting details connected with 
that great work : 

" The Fathers of the Franciscan order who put their hands 
on this, bear witness that it was Fearghal O'Gara, that pre- 

1 It is singular that O'Donovan has mistaken the names of the Four Masters. 
He reckons Conaire O'Clery as one of their number, contrary to the express 
statement of Colgan. See his Introduction, page xix. 

272 Irish Historical Studies 

vailed on Brother Michael O'Clerigh to bring together the 
chroniclers and learned men, by whom were transcribed the 
books of History and Annals of Ireland, as much of them as 
it was possible to find to be transcribed, and that it was the 
same FearghalO'Gara thatgave them a reward for their writing. 

" The book is divided into two parts. The place at which 
it was transcribed from beginning to end, was the Convent of 
the Friars of Dun-na-ngall, by whom were supplied food 
and attendance. 

" The first book was begun and transcribed in the same 
convent this year, 1632, when Father Bernardine O'Clery was 

" The chroniclers and learned men who were engaged in 
extracting and transcribing this book from various books 
were, Brother Michael O'Clerigh ; Maurice, the son of Torna 
O'Maelchonaire, for one month ; Ferfeasa, the son of Loch- 
lainn O'Maelchonaire, both of the county of Roscommon ; 
Cucogry O'Clerigh, of the county of Donegal ; Cucogry, 
O'Duibhghennain, of the county of Leitrim, and Conair6 
O'Clerigh, of the county of Donegal. 

" These are the old books they had : the book of Cluain 
mac Nois, a name here blessed by St. Ciaran Mac an Tsaer, 
the book of the Island of Saints, in Loch Ribh ; the book of 
Seanadh Mic Maghnusa, in Loch Erne : the book of Clann 
Mac Maelchonaire ; the book of the O'Duigenans, of Kil- 
ronan ; the historical book of Lecan Mic Firbisigh, which was 
procured for them after the transcription of the greater 
part of the work, and from which they transcribed all the 
important matter they found which they deemed necessary, 
and which was not in the first books they had, for neither the 
book of Cluain nor the book of the Island were continued 
beyond the year of the age of our Lord 1227. 

"The second which begins with the year 1208, was com- 
menced this year of the age of Christ 1635, in which Father 
Christopher Ulltach O'Donlevy was guardian. 

" These are the books from which was transcribed the 
greatest part of this work ; the same book of the O'Mulconry, 
as far as the year 1505, and this was the last year which it 
contained ; the book of the O'Duigenans, of which we have 
spoken, from the year 900 to 1563 ; the book of Seanadh Mic 
Maghnusa, which extended to 1532 ; a portion of the book of 
Cucogry, the son of Dermot, son of Tadhg Cam O'Clerigh, 
from the year 1281 to 1537; the book of Mac Bruaideadha 
(Maolin og), from the year 1588 to 1603; the book of 
Lughaidh O'Clerigh from 1586 to 1602. We have seen all 
these books with the learned men of whom we have spoken 

In the Seventeenth Centuty. 273 

before, besides other historical books. In proof of everything 
which has been written above, the following persons put their 
hands to this in the convent of Donegal, the tenth day of 
August, the age of Christ being one thousand six hundred 
and thirty six. 

" Brother Bernardine O'Clery, Guardian of Donegal. 

" Brother Maurice Ulltach. 

" Brother Maurice Ulltach. 

" Brother Bonaventura O'Donnell, Lector Jubilatus." 

The O'Gara, whose patronage and encouragement, as ap- 
pears from this attestation, enabled the Four Masters to 
achieve their great compilation of the Annals of Ireland, was 
the chief of Magh O'Gara and Coolavin, and represented 
the county of Sligo in the Dublin Parliament in 1634. The 
Annals were gratefully dedicated to him, and in " I he dedi- 
catory epistle," Michael O'C lery thus addresses him: "It 
was you that gave the reward of their labours to the 
Chroniclers by whom this work was written ; and it was the 
friars of Donegal that supplied them with food and attend- 
ance in like manner. For every good that will result from 
this book, in giving light to all in general, it is to you that 
thanks should be given, and there should exist no wonder 
or surprise, jealousy or envy at any good that you do, for 
you are of the race of Heber, the son of Milesius, from whom 
descended thirty of the kings of Ireland, and sixty-one 

Under the year 1505, the " Four Masters" give the following 
entry : 

" O'Donnell, Hugh Roe, the son of Niall Garv, Lord of 
Tirconnell, Inishowen, Kinel-Moen, and Lower Connaught, 
died. . . . This O'Donnell was the full moon of the hospitality 
and nobility of the north, the most jovial and valiant, the 
most prudent in war and peace, and of the best jurisdiction, 
law, and rule, of all the Gaels in Ireland in his time ; for there- 
was no defence made of the houses in Tirconnell during his 
time, except to close the door against the wind only ; the 
best protector of the Church and the learned ; a man who 
had given great alms in honour of the Lord of the elements ; 
the man by whom a castle was first raised and erected at 
Donegal that it might serve as a sustaining bulwark for his 
descendents ; and a monastery for the friars of strict obser- 
vance in Tirconnell, namely, the monastery of Donegal ; a 
man who had made many predatory excursions throughout 
Ireland; and a man who may be justly styled the Augustus 
of the north-west of Europe. He died after having gained 

274 Irish Historical Studies 

the victory over the devil and the world, and after 
Extreme Unction and good penance, at his own fortress in 
Donegal, on Friday, the fifth of the Ides of July, in the 78th 
year of his age, and 44th of his reign, and was interred in the 
monastery of Donegal." 1 

The O'Donnell, whose munificence is thus celebrated, was 
the founder of the Franciscan convent of Donegal ; he made 
many grants to it, and his successors in the princedom of 
Tirconnell continued to enrich it with their gifts. The ruins 
are still to be seen at a short distance from the town of 
Donegal, and its arches and pillars, and its corridors covered 
with stone, bespeak the solidity and magnificence of the former 
building. The site, moreover, was a lovely one, and no spot 
could have been chosen better suited for meditation and 
study. The crested waves of the Atlantic that occasionally 
dash against the rocky headlands close by, form a striking 
contrast with the peace and calm that reign within the hallowed 
precincts of this venerable ruin. " Its situation (writes the 
esteemed author of The Donegal HigJilands, page 70) at the 
head of the bay is exquisitely beautiful. The long narrow 
harbour, placid as a lake, flanked on either side by grassy 
slopes, diversified with many-tinted woods, and here and 
there a steep incline, green to the water's edge, all make up 

a landscape of surpassing loveliness Of the cloisters, 

there is left a memorial of thirteen arches, which, with their 
supporting couplets of pillars, yet retain evidences of great 
beauty and variety of design, and admirable execution. They 
are of the small size common in examples of Irish mo- 
nastic architecture. But though the material lineaments 
of this building are so sadly effaced, it has left an impress on 
Irish history indelible as that history itself." The MS. history 
of the Franciscans, by Mooney, gives many details regarding this 
convent, and especially dwell on its destruction in 1601 " In 
the year 1600 we were forty religious in community in the con- 
vent of Donegal, and all the divine office for day or night was 
performed with chaunt and great solemnity. I myself had 
charge of the sacristy, in which there were forty complete 
sets of vestments, many of them being of cloth of silver and 
gold ; some, too, were interwoven and worked with gold ; 
and all the remainder were of silk. There were also sixteen 

1 This entry would of itself suffice to refute the statement of Mr. Richey in his 
"Lectures on Irish History" (second serifs, p. II.), that in the "Annals of the 
Four Masters," from 1500 to 1534 " there is no allusion to the enactment of any 
law, the judicial decision of any controversy, the founding of any town, monastery, 
or church ; and all this is recorded by the Annalist without the slightest expres- 
sion of regret or astonishment as if such were the ordinary course of life in 
a Christian nation !" See, also, the entries in "Four Masters," at 1508, 1525, &c. 

In the Seventeenth Century. 27 5 

large silver chalices, of which two only were not gilt; and 
there were two pixes for the Most Holy Sacrament In every- 
thing else it was befittingly furnished ; not even a pane of 
glass was wanting in the church. But in the course of the war 
the English arms beginning to prevail, and Prince O'Donnell 
being engaged elsewhere, the enemy's troops occupied the 
town of Donegal, and on the feast of St. Lawrence (roth 
August), 1 60 1, placed a garrison in our convent. Some of 
the friars having notice of this intended occupation fled 
away to the wooded country not far distant, having sent 
by sea the goods of the convent to a safe place. I was one 
of the last to leave the convent, and I accompanied the goods 
by sea. The convent, now garrisoned by the enemy's troops, 
was soon after besieged by O'Donnell, and its garrison was 
hemmed in on every side. The following event then happened, 
wonderful to relate. At one and the same time, fire fell upon 
the building, it is thought from Heaven, burning to death 
many of the soldiers, destroying the convent and church, and 
a ship that was entering the port to succour them was sunk 
upon a rock. Was this mere accident ? The English sur- 
vivors confined themselves within the trenches which they had 
thrown up, and were arranging the terms and conditions of 
surrender, when the news reached O'Donnell that Don Juan 
d'Aquila with the Spanish auxiliaries had landed at Kinsale, 
in Munster, and were now besieged there by the heretical 
troops ; he judged it necessary to delay no longer at Donegal, 
and hence, without reaping the fruit of the siege, hastened 
towards Munster to unite his forces with O'Neil to aid the 
Spanish army. New misfortunes awaited them at Kinsale, 
and the Spaniards were forced to surrender. The Catholic 
cause being thus lost, Prince O'Donnell set off for Spain, and 
in the following year, 1602, all his territory was seized on 
by the enemy : and among other losses, all the sacred orna- 
ments of the Convent of Donegal fell a prey to Oliver Lam- 
bert, the heretical governor of Connaught, who made drink- 
ing cups of the chalices, and caused the sacred vestments to 
be torn up for profane uses, and thus both the convent and 
its goods were lost. Nevertheless, the friars, even to the 
present day, have continued to reside as near to the old 
convent as they can with safety, and they always have had 
their Guardian, and at least twelve Religious. Peace being 
soon after concluded, and Prince O'Donnell having exchanged 
this world for a better life, his brother Roderick was allowed 
the greater part of his territory, with the title of Earl, far less 
noble than that of his ancestors. He set about rebuilding the 
convent of Donegal, but learning that the English were plot- 
ting against his life, his only hope was in flight, so he sped 

276 Irish Historical Studies 

his way with O'Neil to Flanders, and thence to Rome, where 
they both died ; and thus the friars were left without a convent 
or a protector. At the present day (1618) the English heretics 
are in possession of the whole country, and only tolerate the 
old religious to pass the residue of their years in the less fre- 
quented districts, knowing that they must all die out very 
soon ; but they do not permit any novices to be received. 
Such is the actual condition of that community." Thus, it 
was not in the great original monastery, as is sometimes 
supposed, but in some obscure hut or cottage, perhaps, within 
sight of its loved ruins, that the Annals of the Four Masters 
were compiled. That humble hut, however, still retained the 
name of the original convent, and it rivalled at home the Con- 
tinental mission of St. Anthony's at Louvain, being the centre 
of the intellectual activity of the Order, and the repository of 
the few surviving records of our early history. Its library is 
spoken of by Ware as possessing many .precious works, and 
most of the ancient Irish MSS. now preserved in Brussels 
and Rome, still bear inscribed on them : " Ex libris con- 
I'entus de Dunnegall? 

The " Annals of Ireland" is not, however, the only work 
for which we are indebted to Michael O'Clery and his brother 
antiquarians. The " Succession of the Kings," and " The 
Genealogies of the Saints of Ireland" which they completed in 
the year 1630, are dedicated to Torloch Mac Cochlain. The 
original MS. of these two Tracts, which, however, are both 
parts of the one great work, 1 is preserved in St. Isidore's, Rome, 
and bears on the first page the following title : 

"The History of the Kings of Erin, according to their 

1 O'Curry was betrayed into some errors by an imperfect copy of this work, 
which thus begins : " On the 3rd day of the month of September, Anno Christi, 
1644, this book was commenced to be written in the house of Conall, son of Niall, 
son of Rossa Mageoghegan, of Lias Maighne in Cenel Fhiachach (in Westmeath), one 
by whom are prized and preserved the ancient monuments of our ancestors ; one 
who is the industrious collecting Bee of everything that belongs to the honour and 
history of the descendants of Milesius, and of Lugaidh, son of Ith, both lay and 
ecclesiastical, as far as he could find them. And what is written in this book is the 
Succession of the Kings, and the History of the Saints of Erin, which are now cor- 
rected and amended by these persons following, viz. : the friar, Michael O'Clery, 
Fearfeasa O'Mulconry, and Cucogry O'Duigenan, all of these persons learned in 
the Irish language. And it is taken from the principal ancient books of Erin, in 
the Convent of Athlone, as we have before stated, as well as from the historical 
poem written by Gilla Caomhain O'Cuirnin, which begins: 'Virgin Erin, 
Island of Saints ;' and another poem written by &HgMS Mac an Ghobhaiit, which 
begins : ' Naomhsheanchus,' &e, (i.e., ' The Sacred History of the Saints of Innis- 
fail ;') and another poem which begins : 'Father of all, Ruler of Heaven.' This 
book contains also the Book of Rights, &c." 

These words, supposed by O'Curry to be those of Michael O'Clery, are not in 
the original MS., and, as appears from the ojpening date, were only written in 
September, 1644, that is to say, some months after O'Clery's death. The "Book 
of Rights" forms no part of the work of our Four Masters, and neither should be 
imputed to them the error of ascribing the Naomhshcattfhvs to St. ,/fSngus. 

In the Seventeenth CeHhiry. 277 

succession, from their origin-stem, and the time each king of 
them spent inthe headship and pcnverof Erin, in his sovereignty : 

" The Genealogies of the Irish Saints, as found in the books 
of the old authors, set down according to their respective 
families in the order of the alphabet : 

" For the glory of God, the honor of the Saints, and of the 
kingdom, and for the giving of knowledge and skill on the 
things aforesaid, and on the authors who have preserved the 
History of Erin, before and after the Christian Faith. 

" Finished in the Convent of the Brothers of Observance of 
the Monastery of Ath Luain (i.e., Athlone), in the bishopric of 
Cluain Mac Nois, A.D. 1630." 

In the dedication to Torloch Mac Cochlain, Michael 
O'Clery and his companions thus write : 

"After the poor Friar, Michael O'Clery, had been four 
years at the command of his Superiors, engaged in collecting 
and bringing together all that he could find of the History of 
the Saints of Ireland, and of the kings to whom their pedi- 
grees are carried up, he thought with himself that it would 
not be unfitting to put that collection into other languages, 
submitting it to the authority, proof, and inspection of other 
skilful historians. He also considered that the aforesaid 
work could not be finished without expense. But such was 
the poverty of the order to which he belonged, on account 
of their vow, and the oppressions of the time, that he was 
obliged to complain of it to gentlemen who were not bound 
to poverty by vow. And among those to whom he made his 
complaint, he found no one to relieve his anxiety towards 
bringing this work to completion, but one person, who was 
willing to assist in the promotion of the glory of God, the 
honour of the saints, and of the kingdom and the good of 
his own soul. And that one person is Torloch MacCochlain 
[here follows the pedigree of the MacCochlains]. And it 
was this Torloch MacCochlain that forwarded this work, and 
that kept together the company that were engaged in com- 
pleting it, along with the private .assistance given by the 
aforesaid convent every day. On the 4th day of October, 
therefore, this book was commenced, and on the 4th day of 
November it was finished, in the convent of the friars before 
mentioned, in the fifth year of King Charles of England, 
A.D. 1630. 

"Your loving friends, 




VOL. VII. 19 

278 Irish Historical Studies 

This is followed by an address to the reader which sets 
forth the nature of the work and the motives which impelled 
the writers to undertake the task : 

" What true children are there that would not feel pity and 
distress, at seeing or hearing of their excellent mother and 
nurse being placed in a condition of indignity and contempt, of 
dishonor and contumely, without making a visit to her to bring 
her solace and happiness, and to give her assistance and relief? 

" Upon its having been observed by certain parties of this 
nation, of the Order of St. Francis, that the holiness and 
righteousness of their mother and nurse Erinn had percep- 
tibly diminished, for not having the lives, wonders, and 
miracles of her saints disseminated within her, nor yet made 
known in other kingdoms ; the counsel they adopted was, to 
send into Erinn a poor Friar Minor of their own Order of 
Observance, Michael O'Clery, a chronicler by descent and 
education, in order to collect and bring to one place all the 
books of authority in which he could discover anything that 
related to the holiness of her saints, with their pedigrees and 

"Upon the arrival of the aforesaid friar he sought and 
searched through every part of Erinn, in which he had heard 
there was a good or even a bad book, (i.e. Gaedhlic MS.) ; so 
that he spent four full years in transcribing and procuring 
every thing that referred to the saints of Erinn. Nevertheless, 
though great his labour and his hardships, he was able to find 
but a few out of the many of them, because strangers had 
carried off the principal books of Erinn into remote and 
unknown foreign territories and nations, so that they have 
not left anything which is worthy to be enumerated of her 
books in her. 

" And when all that the aforesaid friar could find had been 
gathered into one place, what he contemplated and decided 
on doing was this viz., to bring together and assemble in one 
place three persons whom he should consider most befitting 
and most suitable to finish the work which he had under- 
taken, with the consent of his superiors, for the purpose of 
examining all the collections that he had made. These were, 
Ferfeasa O'Mulconry from Bally Mulconry, in the county of 
Roscommon ; Cucoigriche O'Clery, from Bally Clery, in the 
county of Donegal, and Cucoigriche O'Duigenann from 
Baile, Coillefoghair (now Castlefore), in the county of Leitrim. 
These persons then came to one place ; and, having come, 
the four of them decided to write the Roll of the Monarchs of 
Erinn, at the beginning of the book. They determined on 
this for two reasons. The first reason, because the pedigrees 
of the saints could not have been brought to their origin, 

//; t/te Seventeenth Century. 279 

without having the pedigrees of the early kings placed first, 
because it was from these kings that they are descended. 
The second reason, in order that the duty and devotion of 
the noble people to their saints, their comharbs, and their 
churches, should be the greater, by their having a knowledge 
of their relation and friendship with their blessed patrons, 
and of the descent of the family saints from the stem from 
which each branch of them has sprung, and the number of 
the saints of the same branch. 

" For every tribe of the saints of Erinn, so many as have 
been found of them, according to the order of their history, 
is here set forth one after another, without commingling of 
families ; but as they branched off and separated from their 
original stems. 

" Whoever thou art, then, O reader, we leave it to thyself 
to perceive that thou wilt find profit, effect, knowledge, and 
brevity, in this work. For the succession of the kings, with 
their pedigrees to their origin, will be found in it, in the 
order in which they obtained the sovereignty together with 
the number of their years, the age of the world at the end of 
each king's reign, and the age of our Lord Jesus Christ, from 
his Incarnation to the death of each king, down to the death 
of Malachy the Great (A.D. 1022). And the saints are given 
according to their alphabetical order, and their origin, as we 
have already said. Glory unto God. 

"Your loving friends, 


To this the following attestations are added : 
" I, the Brother Seoirse Diolmain, Guardian of Ath Luain, 
confess and make testimony that this work, which is called 
the Course of the Kings of Erin, and the History of the 
Saints, was ended and finished after spending a month com- 
pletely with it of days and of nights with striving and study, 
for the increasing of the glory of God, and of the saints, and of 
the honor of the kingdom. The persons by whom this labor 
was finished are the poor brother Michael O'Clerigh, Fear- 
feasa O'Maolchonaire, Cu-coicriche O'Clerigh, and Cu- 
coicriche O'Duibhgeannain ; persons skilful, learned in the 
history of Erin, in the convent of the Brothers of Observance 
of Ath Luain ; and for testimony on the things we have said, 
I am putting my hand on this the 4th November, 1630. 

Guardian of Ath Luain." 

28o Irish Historical Studies 

" I, Conall Mac Neill Mageocagain, from Liss Margne, in 
Cenel Fiachach, in the county of West Meath, gentleman, 
hereby declare that I saw the books of proof which this book 
had; and for testimony thereof, I have here put my signa- 
ture, the 4th day of the month of November, A.D. 1630. 


The Lcabhar Gabhala, or "Book of Invasions," is, as regards 
the early secular history of Ireland, perhaps the most important 
work preserved to us by the untiring industry of the " Four 
Masters." This chronicle, containing an ample record of the 
successive colonisation of Ireland from the earliest times, was 
much older than the sixteenth century, and the labour of 
O'Clery and his learned associates was limited in this instance 
" to purge of error, rectify and transcribe the old chronicles.'* 
It was under the patronage of Brian Ruadh Maguire, first 
Lord of Inis-Cethlionn (i.e., Enniskillen) that this work was 
undertaken, and in addition to Fearfeasa O'Mulconry, Cucogry 
O'Clery, and Cucogry O'Duigenan, Brother Michael O'Clery, 
here summoned to his aid Gillapatrick O'Luiniu (from Ard 

1 The following Episcopal letters are added in the Roman MS. : 
" I. Visis testimoniis et approbationibus eorum qui praecipui sunt nostrarum 
rerum in hoc regno antiquarii, et linguae ac historiae peritissimi ac expertissimi 
de fide et integritate fratris Michaelis Cleri in opere, quod vocatur genealogia sanc- 
torum ac de ortu, serie ac successione regum Hiberniae, colligendo, castigando, 
illustrando, ac cum quibusvis vetustis codicibus conferendo, Nos Malachias Dei 
et Apostolicae sedis gratia Archiepiscopus Tuamensis et Conaciae Primas opus 
approbamus ac praelo dignum censemus. Datum, Galviae, 15 Kalendar, 
Decemb. 1636. 

"MALACHIAS, Archiepiscopus, Tuamen." 

" II. Visis testimoniis et authenticis peritorum approbationibus de hoc opere per 
fratrem Michaelem Clery, ordinis seraphici laicum fratrem, collecto, libenter illud 
approbamus ut in publicam lucem edatur. 

"Datum Rossirta, 27 Novembris, 1636. 


"III. Genealogias regum et sanctorum Hyberniae singulari industria collegit 
frater Michael Clery laicus ordinis sancti Francisci de observantia prout fidem 
faciunt nostrates antiquarii, quorum authoritate freti opus tain insigne dignum 
quod edatur juclicamus, Actum Dublinii, 6 Februarii, 1636. 

" Fr. THOMAS FLEMING, Archiepiscopus Dublinensis, 
Hiberniae Primas." 

" IV. De hoc libro, qui vocatur genealogia sanctorum ac de ortu, serie ac suc- 
cessione regum Hiberniae, quern Fr. Michael Clery, ordinis S. Francisci, ad 
gloriam sanctorum et communem patriae utilitatem collegit non aliter censemus 
quam censores a Reverendo Administratorc Patre Provinciali ejusdem fratris, 
R. D. Florentius Keegan et D. Cornelias Bruodyn pro eodem libro inspiciendo 
examinando et approbando vel reprobando assignati judicaverunt et decreverunt. 
Nos enim eosdem tamquam peritissimos linguae Hibernicae et in omnibus historiis 
et patriae chronologiis versatissimos existimanus. Quapropter et illorum censurae 
et judicio de praesenti genealogia etc, in omnibus conformamur. In quorum fidem 
his manu propria subscripsimus. Datum in loco nostrae mansionis die 8 Januarii 
anno Domino 1637. 

FR. ROCHUS", Kildarensis." 

/// the Seventeenth Century. 281 

Ui Lninin\ the chief chronicler of Fermanagh. They all 
assembled together "a fortnight before All-Hallow-tide" in 
the Franciscan convent of Lisgoole, in the diocese of Cloghcr; 
and the work was happily completed "three days before 
Christmas, in 1631." 

The following passages from the introduction written by 
O'Clcry, will be read with deep interest by every lover of 
Irish studies: 

" I was aware that men learned in Latin and in English 
had commenced to translate this chronicle of Erin from the 
Gaehdlic into these languages, and that they had not so pro- 
found a knowledge of the Gaehdlic as that they could put the 
difficult and the easy parts of the said book together with- 
out ignorance or error ; and I felt that the translation which 
they would make must become an eternal reproach and dis- 
grace to all Erin, and particularly so to her chroniclers. It 
was for these reasons that I undertook, with the permission 
of my superiors, to purify and compile this book, and to col- 
lect for it, from other books, all that was wanting to it in 
history and in other learning, as much as we could, according 

to the space of time which we had to write it It is 

right that you should know that it was ancient writers of 
remote times, and commemorating elders of great age, that 
preserved the history of Erin in chronicles and books in suc- 
cession, from the period of the deluge to the time of St. 
Patrick, who came in the fourth year of the reign of Laeg- 
haire Mac Neill, monarch of Erin, to plant religion and 
devotion in her; when he blessed Erin, men and boys, 
women and girls, and built numerous churches and towns 
throughout the land. St. Patrick, after all this, invited unto 
him the most illustrious authors of Erin at that period to pre- 
serve the chronicles, synchronisms, and genealogies of every 
colony that had taken possession of Erin, down to that 
period. Those that he invited unto him, at that time, were 
Ross and Dubhthach, the son of Ua Luaghair, and Fergus and 
others. These wore the sustaining pillars of the history of 
Erin in the time of St. Patrick. 

"St. Columbkille, St. Finnian of Clonard, and St. Comgall 
of Bangor, and the other saints of Erin, induced the authors 
of their time to perpetuate and set forth the history and syn- 
chronisms existing in their day. It was so done at their 
request. The authors of the period of these saints, as is 
manifest in the latter part of Eochaidh O'Flinn's poem, were 
Fiontain, the son of Bochna ; Tnan, the son of Cairell, son of 
Muiredbach Muinderg, of the Dal-Fiatach ; and Dalian 
Forgaill, the illustrious author and saint. 

282 Irish Historical Studies 

" The histories and synchronisms of Erin were written and 
tested in the presence of these illustrious saints, as is manifest 
in the great books which were named after the saints them- 
selves, and from their great churches ; for there was not an 
illustrious church in Erin that had not a great book of history 
named from it, or from the saint who sanctified it. It would 
be easy, too, to know, from the books which the saints wrote, 
and the songs of praise which they composed in Gaedhlic, that 
they themselves, and their churches, were the centres of the 
true knowledge, and the archives and homes of the manuscripts 
of the authors of Erin, in the olden times. Sad evil! short 
was the time until dispersion and decay overtook the churches 
of the saints, their relics, and their books ; for there is not to 
be found of them now but a small remnant, that has not been, 
carried away into distant countries and foreign nations carried 
away so that their fate is not known from that time hither." 

As regards the "Four Masters" themselves, little is known 
of the history of two of them, i.e., Fearfeasa O'Maolchonaire 
and Cucogry O'Duibhgenain. They were famed, however, 
throughout our island for their knowledge of the ancient books 
of Erin, and were the hereditary antiquarians of Roscommon 
and Kilronan. Of Cucogry (i.e., Pcrcgrimis) O'Clery, we 
have fuller details. He wrote in Irish a life of the celebrated 
Hugh Roe O'Donnell, who died in Spain in 1602, which was 
transcribed, many times verbatim, into the Annals. He 
also composed some Irish poems, two of which are published 
by O'Curry in his Manuscript Materials, &c., p. 562-9. The 
first is addressed to Callbach Roc O'Donnell, who, driven 
from his hereditary possessions, had been forced to seek a 
new home near Cruachain, in the county Roscommon. He 
commends to the protection of this young chieftain his own, 
learned tutors, the Mulconry's of Cruachain : 

" Good is the search that thou hast made 
To go seek the knowledge of history 
To visit me first would havebeen an idle journey: 
To the home of the learning of Erin. 

" An old saying, wise and venerable it is, 
'The learning of Erin at Cruachain/ 
To its learning thou hast given will, above all, 
Not without reason was your choice. 

" They are in this land a long time, 
Around the Cruachain of Conn of the hundred battles, 
The O ' Maolchonaires without fault, 
In chosen esteem with chieftains. 

In tJu Seventeenth Century. 283 

" Thou hast, too, joined other knowledge, 
With the comely Clann Moakhonaire, 
The cause of our invitation from thee 
Through the career of my learning from my tutors. 

" Let it not molest thee, thou of the race of Finn, 
The evil hearts, the malignity, 
Of those who envy thy bright brow ; 
Their gaze is the omen of secret peace. 

"My last words to thy noble mien : 
Be not the first to fly from friendship; 
Without cause break not thy affection with man. 
But share with him thy brightest love." 

The second poem is addressed to Turlough, the son of 
Caflfar O'Donnell. In it he condoles with this aged chieftain 
on the fallen fortunes of his house ; extols him for the pro- 
tection he had shown his followers after the Plantation of 
Ulster, and for the bravery with which he arrayed them for 
the battles of religion during the Confederate war of 1641 ; 
and in fine, exhorts him to be resigned in his present trials, 
and to prepare for that glory which is eternal. It thus 
begins : 

" My curse upon thee, O, world ! 
Woe is he who understands not thy great dangers, 
For thou thyself makest us sensible, 
That thy fortunes are not an object to be loved. 

" Tho' many a king who had been esteemed, 
Received from thee reign and sovereignty ; 
And to whom thou gavest mirth, feast, and banquet ; 
Behold their fate at the end ! 

" No person has arisen, west or east, 
On the back of thy wheel, O, world ! 
Whose end is not, after all happiness, 
To be buried under that wheel in sorrow. 

" The poor of the earth all around, 
To thee they have cause to be thankful ; 
Thou givest them nothing of thy wealth, 
And thou deprivest them not of thy gifts." 

From an inquisition held at Lifford on the 25th of May, 
1632, it appears that our annalist Cucogry had for a short 
time held a portion of land at Monargane, in the county 

284 Irish Historical Studies 

Donegal, for which he paid S per annum to the assignee of 
the Earl of Annandale; but, as the inquisition states, "being 
a meere Irishman, and not of English or British descent or 
sirname," he was dispossessed, and his holding forfeited to the 
king. Shortly after he removed, with many other families of 
Tirconnell, to Ballycroy, in the south of the barony of Erris, 
in the county Mayo, bringing with him his books, which were 
his only treasure. His will, drawn up a little before his death 
in 1664, thus begins : " In the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost, I bequeath my soul to God 
Almighty, and I charge my body to be buried in the monas- 
tery of Burgheis- UmJiail (i.e. Borrisoole), or in whatever other 
consecrated church it will appear best to bury me. I leave 
the property most dear to me that is in my possession in the 
world, namely, my books, to my two sons Diarmaid and 
Seaan. Let them take their profit out of them without 
injuring them, and according to their necessities; and let them 
give the use of them, and constant access to them, to CairbrJs 
children, even as to themselves. I am charging them to be 
loving, friendly, respectful (to these) as they would be to their 
own children, if they wish that God should be propitious to 
themselves, and give them prosperity in the world here, and 
their share in the kingdom of heaven to them in the other 
world." (Curry's Lectures, p. 561.) 

Of Michael O'Clery much might be written. Born about 
the year 1575, he was generally known to his contem- 
poraries as Teige na-Sleibhe, i.e. " Teighe of the Mountain," 
but no explanation of this name has been handed down 
to us. Admitted among the Franciscans of St. Anthony's, 
at Louvain, in 1623, he received the name of Michael, but he 
never would consent to be promoted to holy orders, and he 
remained till death in the humble ranks of the lay brothers of 
St. Francis. In the last chapter (p. 199), we have seen how 
Father Patrick Fleming wrote to Ward on 27th July, 1624.: 
" Make sure to carry out your purpose of sending 
brother Clery to Ireland to collect the MSS. there," 
and probably before the close of that year, if not before 
the receipt of Fleming's letter, the humble lay-brother was 
entrusted with this literary mission, destined to be so 
happy in its bearings on the history of our country. 
Michael O'Clery travelled from convent to convent, and 
from province to province, collecting everywhere the 
few surviving fragments of our literature. The learned Bishop 
of Ossory, Dr. Rothe, writing in 1828, states that already he 
had collected more than three or four hundred lives of the 
Irish Saints : he adds, " I gave him the few lives which I 

In the Seventeenth Century. 285 

had collected, and sent him to Ormond, part of my diocese, 
to transcribe there for awhile, from whence he promised to 
come to Thomond, where I undertook to get many things 
for him, but he came not since ; soon I expect him to come, 
and he shall be welcome truly to me." From the dedicatory 
letter prefixed to the "Annals of the Four Masters," we learn 
that O'Clery devoted several years to the arduous work of 
collecting such materials, before he ventured, even with the 
aid of other antiquarians, to compile those learned works which 
have endeared his name to all students of our history. 

Several of the volumes transcribed by O'Clery are still extant 
in Brussels, 1 and are described by O'Curry in his " Lectures," 
(pp. 173-4). First of the published works bearing the in- 
dividual name of Michael O'Clery is his Glossary, which was 
printed at Louvain, a few weeks before his demise. Its title is 
thus translated by O'Curry : " A new Vocabulary or Glossary, 
in which are explained some part of the difficult words of the 
Gacdhlic, written in alphabetical order by the poor rude friar, 
Michael O'Clery ', of the Order of St. Francis, in the College of the 
Irish Friars at Louvain, and printed byautlwrity in tiieyear 1 62 3." 

This work, which is reckoned of special value by our modern 
philologists, was composed by O'Clery, as he tells us in the 
preface, for the purpose of keeping alive a knowledge of the 
early Celtic language. The inroads now made on the Irish 
tongue, and the attacks levelled against it by the English foe, 
only served to tender it more dear to the natives : 

" Unlike the jargon of our foreign foe, 
On raptured ear it pours its copious flow ; 
Most feeling, mild, polite, and polished tongue, 
That learned sage e'er spoke or poet sung. 

In the " Address to the Reader," O'Clery thus writes : 
" Let the reader who desires to read this little work, know 
four things, the first is, that we have not set down any word 
of explanation or gloss of the hard words of our mother 
tongue, but the words which we found with other persons, as 
explained by the most competent and learned masters in the 
knowledge of the difficult words of the Gaedhlic in our own 
days. Among these more particularly, were Boetius Ruadh 
MacEgan, Torna O'Mulconry, Lughaidh O'Clery, and 

1 One of these is the celebrated tract called "The Wars of the Danes," which 
has been published by Dr. Todd in the London Series, under the Master of the 
Rolls, in 1867. The l!ruvsd> MS. has the following note : "Out of the Book of 
Cuconnacht O'Daly, the poor Friar Michael O'Clery wrote the copy from which 
this was written in the Convent of the Friars in Baile Tighe Farannaim (i.e., Multy- 
farnham, in the County Westmeath), in the month of March of this year, 1628; 
and this copy was written by the same friar in the Convent of Donegal, in the month 
of November of this year, 1635." 

286 Irish Historical Studies 

Maelseachlainn O'Mulconry : and though each of these was an 
accomplished adept, it is Boetius Roe that we have followed 
the most, because it was from him we ourselves received, and 
we have found written with others, the explanations of the 
words of which we treat. And besides, because he is an illus- 
trious and accomplished in this (the antiquarian) profession, as 
is manifest in the character which the other scholar before 
mentioned, Lugdaidh O'Clery, gave of him after his death, as 
may be found in the verses which thus begin : 

" Athairne', the father of learning, 
Dalian Forgaill, the prime scholar, 
To compare with him in intelligence would be unjust, 
Nor Neide, the profound in just laws. 

" Obscure history, the laws of the ancients, 
The occult language of the poets ; 
He, in a word, to our knowledge, 
Had the power to explain and analyse, etc. 

" We have known able professors of this science, and even 
in the latter times, such as the late John O'Mulconry (of 
Ardchoill, in the county of Clare), the chief teacher in history 
of those we have already named, and indeed of all the men of 
Erinn likewise, in his own time ; and Flann, the son of 
Cairbrey, MacEgan (of Lower Ormond, in Tipperary), who still 
lives, and many more that we do not enumerate. But because 
we do not happen to have at this side of the sea, where we are 
in exile, the ancient books which they glossed, except a few, 
we could not follow their explanation but to a small extent. 

"In the second place, be it known to you, O reader! that 
the difficult ancient books, to which the ancient authors put 
glosses, and from which we have taken the following words, 
with the farther explanations of the parties mentioned above, 
who taught in these latter times, were the Amhra or (Elegy), 
on the death of Saint Colum Cille, the Agallamh, or Dialogue 
of the two sages, the Felire, or Festology of the Saints, the 
Martyrology of Marianus O'Gorman, the Liber Hymnorum, 
or Book of Hymns ; the Glossary of the (Tripartite) Life of 
Saint Patrick : an ancient Scripture on vellum, and a certain 
old paper book, in which many hard words were found, with 
their explanations ; the glossary called Forus Focail (or The 
True Knowledge of Words), and the other glossary, called 
Deirbshuir don eagna an Eigse (or Poetry is the sister of 
Wisdom). And for the greater part of the book from that out 
we received the explanation from the above-mentioned Boetius. 

" Be it known to the reader, thirdly, that we have only 
desired, when proposing to write this little work, to give but 

In the Seventeenth Century. 287 

a little light to the young and the ignorant, and to stimulate 
and excite the professors and men of knowledge to produce 
a work similar to this, but on a better and larger scale. 
And the reason why we have not followed at length many of 
the various meanings which poets and professors give to many 
of these words, is because that it is to the professors them- 
selves it more particularly belongs, and the people in general 
are not in as great need of it, as they are in need of assistance 
to read and understand the ancient books." 

The work is dedicated to the Bishop of Elphin, Boetius 
M'Egan,a name illustrious in our annals for thedevotednesswith 
which this holy Bishop discharged his sacred duties through- 
out this whole eventful period of the confederation, and for the 
heroism with which he confronted death in defence of truth, 
the i Qth of April, 1650. 

M'yEGAN, BISHOP OF ELPHIN Here is presented to you, 
my Lord, a little gleaning of the difficult words of our native 
tongue, collected from the many old books of our country, 
and expounded -according as they were understood, and in- 
terpreted by the principal authors of our country in latter 
days, to whom peculiarly belonged the exposition of the 
ancient Irish language. I have not seen many of our country- 
men to whom the gleaning should be offered before you. 
And it is not alone that we are in the same habit, which was 
on another occasion a sufficient cause for my being attached 
to you in preference to other friends, that moved me to make 
you the patron of this book ; but in addition to that, and 
more particularly on account of your own affection for, and 
the birthright of your kindred to this art, and also because 
there is a man of your name and surname Boetius Ruadh 
M'^Egan among the principal persons whom I follow in the 
exposition of the words which are treated of in this book. 

"Accept, then, from a good will, this little offering, in which I 
have only desired to give the ignorant a little knowledge of their 
ancient mother tongue; and to excitethe more learned to supply 
such another work in a better manner and at greater length. 
" Your own poor devoted servant. 


" Given at Louvain, the 28th October, 1643." 

The following commendatory letter from the Superior of the 
Irish Franciscans in Belgium and Germany is also prefixed to 
the work : 

" Quia obsoletarum diffici- "As the explanation of the 
liorumque dictionum vetusti obsolete and most difficult 
nostri idiomatis Hibernici words of our ancient Irish 

Irish Historical Studies 

idiom must be of considerable 
use and assistance for illustra- 
ting the history and various 
antiquities of our country, we 
grant permission to our be- 
loved brother Fr. Michael 
O'Clery, skilled in our ancient 
monuments and in the inter- 
pretation of the more unusual 
meanings of words in our 
earlier native language, to 
publish for the greater glory 
of God the Glossary of the 
old forms of expression which 
he has compiled in alphabeti- 
cal order, and explained by 
means of the glosses and in- 
terpretations of the antiqua- 
ries best versed in our ancient 

" Given at Louvain, in the 
Franciscan Convent of St. An- 
thony, the 2/th October, 1643. 

" Commissary of the Irish 
Franciscan Friars of Strict 
Observance in Belgium and 

The Martyrology of Donegal was compiled by O'Clery from 
ancient and authentic sources, in 1630. The Colophon which 
closes the work gives the origin of its name, "End of tJie Mar- 
tyrology, \tyh April, 1630. In the convent of Friars at Done- 
gal it was begun and finislied" Dr. Todd published this work 
for the I.A.S. in 1864, from the Brussels MS., which is en- 
riched with many marginal notes by O'Clery and his cotempo- 
rary antiquarians. It is now easily accessible to the public, 
and all the scholars of our age have fully confirmed the eulogy 
bestowed on it by Flan Mac Egan and Connor Mac Bruodin 
in 1636, viz., that " though they had seen many books 
relating to the festivals of the Saints, yet they had found none 
of them so full and so eminently clear, bright, intelligible and 
so worthy of praise," as the the Martyrology of Donegal. A 
few of the marginal notes will suffice to awaken the interest 
of the reader in this invaluable work. Thus we read : 

" A.D. 1537, O'Conchobhair Failge rose against Henry tlie 

explanatio ad patriae his- 
torias aliasque antiquitates 
penetrandas haud parum al- 
latura videtur lucis et com- 
pendii ; hinc facultatem con- 
cedimus dilecto nostro fratri 
Fr. Michaeli Clery in patriis 
antiquitatibus, et abstrusiori- 
bus sensibus vetustioris lin- 
guae patriae eruendis versato; 
ut Vocabularium quod ex 
vetustis ejusdem linguae dic- 
tionibus ordine Alphabetic 
digestum compilavit, et colla- 
tione facta cum peritorum 
nostrae linguae antiquario- 
rum glossematibus et exposi- 
tionibus explanavit, typis 
mandetur ad Dei gloriam. 

"Datum Lovanii in Collegio 

MinorumStrict Obs.S.Antonii 

de Padua, die 27 Octob., 1643. 


"Commissarius fratrum Min. 
Hib. Strictioris Obs. in Bel- 
gio et Germania." 

In the Seventeenth Century. 289 

Eighth, in the 2?th year of his reign, for liberty, and destroyed 
the troops of the English with immense slaughter, and 
drove the Viceroy into great straits, who, when he had filled 
a church to the roof with the corpses of the slain by night, 
lest the enemy should become more insolent after so great 
a slaughter, the bodies were reduced to ashes, but the church 
itself, although its roof was of timber, remained uninjured, 
and even more beautiful than before." 

" The Book of Columcille, i.e., the Book of Burrow, is 
in Durrow itself, in Cinel Fiachach, i.e., the country of 
MacEochagain, written in Gaidhelic characters, the New 
Testament, with a binding of silver and gems. The house of 
Columbcille is above in Cenannas (i.e. t Kells), and the station 
of crosses and his miraculous book are there. His way to the 
church used to be underground. Gormlaith, daughter of 
Flann, is interred under a great cross, and she came to meet 
Brian-na-m-Barr6g, to ask for a flag to be put over her body. 
On the stone in the cemetery is the inscription : ' I place this 
stone over thee, O Gormlaith.' " 

"Aodh, the son of Brie, son of Cormac son of Crem- 
thain son of Fiachach, was born in Killair, in Meath. 
His miraculous staff, made of Finubruin, i.e., brass, inlaid 
with silver, is in the possession of Peter MacEochagain. 
Rath-Aodha, a parish church, remains there still. It was he 
himself (i.e., Peter MacEochagain), who found the staff: 
it works wondrous miracles against perjurers, and Killair 
is still the church of Aodh. Patrick foretold his birth 
from Fiachach, when this chieftain gave him fifteen townlands 
around Killair, after uttering his malediction on the stones of 
Uisnech that they should not take hold together." 

Dr. Todd mentions a shorter Martyrology also preserved in 
Brussels, compiled by O'Clery, and said to have been trans- 
cribed at Douay, in 1629. This is probably the Martyrologhuii 
Hibernicum commune of which mention is sometimes made in 
Colgan's notes, as distinct from the Martyrology of Donegal. 

I have given but a faint outline of the many valuable 
works with which Michael O'Clery enriched our literature. 
If O'Donovan merited the eulogy of the learned world for 
translating and editing the " Annals of the Four Masters," 
should not a due meed of praise be awarded to the man who 
was the chief originator of that invaluable work ? And yet 
the 'Annals' was only one of the many great literary works 
achieved by the genius and untiring industry of this humble 
lay-brother of the Order of St. Francis. 





[N.B. Thetextofthe "Monasticon" is taken verbatim from Archdall r the notes 
marked with numbers are added by the Editors.] 


The Great Isle ;^ 18 in the barony of Barrymore, and form- 
ing one side of the harbour of Cork, is four miles in length, 
seven in breadth, and contains the village of Cove, opposite 
to which his Majesty's largest ships may ride, and the vessels 
trading to Cork generally anchor there.* 8 * The festival of St. 
Saran, the son of Archuir, is observed here on the 1 5th of May. h 

Inchrie ; there was a Cistertian abbey here, dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary ; it was a cell of the abbey of Maure in this 
county, 1 and is now unknown. 

Iniscarra ;* ig five miles from Cork, on the river Lee, in the 

* Called anciently Inismore, in Ibhmaccaile t or Imokilly. Vard. vita Rum. 
** Smith, vol. \.p. 169. *Vard. vit. Rumoldi. ^IVar. Man. Harris's tab. *Was 
called anciently Tuaimnava, Act. SS. p. 140. 

Glanore, or Glanworth; Inquisition 3rd of Saint Hilary, 3 1st Elizabeth, finds 
that a grant was made of this priory and the possessions thereof to Maurice Viscount 
Fermoy, at the annual rent of 15^. Irish ; but that the same was forfeited by the 
non-payment of the rent. Ordnance Survey of Cork, R.I.A., vol. iv., p. 73. 

18 The Great Island. St. Sarann, of Inismor (Great Island), is thus commemorated 
in the Festology of Aengus Cele De at igth May. "Sarann, son of Archurr, from 
Inismor, in Uibh Mac Caille, in Uibh Liathain in Munster ;" and the Irish life of 
St. Findbarr states that St. Sarann settled in Drom Eighneach, in the territory of 
Ua Lugdach, that he resigned his own church to God and to St. Barra (Findbarr), 
and that Barra gave him a new monastery with its Religious. Life of St. Findbarr 
G" Curry, MS. C.U.I. 

I9 lniscarra; The Irish lives of St. Senan of Inis Cathaigh, relate that on his 
return home from his great preceptor, St. David of Kilmony, in Alba, he came into 
this part of Munster; and having settled down in the place then called Oilean arda 
Crick Liathain, now Barrymore Island, he remained there forty days, till admon- 
ished by an angel to go forth, and to found a church for himself, wherein to serve 
God, with his followers. St. Senan went forward, we are told, directed by the 
angel, till he came to a place then called Tuaim-na-mba, on the side of the river 
Linne (now the Lee), where he founded his church, and fixed his ecclesiastical resi- 
dence. When the petty prince of this place came to hear that St. Senan had occu- 
pied his land without permission, he sent messengers to warn him off, and to de- 
mand rent and restitution. Subsequently he sent his own favorite steed to be 
maintained at the expense of the monastery, but the steed fell into the stream at 
the church, where she was drowned, so that no part of her remained to be seen 
but her carra, i*., her quarters, and hence the place was called Inis Carra, 
Tuaim na-mba was its name till then. St. Senan thus maintained his position 
here, and left eight of his disciples in the Church of Inis Carra, with St. Gillian, 
under the protection of Fechen, son of Faighe, king of Muscraighe, who was also a 
disciple of St. Senan. Life of St. Senan, chap. 3, pp. 15-16. 

Ancient Monasteries of Ireland. 291 

barony of Barrets. St. Senan of Iniscathay, built an abbey 
here, and placed eight of his disciples therein. 1 This is now 
a parish church in the diocese of Cloyne. m 

Inishircan ; n * an island between Cape Clear and the main- 
land. In the year.i46o, Florence O'Driscol, the Great, founded 
a small monastery here for Franciscan friars of the strict 
observance ; other writers say, that Dermot O'Driscol was 
the founder in I47O. P In 1537 the citizens of Waterford 
destroyed all the villages on this island, with the mill, castle, 
and friary .* 

This monastery was built near the castle, on the plan of 
that at Kilcrea, but much smaller ; the steeple is a low square 
tower, from whence runs the nave, with an arcaded wing, to 
the south/ 

Inispict, or Inispuinc;^ near Inishircan, in the barony of 
Muskerry. St. Carthagmochuda built a monastery here 
about the close of the 6th century, and placed therein the 
three brothers, St. Cobban, St. Stephen, and St. Lafren, with 
the bishop St. Domangen, and twelve others of his disciples ; 
but they did not continue here, for we find that St. Doman- 
gen was honoured in Tuaimmuscraighe. 6 This place is now 

Kilbcacan ; on the north side of Mount Crotte, in Muscry- 
ciure, and Keating says, it bears the same name at this day. 
St. Abban, who died at a great age A.D. 650, built an 

I War. Man. Harris's tab. m Visitation Book. " Was called anciently Iniskitran. 
War. MSS. iwl. 34, /. 162. War. Mon. *War. Man. <>SmiM, vol. \,p. 141. 
T Jd. p. 290. *Act. SS.f. 631. 

Inishircan; Inquisition 2nd March, 5th James, finds that, 3rd March, 33rd 
Elizabeth, a grant for a term of years was made of this priory to John Bealinge, at 
the annual rent of 26s. &/., Irish money. 

n Jnis Put. The Irish "Life of Saint Carthach, or Mochuada, Bishop of 
Rahen and Lismore," contains the following account of this place : 

II A certain time the King of Munster, namely Cathal, son of Aodh, was in the 
land of Cuircne afflicted with various diseases, so that he was deaf, dumb, and 
blind; and Mochuada came to where he was, and the King and his friends prayed 
him to cure him. Mochuada prayed to God for him, and he put the sign of the 
cross on his eyes, and on his ears, and on his mouth, and he was cured of all 
diseases and blemishes. And Cathal gave extensive lands to God, and to 
Mochuada for ever, namely Cathal Island, and Rossbeg, and Rossmore, and 
Pick Island, now Spike Island. And Mochuada sent holy brothers to build a 
church in Rossbeg in honour of God. And Mochuada himself commenced 
building a monastery in Pick Island, and he remained a full year in it. Mochuada 
then placed three of his disciples, namely the three sons of Nascann, i.e., Bishop 
Goban, and Sraphan the priest, and Laisrcn the saint, in these churches; and it 
was the holy bishop of Ardomain that gave holy orders to those three persons, in 
the presence of Mochuada, and it is he that was appointed to direct and to preserve 
them in the way of righteousness, and he left two score more of his brethren in the 
monastery of Pick Island, in place of himself. And Mochuada then returned to 
Rahen; and that Island which we have mentioned, i.e., Pick Island, is a most holy 
place, and most pious people reside in it perpetually. & Curry M.S., C. U.I. 

Ancient Monasteries of Ireland. 

extensive monastery here, and placed over it St. Beacan, alias 
Mobecoc. w 

KUchuilinn^ is supposed to be in the barony of Bantry ; 
here we find a nunnery, of which St. Cannera was abbess, 
where she was also honoured.* 

''Act. SS., p. 615, 622, 751. */</., /. 155. 

"St. Cannera was the holy virgin commemorated by Moore in the following lines 
of his song of Saint Senanus and the Lady. 


" Oh ! haste and leave this sacred Isle, 

Unholy bark, ere morning smile ; 
For on thy deck, though dark it be, 

A female form I see ; 
And I have sworn this sainted sod 

Shall ne'er by woman's feet be trod." 

" Oh ! Father, send not hence my bark, 

Through wintry winds and billows dark ; 
I come with humble heart to share 

Thy morn and evening prayer ; 
Nor mine the feet, Oh ! holy Saint, 

The brightness of thy sod to taint." 

The legend of St. Cannera's visit to fais- Cathaigh and her interview with St. 
Senanus is thus preserved in the Irish lives of St. Senanus. 

" The pious Cannera, a virgin saint, of Beantraige (Bantry), in the south-west of 
Erin, who established a Disert in her own country. A certain night after vespers, 
as she was at her prayers, she saw all the churches of Ireland, and a tower 
of fire rising out of every one of them up to heaven. The fire which rose out 
of Innis Cathaigh was the largest, the highest, and most brilliant of all, and rose 
most directly heavenward. On beholding this the holy virgin exclaimed, that is a 
beautiful Recles (church) said she, and it is to it I will go, that my resurrection may 
be out of it. O heavenly spouse, said she, whatever church or holy place that is, 
it is there I wish my resurrection to be : and she then prayed God that she might 
not lose sight of that tower of light, but like the tower of fire that led the children 
of Israel through the wilderness, so it might lead her into the place ; and God 
granted her prayer. She set out forthwith, having no guide but the blazing tower of 
fire which continued to burn without ceasing, both day and night, till she reached 
it. When she reached the water at Luimneach (Limerick) she went on foot over 
the water as if she walked on the dry ground, and reached the shore at Inis 
Cathaigh, at early dawn next morning. St. Senan, knowing this, came to the 
shore to meet her and bade her welcome. It is for that I came said Cannera, 
and blessed are they who come in the name of the Lord. Go, said Senan, to 
my mother and my sister who abide in that island on the east, and you will be en- 
tertained by them there. That is not what I come for, said Cannera, but to be 
received by yourself into this island, and to remain here in communion of prayer 
with you. Women do not abide in this island, said Senan. What is your reason 
ior that ? said Cannera: Christ did not come less to redeem women than to redeem 
men. Christ was crucified not less for women than for men. Women were serv- 
ing and attending Him and his apostles, and women do not go less to 
heaven than men. You are speaking in vain, said Senan to the holy virgin, there 
is no distinction between their souls, but not so with their bodies, and so women 
shall not reside in this island as long as I live, said Senan. And will you give me 
a place of interment and resurrection in your island, and communion and sacrament 

(To be continued.) 




APRIL, 1871. 



HE momentous events which have occurred in Europe 
during the last century, and the changes which they indicate 
as having taken place in the code of political morality, are 
such as must command the serious attention of every thinking 
mind. Indeed we must plead guilty to the charge of inaccu- 
racy, when we describe this change as having occurred within 
the last century or so, for it dates its origin from a more 
remote period. Dishonesty and injustice, ambition and 
intrigue, are coeval with the world ; yet it was reserved for 
the fifteenth century to legalize, as it were, political treachery, 
and sow those seeds of social immorality which, in later days, 
have produced the Cavours, the Palmerstons, and theBismarcks, 
who have contributed all within their power to destroy truth, 
ignore honour, repudiate honesty, and stamp as legitimate 
every vile means which could be made useful, either for the 
acquisition of fresh power, or the retention of that which was 
already within their grasp. 

Casting even a cursory glance over the history of the last 
century, and witnessing the state of utter degradation to 
which the very primary principles of international and social 
morality have been reduced, it may not be altogether uninter- 
resting to trace the origin of this system, to discuss its merits, 
or rather demerits, and, finally, to inquire what principles 
ought to regulate the conduct of statesmen, in order to re- 
establish a healthy tone of public political morality, and render 
impossible in the future such flagrant exhibitions of injustice 
as were lately witnessed in the formation of the kingdom of 
Italy and the creation of the Germanic Empire. 

The system of which we write has long been known as 

VOL. VII. * 20 

294 Macc/i iircell i. 

" the MaccJiiavellian" and the name suggests that we should 
trace back its origin to the days of the famous Florentine 
diplomatist whose name heads this paper, and who, in his 
celebrated treatise, " II Principe," lays down so iniquitous a 
code of public policy, that it would seem to have been inspired 
by no less a proficient in evil than the Spirit of Darkness. 
Lord Macaulay, though to some extent the panegyrist of 
Macchiavelli, thus describes the evil odour in which that work 
has ever been held. The terms in which Macchiavelli has 
been commonly described since this work was published, 
" would seem," says Lord Macaulay, 1 " to import that he was 
the tempter, the evil principle, the discoverer of ambition and 
revenge, the original inventor of perjury, and that before 
the publication of his fatal Prince, there had never been a 
hypocrite, a tyrant, or a traitor, a simulated virtue, or a con- 
venient crime The Church of Rome has pro- 
nounced his works accursed things, nor have our own country- 
men been backward in testifying their opinion of his merits. 
Out of his sirname they have coined an epithet for a 
knave, and out of his Christian name a synonyme for the 
devil." 2 

In the present paper we shall content ourselves with treating 
of the personal and public history of Macchiavelli. In one 
or two future papers we purpose giving a summary of his 
political code, as contained in his writings, showing at the 
same time how entirely his views are opposed to the dictates 
of natural justice, as well as to the very primary principles of 
the Christian law. 

Nicolo Macchiavelli was born at Florence, on the $th of 
May, 1469, of Bernardo Macchiavelli and Bartholomea Nelli. 
His father was a Jurisconsult, and descended from the Mar- 
quesses of Tuscany ; through his mother he inherited the 
blood of the ancient Counts of Borgo Nuovo, of Fucecchio, 
who traced their ancestry back to the tenth century. It will 
thus be seen that on the side of both .parents, Nicolo was of 
good birth ; but, as Italian nobles, then and now, though well 
descended, possessed, sometimes, rather limited means, the 
family of young Macchiavelli had resigned the empty 
honours of residing in a baronial hall, for the more 
substantial and remunerative ones which were the reward of 

1 See Macaulay, Critical and Historical Essays, vol. i. 

" Nick Macchiavel had ne'er a trick, 

Though he gave his name to our old Nick. " 

Ihtdibras, part ii. , canto I . 

" But we believe there is a schism on this subject among the antiquaries." 

Macaulay, l<v. fit. 

Macchiiirclli. 295 

energy and talent in the Florentine Republic under the 
administration of the Medici. 

During the early years of Macchiavelli, Florence was in a 
state of disorder bordering on complete anarchy. This was 
occasioned by the intrigues of those who, favouring the preten- 
sions of the house of Pazzi to the chief post in the Florentine 
Republic, sought to prevent the succession of Giuliano de' 
Medici to a dignitywhich his ancestors had long and honourably 
enjoyed. These tumults were, however, ended by the failure 
of the conspiracy which had been hatched by the adherents of 
the Pazzi family against the house of Medici. 1 At the period 
when the murder of Giuliano de' Medici occurred, Macchiavelli 
had scarcely reached his tenth year. Lorenzo de' Medici next 
held the reins of power, but after a most brilliant career, his 
death produced, afresh, internal convulsions in Florence. It 
will thus be seen that the very circumstances which were daily 
taking place around him were calculated to direct the mind 
of young Macchiavelli towards politics, as the arena in 
which he should distinguish himself in after years. 

Though we have received no details of Macchiavelli's early 
education, yet we must conclude from the ability which he 
displayed in after life, and from his writings, which bear testi- 
mony to a well-trained mind, that it must have been liberal. 
Having completed his studies, he was placed as secretary in 
the office of Marcello di Virgilio de' Adriani, one of the chief 
officers of the court of Chancery in Florence, and after five 
years spent in the discharge of these duties, he was, on the 
appointment of his employer, Marcello, to the office of High 
Chancellor, elected from amongst four other competitors to 
the position of Chancellor of the Second Court. 

Circumstances favoured in no slight degree the develop- 
ment of Macchiavelli's political talents. At the time of which 
we write there existed in Florence a body designated the 
Council of Ten, which had charge of all diplomatic negoci- 
ations, and corresponded in some measure to the " Secretary 
for Foreign Affairs," in modern -Governments. To this 
Council of Ten, Macchiavelli was appointed Secretary, before 
a month had elapsed since his election to the office of Chan- 
cellor, and during the fourteen years that he discharged the 
duties of this office, he had ample opportunities of becoming 
acquainted with the political systems of his time, and of com- 
mending himself to the favourable notice of his superiors, by 
the display of those powers of acuteness and penetration 
which he unquestionably possessed in no mean degree. That 

1 For an account of this conspiracy and its tragical end, see Koscoc, Life of Leo 
X., chap. i\ . 

296 Macchiavelli. 

he did succeed in making himself favourably noticed is suffi- 
ciently attested by the fact, that we find him employed by his 
government as ambassador in several missions of great im- 
portance, which demanded the skill of an experienced diplo- 

In 1498 he is sent to Giacomo Appiani, lord of Piombino, 
to solicit his aid against the Venetians, who, in league with 
some supporters of the banished Medici, 1 were threatening the 
Florentine territory. In the following year we find him 
treating with Catharine Sforza, Countess of Forli, for the pur- 
pose of engaging her son, Ottaviano, as Condottiero in the 
service of the Republic. But one of his most delicate missions 
was his embassy as Commissioner to the Florentine camp 
at Pisa, in the year 1500. Louis XII. of France, who had 
reconquered Lombardy, was at this time in league with the 
Florentines to oppose the Venetians and the supporters of 
the Medici. Some French and Swiss auxiliary troops, under 
General cle Beaumont, were therefore despatched by the 
French to aid the Florentines, who were besieging Pisa. A 
dispute arose between the allies regarding the pay of the auxi- 
liary troops. The Swiss mutinied, and the French abandoned 
the attack on Pisa. In consequence of this the King of France 
accused the Florentine Government of a breach of faith ; and 
Macchiavelli, with Francesco Delia Casa, was sent to appease 
him, and secure, if possible, his further assistance. They 
failed in the main object of their mission : but to such advan- 
tage did Macchiavelli employ those arts of diplomacy, which 
he afterwards taught in " The Prince" that by prejudicing the 
mind of Louis against Caesar Borgia, he secured that monarch's 
assistance in opposing the adventurer when, some months 
later, he attempted, at the head of 8,000 men, to invade the 
Tuscan territory. 

The year 1502, however, was to afford Macchiavelli the 
most signal opportunity for the display of his diplomatic 
skill. In that year he was sent to treat with Caesar Borgia, 
who was then at Imola or Bologna. The cause of this mission 
may be very briefly stated. As we said in the preceding 
paragraph, Borgia, a man of insatiable ambition, having 
attempted to invade the Tuscan territory, was peremptorily 
ordered by Louis XII. to desist from doing so, under penalty 
of seeing the French arms turned against him should he per- 
severe in his aggressive attempts. In order to avert this dis- 
aster and appease the anger of Louis, Caesar Borgia resolved 
to proceed in person to the King, who was then in Lombard}-, 
for the purpose of disposing him unfavourably towards the 

1 N 1 ifu i>f I/cu X. . chapter \. 

Macchiai'dli. 297 

Florentines. During his absence, however, his colleagues at 
home Vitelli, Oliverotto, Baglioni, and the Orsini entered 
into a conspiracy against him, and determined to overthrow 
his tyrannical rule. The more effectually to carry out their 
intention, they solicited assistance from the Florentines. 
The Florentines declined to accede to this request partly 
because they disliked Vitelli and the Orsini on account 
of former quarrels ; partly because they dreaded that 
France might side with Borgia. This was a difficult posi- 
tion for Florence. She wished to remain neutral, and 
yet displease neither of the belligerents. It reminds us 
forcibly of the position taken by England during the Franco- 
Prussian war. The Florentines almost instinctively turned 
their eyes to Macchiavelli to rescue them from this dilemma. 
His finesse, his duplicity, his penetration, his unscrupulousness 
of character, marked him at once as the man fit to treat with 
Caesar Borgia, who also possessed these qualities in no mean 
degree. The two statesmen met, and a contest in diplomatic 
hypocrisy took place, which would have gladdened the 
heart of a Talleyrand, a Cavour, or a Von Bismarck. They 
hated one the other most intensely, yet the negociations were 
opened with declarations of very great mutual esteem. Mac- 
chiavelli then, on the part of Florence, promised every assist- 
ance to Borgia as soon as circumstances would permit. 
Borgia, on his side, simulating an ardent love for the Floren- 
tines, suggested that they should give him a condotta or chief 
command in their army, for the two-fold purpose of enabling 
him to chastise his rebellious colleagues, and at some future 
period contribute his aid to consolidate the power, and ex- 
tend the influence of the Florentine Republic. To secure 
MacchiavelU's compliance with this request, he put forward 
motives of expediency as well as friendship alluding in no 
very measured terms to his own great power ; the vastness of 
his resources ; the excellency of his artillery ; the number and 
efficiency of his troops ; the alliance between himself and the 
King of France ; and other topics of similar import, which 
might easily induce a less wily politician than Niccolo Mac- 
chiavelli to comply with the demands of Caesar Borgia. But 
the Florentine diplomatist possessed great power of penetra- 
tion, and could not be easily duped. We shall give his reply 
to these proposals in his own words. In the 2 1st of the 52 
letters which he wrote to his government concerning that 
mission, he says, " I answered, that his excellency the Duke 
" must not be compared to the generality of other Italian 
" Lords, but that he must be considered as a new potentate in 
" Italy, with whom it is more fit and becoming to make a 


"treaty of alliance than a mere comlotta. And I added, 
" that as alliances are maintained by arms, which are the only 
" binding security for cither party, your lordships (the members 
" of the Florentine Government) could not see what security 
"there would be for them if three-fourths or three-fifths of 
"your forces were to be in the hands of the Duke." Borgia 
on hearing this reply must have felt that Macchiavelli, young 
though he was, could prove his equal, if not his superior, in 
diplomacy. Negotiations, nevertheless, continued, each party 
striving to gain time and defeat the plans of the other. 
Meanwhile, Borgia, accompanied by Macchiavelli, marched to 
Sinigaglia, where Vitelli, Oliverotto, and the Orsini awaited 
him, in order to open negotiations which might lead to the 
termination of the feud. No sooner, however, had his 
troops entered the city, than, with unparalleled atrocity 
and perfidy, he seized the chiefs with whom he had 
come to treat, strangled two of them that very night, 
and subsequently doomed the Orsini to a like fate, after 
having made them endure for some time a most painful 

There is considerable difference of opinion as to the part 
played by Macchiavelli in this fearful tragedy. Some would 
regard him as innocent, and maintain that he was entirely 
ignorant of the design of Caesar Borgia ; others affirm, on the 
contrary, that the crime was perpetrated with his entire con- 
currence and approval. 

Perhaps we will come nearer the truth by steering a middle 
course, and adopting on this question the views of that eminent 
historian, Roscoe, in the note to the second volume of the 
Life of Leo X. This writer had in the first volume of the work 
accused Macchiavelli of full and direct complicity in the crime 
of Caesar Borgia. In a note, however, to the second volume he 
modifies, somewhat, this opinion, though he is far from absolv- 
ing him from all guilt in this miserable transaction. We 
shall allow Roscoe to state his opinion in his own words : 
" In a former part of this work," he says, " I have charged 
Macchiavelli with having had a share in the contrivance of the 
atrocious stratagem by which Caesar Borgia destroyed Vitelli, 
the Duke of Gravina, and others, at Sinigaglia, in the year 
1 502. But the further perusal of the letters of Macchiavelli 
has induced me to modify this opinion, and enabled me precisely 
to state the part which he had in this black transaction. By 
a letter from him to the magistrates of Florence, dated 1st of 
January, 1502 (but which should be 1503, the Florent 
having, until the year 1750, continued the date of the 25th of 
March), it appears that Borgia had communicated his intcn- 


tions to Macchiavelli the day before the perpetrating of the 
deed ; and that Macchiavelli had not taken any measures to 
prevent it, either by expostulating with Borgia, or apprizing 
the parties devoted to destruction ; so that, according to 
the laws of this country, he stands in the predicament of 
what is called an accessory before the fact. It is true 
he gives us to understand that he was not apprized of 
the whole of the intentions of Borgia, but the manner 
in which he speaks of the transaction afterwards, sufficiently 
proves that he would not have shrunk from a fuller par- 
ticipation of the crime. His words are ' He sent for me 
afterwards in the night, and with the most agreeable air 
in the world, rejoiced with me on his success, saying he had 
spoken of only part of the design to me the day before, and 
had not explained it all, which is true.' In the same letter 
he proceeds, according to the desire of Borgia, to congratulate 
the Republic on this event, and to represent the advantages 
which would arise from this union." 1 From this authentic and 
dispassionate version of the matter, it is clearly evident that 
Macchiavelli was more or less implicated in the horrible 
tragedy of Sinigaglia. 

Macchiavelli returned to Florence in January, 1503, after 
having spent three months in treaty with Caesar Borgia, the 
only result of his mission being, that he secured for all citizens 
of Florence and their merchandise a free transit through the 

For the next eight years (1503-1511) we find Macchiavelli 
employed in various missions of greater or less importance. 
In the Autumn of 1503, he was sent to Rome to watch the 
election of a Pontiff, which finally resulted in the promotion of 
Julius II. to the papal chair. In January, 1504, we find him 
sent to France, to induce Louis XII. to check the Spaniards 
who were advancing from Naples towards Florence and 
Milan, thereby endangering the safety of those states. In 
1507, he was deputed to wait on the Emperor Maximilian of 
Germany, and protest in the name of the Florentines against 
the " requisitions" (a word which modern Germans have made 
too painfully familiar to the French) of his imperial majesty, 
who had ordered the Florentines to defray the expenses of 
his coronation. In 1510 and 1511, we find him engaged in 
missions to France, the main object of which was to weaken, 
by the assistance of the French, the ever-increasing power 
of Pope Julius II. in Italy. The celebrated battle of Ravenna, 
however, fought in 1512, decided this issue in a great 

1 Sec " The Life and Pontificate of Leo X.," by \Vm. Roscoe, note 41, to 
chap. xxi.. p. 489. (Bogue Ed.) 

3OO Macchiavelti. 

measure. The French, as the consequence of the battle, lost 
Italy, and Julius II., enraged at the aid given to the French 
by the Florentines, engaged the Spanish Viceroy of Naples 
to march against them and re-establish the power of the 
Medici. So prostrate was the government of Florence at the 
time, that in September, 1512, the Medici were restored to 
supreme power in that city for which they had done so much, 
and with which their name must be for ever associated. 
Thus fell the government of Florence, which, for the last 
fourteen years of its existence, had been sustained mainly 
by the skill of Macchiavelli. That his countrymen placed 
almost unlimited confidence in him, is evidenced by the fact 
that they employed him on so many missions of trust and 
importance ; but on the other hand, that he was not generally 
successful, at least in the full sense of the word, in his diplo- 
matic missions, is, we think, equally evident. Nor could it 
be otherwise ; for duplicity and cunning, though they may 
aeem for a while triumphant, almost invariably end in failure ; 
while, on the other hand, though she may meet with passing 
reverses, it is always safe to say, " magna est veritas et prae- 

It was but natural that the new government should be 
anxious to keep Macchiavelli as far removed as possible from 
Florence. He had been the mainstay of the late government, 
and it was manifest that the Medici could not retain power 
in the state if a man of Macchiavelli's influence and unscru- 
pulousness chose to plot against them. He was, therefore, 
exiled, but the sentence was after a short time commuted to 
a simple prohibition against entering the palace. A conspiracy 
formed for the purpose of overthrowing the power of the 
Medici was discovered in the year 1513, and as Macchiavelli 
was implicated in it, he was subjected to imprisonment. The 
interest of his friends, however, after some time, procured 
his release. 

Cn his restoration to freedom, Macchiavelli did not elect 
to engage again in politics. He retired to his country house 
at San Cassiano, about eight miles from Florence, determined 
to devote his time to literary pursuits. It was in this retire- 
ment that he composed his celebrated work, // Principe, in 
which he puts forward those principles which, in his judgment, 
ought to guide a sovereign in ruling his people. A more 
infamous work was never, perhaps, penned. We shall say no 
more of it at present, as we intend to deal with it to some 
extent further on in this paper. We will only observe that 
the work was not printed during the author's lifetime, but was 
intended merely for the private perusal of Ciuliano and 

Macchiavelli. 301 

Lorenzo de' Medici, that he might thus ingratiate himself with 
them, and obtain some public office at their hands. " I wish," 
he says, in a letter dated December loth, 1513, and addressed 
to his friend Vittori, Florentine ambassador at Rome, "that 
these Signori Medici would employ me, were it only in rolling 
a stone." 1 This sentence thoroughly reveals the character of 
Macchiavelli. He was insensible to every feeling save that 
of ambition. If he could obtain power by aiding the enemies 
of the Medici he was prepared to do so ; did he wish to creep 
into any public office through the influence of that family, 
he could sink to any depth of degradation, stifle every feeling 
of honor and self-respect, and become the most obsequious 
of flatterers. 

Macchiavelli's time, during the period of his retirement, 
was divided between recreation and study. His recreations 
seem to have been of a somewhat puerile description, for in a 
letter to his friend Vittori, he tells us that he amused himself by 
snaring thrushes, and playing at cricca with a butcher, a miller, 
and two kiln men ; " but," he adds, " when evening comes, I 
return home and shut myself up in my study. Before I make 
my appearance in it, I take off my rustic garb, soiled with mud 
and dirt, and put on a dress adapted for courts or cities. 
Thus fitly habited, I enter the antique resorts of the ancients, 
where, being kindly received, I feed upon that food which 
alone is mine, and for which I was born. For an interval of 
four hours I feel no annoyance ; I forget every grief, I neither 
fear poverty nor death, but am totally immersed." In the 
original Italian the style is natural and easy, but the letter 
breathes throughout a contempt for mankind a feeling of 
gloomy despair arising from the reverses of fortune a cold, 
cutting feeling of irony, and all those sad feelings which may 
find a seat in a gifted, but never in a great, soul. There was 
manifestly some void in the heart of Macchiavelli, which alone, 
when supplied, could lift him up from his existing state of 
despondency. He had a generous heart, a clear head. One 
thing was wanting to him to be a Christian. 

In the year 1576 Macchiavelli wrote his " Discorsi su Tito 
Livio," which is a sort of commentary on the First Decade of 
Livy, wherein he develops the principles of popular govern- 
ment, and shows himself a most warm supporter of what he 
is pleased to style " liberty." About the same time he pub- 
lished his " Storie Florentine," a history of Florence from 
1205 to 1494. The commencement of this work, in which he 
describes the origin of the different Italian States, is well 

1 This letter wa not brought to light until 1810. 

302 Macchiircclli. 

written, and contains much valuable information ; but it lacks 
impartiality, as he seeks to flatter his countrymen too much, 
while he unduly depreciates the characters of other peoples. 
About this time, too, he composed his " Arte della Guerra," 
or Art of War, with various minor poetical effusions ; but we 
forbear noticing these until we come to treat of Macchiavelli 
as a writer. 

The correspondence which Macchiavelli maintained with 
his friend Vittori, the Florentine Ambassador at Rome, served 
to bring him under the favourable notice of Leo X. The 
death of his nephew Lorenzo de' Medici, on the 28th of April, 
1519, imposed on the sovereign Pontiff the necessity of 
regulating the affairs of Florence, which, though nominally 
a Republic, had become virtually entirely dependent on the 
Medici family. This was an affair of considerable difficulty. 
On the one hand, had Leo so elected, he might have assumed 
the sovereignty of Florence ; but then such a proceeding 
would have ill-suited his spiritual character as Pontiff, and 
would, moreover, be certain to excite the jealousy of other 
Catholic powers. On the other hand, if he were to restore the 
Florentines to the full enjoyment of their former liberties, 
he would thereby surrender all the power and influence 
which his family had for so many years enjoyed in that state, 
and that too, when it was far from certain that the Florentine 
Republic would be equal to the task of preserving its 
freedom, did the Pontiff think fit to bestow it. In this press- 
ing emergency the Pope had recourse to Macchiavelli, whose 
experience in public affairs and intimate acquaintance with 
the state of his native city pointed him out as one pre- 
eminently fitted to be consulted on such a critical occasion. 
Macchiavelli sent Pope Leo a memorial still extant (opere di 
Macchiavelli publicate da Baretti iii. i.), in which he gives 
him his views on the "situation." In the memorial Macchia- 
velli maintains that of the three forms of government 
Republican, Monarchical, and Mixed, the intermediate is the 
most dangerous. His reason is this a Republic can be 
dissolved in one way only viz., by merging into Monarchy. 
A Monarchical government, strictly so called, can be destroyed 
only by a Republic ; but a mixed goverment, such as 
Florence was under the Medici, might be destroyed by either 
of two courses viz., by leaning too much towards Repub- 
licism, or by favouring despotism. Macchiavelli, therefore, 
advises the Pontiff either to assume absolute sovereignty in 
Florence, or else make it a free or perfectly independent 
Republic. He proceeds to say that the choice must be 

Macchiiivdli. 303 

determined by the character of the people to be governed, 
and he hesitates not to suggest that a Republican form of 
government would be best suited to the Florentines. He 
next sketches the outlines of a form of government which he 
calls a " Republic," but in which, with his usual sycophancy, 
he gives such powers to the Pope and the Cardinal de' 
Medici that, at least during their lives, it would be nothing 
better than autocracy of the purest type. " If this plan," he 
says himself, " be considered without reference to the authority 
of your holiness, it will be found in every respect sufficient to 
answer the purpose intended ; but during the lifetime of 
your Holiness and the Cardinal, it is a Monarchy, because 
you command the army, you control the criminal judicature, 
you dictate the laws, insomuch that I know not what more 
can be required in a state." The system, however, prepared 
by Macchiavelli, did not meet with the approval of Leo X., 
and he permitted the Florentines to retain their estab- 
lished form of government, merely reserving to himself 
such powers as would suffice to repress their internal dis- 
sensions, and secure the rights of the Medici family and of the 
Holy See. 

The next important event in the life of Macchiavelli 
occurred in the Pontificate of Clement VII. At this time, 
the Emperor Charles V., and the Constable of Bourbon, were 
leading the imperial troops to sack Florence and Rome. 
Macchiavelli was left at the former city to urge on the work 
of fortification, which task he executed with great energy. 
Meantime Bourbon did not attack Florence, but pushed on to 
the sack of Rome, which city he took by assault, attended 
by circumstances of appaling barbarity. The Italian armies 
began to advance towards Rome to deliver the sovereign 
Pontiff, who was beseiged in Castel San Angelo. Macchia- 
velli followed in their train, but hearing that a successful 
revolution at Florence, May i6th, 1512, had overthrown the 
power of the Medici, he hastened to that city, full of hope that 
he would be employed in some capacity by the new govern- 
ment. In this, however, he was deceived ; as the Florentines, 
disgusted with his political perfidy, refused to repose confi- 
dence in a man who had given repeated proof that he sought 
power, not to advance the interests of his country, but to 
gratify an insatiable ambition. Thus distrusted and despised 
by his former friends, Macchiavelli fell ill, and after a sickness of 
only two days' duration, died June 22nd, 1 527, in the 59th year 
of his age. A letter from one of his sons to Vittori announc- 
ing the event, states that he died in the greatest poverty, and 
fortified by the last sacraments. Let us hope that the latter 

304 Letters of Balmez. 

statement is accurate, though we fear it wants confirmation. 
He was buried in the church of Santa Croce in Florence, 
where a monument was erected to his memory by Earl 
Cowper, anno 1787. 

Having traced Macchiavelli's personal and political history, 
we must next analyze the political maxims which are 
identified with his name, but to do so in the present number 
would extend too far the limits of this paper. 

W. H. 
( To be continued.) 



MY ESTEEMED FRIEND I confess the difficulty proposed 
in your last letter, though not so insurmountable as you 
imagine, is, superficially considered, plausible enough. It has, 
besides, the peculiar circumstances, of being apparently 
founded on a principle of justice. This makes it the more 
dangerous ; because the principles and sentiments of justice 
are so deeply engraven on his soul, that man, when he can 
depend on them, believes himself authorised in attacking 

I admit at once that justice and religion cannot be enemies ; 
and that any belief whatever opposed to the eternal principles 
of justice, should be rejected as false. Having thus admitted 
one of the bases on which your difficulty rests, I cannot 
admit the force of the difficulty itself, for the simple reason 
that it is founded on purely gratuitous suppositions. I do 
not know in what catechism you can have read that the 
Catholic dogma teaches that children who die without 
bapism are tormented for ever in the fire of hell. 
On my part, I must frankly confess, I had no knowledge of 
the existence of such a dogma, and, consequently, it has not 
produced in me the horror you experienced. I am inclined to 
suppose you suffer, like many others, from a great confusion 
of ideas on this important and delicate subject, and I feel 
the necessity of arranging them in some way for you, as far 
as the hurry of discussion to which the incessant shifting of 
my adversary condemns me, will permit. 

It is absolutely false that the Church teaches as an article 

L f tiers of BalmfX. 305 

of faith children who die without baptism are condemned 
to the punishment of fire, or any other pain of sense. It is 
enough to open the works of our theologians to find it acknow- 
ledged by them that the pain of sense applied to such children 
is no dogma of faith ; but, on the contrary, the great majority 
of them defend the opposite opinion. It would be easy to 
adduce innumerable texts in support of this assertion ; but I 
consider it unnecessary, for you can assure yourself of the 
truth of the fact by hurriedly running over the index of any 
theological work, and examining the opinions there put 

I am aware there have been some respectable authors who 
opined in favor of the pain of sense ; but I repeat they are in 
a great minority ; and above all, I insist that the opinion of 
those authors is not a dogma of the Church, and I reject the 
charges directed on this head against the Catholic faith. No 
matter how wise or holy a doctor of the Church may be, his 
opinion is not sufficient authority to found a dogma : between 
the doctrine of an author and the teaching of the Church there 
is the same distance as between the doctrine of man and the 
teaching of God. 

For Catholics the authority of the Church is infallible, 
because it has the assistance of the Holy Ghost assured to it. 
We have recourse to it in all our doubts and difficulties, and 
in this consists the principal difference between Protestants 
and us. They appeal to the private spirit, which in the end 
is nothing but the cavillations of weak reason, or the sugges- 
tions of pride ; we appeal to the divine spirit, manifested 
through the channel established by God himself, which is the 
authority of the Church. 

You will ask me what the destiny of those children is who 
are deprived of glory, and yet not punished with the pain 
of sense; and perhaps you may find the difficulty renewed, 
though in a less painful form, from the mere fact of their not 
attaining eternal happiness. At first sight it appears very 
hard to think that children incapable of committing actual sin 
should be excluded from glory, because their original sin was 
not blotted out by the regenerating waters of baptism ; but 
entering more deeply into the question, we discover in this 
neither injustice nor harshness, but solely the result of an 
order of things established by God, and of which no one has 
a right to complain. 

Eternal felicity, which according to the Catholic dogma, 
consists in the intuitive vision of God, is not natural to man 
or to any creature. It is a supernatural state, at which we 
cannot arrive but through supernatural aid. GoJ, without 

306 Letters of Balmez. 

being harsh or unjust, might not have elevated any creature 
to the beatific vision, but have established rewards of a purely 
naturalor der either in this life or in the next. Hence it 
results that the privation of the beatific vision in a certain 
number of creatures, does not argue injustice or harshness in 
the decrees of God ; on the supposition that it might have 
occurred with regard to all created beings, and would have 
occurred if the infinite goodness of the Creator had not desired 
to raise them to a state superior to their nature. 

I foresee you will reply that the state of things is now very 
different ; and though it is true the beatific vision would not 
have been a pain to creatures who had no knowledge of it, 
yet it is a pain now, and a grievous one, to those who 
feel themselves excluded from it. I admit that this 
privation is a pain of original sin, but not that it is as grievous 
as you wish to suppose. To hold this it would be necessary 
to determine how far those who suffer it are aware of the 
privation, and the disposition they are in to lament the loss 
of a good they could have attained through baptism. 

St. Thomas very seasonably remarks there is a great 
difference between the effect the loss of the beatific vision must 
produce on children, and thatwhich the damned experience from 
it. The latter had free will, with which, aided by grace, they 
could merit eternal glory. The former departed this life 
before they came to the use of reason : it was possible for 
those to obtain that of which they feel deprived, but not so for 
those who, without the concurrence of their will, found them- 
selves translated to another world, in which there are no means 
of meriting eternal blessedness. Children who die without 
baptism are in the same caseas those who are born in an inferior 
station, in which they cannot participate in certain social 
advantages enjoyed by their more fortunate neighbours. This 
difference does not afflict them, and they resign themselves 
without difficulty to the state in which they were born. 

As regards the knowledge unbaptised children have of their 
situation, it is probable they do not even know there is such a 
thing as beatific vision, and so cannot be afflicted at their 
privation of it. This is the opinion of St. Thomas,- who holds 
that these children have a general but not a specific knowledge 
of felicity, and consequently do not grieve at having lost it : 
" Cognoscunt quiderrt beatitudinem in gencrali, secundum 
communem rationem, non autem in spcciali, ideoque de ejus 
amissione non dolent." 

" To be for ever separated from God must be a great afflic- 
tion to these children ; because, as we cannot suppose them 
deprived of all knowledge of their Author, they must have a 

Letters of Baltnes. 307 

lively desire of seeing Him, and must experience profound 
pain on finding themselves excluded from that good for all 
eternity." This argument supposes the very fact denied above, 
viz., that these children have a knowledge of the supernatural 
order. St. Thomas denies it roundly : he says they are per- 
petually separated from God by the loss of glory of which 
they are ignorant, but not as regards the participation of 
natural good which they know : " Pueri in original! peccato 
decedentes sunt quidem separati a Deo perpetuo, quantum ad 
amissionem gloriae quam ignorant ; non tamen quantum ad 
participationem natnralium bononun, quse cognoscunt." 

Some theologians, among whom Ambrose Catherinus is 
reckoned, have gone so far as to hold that these children have 
a sort of natural blessedness, but do not explain in what it 
consists, for the simple reason that in cases like this, one can 
argue from conjectures alone. Nevertheless, I will remark 
that this doctrine has not been condemned by the Church ; 
and it is worthy of note, that St. Thomas himself, so measured 
in all his words, says that these children are united to God 
by the participation of natural good ; and so can enjoy Him 
by a natural knowledge and love: "Sibi (Deo) conjungentur 
per participationem naturalium bonorum ; et ita etiam de 
ipso gander e poterunt naturali cognitione ct dilcctione (2 D. 33, 
Q. 2 ar. 2 ad. 5). 

Now you see the matter is not so terrible as you imagined, 
and the Church does not delight in representing the children 
who die without baptism as consigned to fearful torments. 
St. Thomas very appositely compares the pain of these child- 
ren to that of those who, in their absence, are despoiled of 
property without their knowledge. In this explanation the 
reality of the pain is reconciled with the absence of affliction 
in him who suffers it ; and the dogmas of original sin and of 
the pain which follows it remain intact, while we are not 
compelled to imagine an immense number of children 
tormented for all eternity, when on their own part they were 
unable to commit any act that could ^deserve it. 

I have thus far confined myself to the defence of the 
Catholic dogma, and to the exposition of the doctrines of 
theologians ; and I think I have shown that as the former 
limits itself to the simple privation of the beatific vision through 
effect of original sin unremoved by baptism, it is far from 
contradicting the principles of justice or involving the harsh- 
ness of which you accused it. Naturally, theologians avail 
themselves of this latitude to emit various opinions more or 
less well founded ; and on which it is difficult to form a fair 
judgment, as we require data revelation alone could supply 

308 Letters of Balmcs. 

us with. However the doctrine of St. Thomas, which says 
that these children can have a knowledge and love of God in 
the purely natural order, and so rejoice in Him, appears very 
rational. As they are free and intelligent creatures, we 
cannot suppose them deprived of the exercise of their 
faculties ; for then we should be compelled to consider their 
minds as inert substances, not by nature, but because their 
intellectual and moral powers were smothered. And as, on 
the other hand, it is admitted they do not suffer the pain of 
sense, nor grieve from that of loss, we must necessarily allow 
them the affections which in every being naturally result 
from the exercise of its faculties. 

I remain your most affectionate friend, 

J. B. 


MY ESTEEMED FRIEND I am exceedingly glad my last 
letter removed the horror with which you heretofore regarded 
what you considered the Catholic dogma in relation to children 
who die without baptism, and showed you that you attributed 
to the Church a doctrine she never recognised as hers. Your 
evident mistake on this point will render it less difficult to 
persuade you you are equally mistaken in regard to her doc- 
trine about the fate of those who die outside her bosom. You 
believe it is a dogma of our religion that all who do not live 
in the bosom of the Catholic Church will, for that mere fact, 
be condemned to eternal punishment : this is an error we do 
not profess, and cannot profess, because it is offensive to 
divine justice. In order to proceed with proper order and 
clearness, I must briefly explain the Catholic doctrine on this 

God is just ; and being so, He cannot and will not chastise 
the innocent : where there is no sin, there is not and cannot 
be any penalty. 

Sin, St. Augustine says, is so voluntary, that if it cease to 
be voluntary, it is no longer sin. The will required to render 
us culpable in the eyes of God, must be free. To constitute 
a fault, the will would not be sufficient, if it were not free. 

The exercise of liberty cannot be conceived, if it be not 
accompanied by corresponding deliberation ; and this implies 
a knowledge of what is done, and of the law which is observed 
or infringed. An unknown law cannot be obligatory. 

/. t tiers of B( i hncz. 309 


Ignorance of the law is culpable in some cases ; that is to 
say, when he who labours under it could have conquered it, 
then the infraction of the law is not excusable through igno- 

The Church, the column and foundation of truth, the depo- 
sitory of the august teaching of her Divine Master, does not 
admit the error that all religions are indifferent in the eyes of 
God, and that a man can be saved in any of them, and so is 
not obliged to seek the truth in a matter of such consequence. 
The Church most justly condemns these monstrosities, and 
cannot do less than condemn them under pain of denying 
herself. To say that all religions are indifferent in the sight of 
God, is equivalent to saying that all are true, which, in the 
end, is no more than to say that all are equally false. A 
religion which, while teaching dogmas opposed to those of 
other religions, should regard all as equally true, would be the 
greatest of absurdities a living contradiction. 

The Catholic Church considers herself the true Church, 
founded by Jesus Christ, illumined and vivified by the Holy 
Ghost, the depository of dogmas and morals, and charged with 
the duty of conducting men by the path of virtue to eternal 
blessedness. On this supposition she proclaims the obligation 
under which we all stand, of living and dying in her bosom, 
professing one faith, receiving grace through her sacraments, 
obeying her legitimate pastors, and particularly the Roman 
Pontiff, the successor of St. Peter, and Vicar of Jesus Christ 
on earth. 

This is the teaching of the Church ; and I see nothing solid 
that can be objected to it, even examining the question within 
the sphere of philosophy. Of the principles enunciated above, 
some are known by simple natural reason, others by revelation. 
To the first class belong those which refer to divine justice 
and the liberty of man ; to the second those which treat of 
the authority and infallibility of the Church. These latter, 
considered in themselves, contain nothing contrary to the 
divine justice and mercy ; because it is evident that God, 
without being wanting to any of these attributes, could have 
instituted a body as the depository of the truth, and subjected 
it to the laws and conditions He should deem fit in the in- 
scrutable secrets of His infinite wisdom. 

Up to this we have examined the question of right, or doc- 
trine, if you will ; let us descend now to the question of fact, 
in which your difficulties are founded. We must not lose sight 
of the difference between these two questions : doctrines are 
one thing, their application another. The former are clear, 
explicit, conclusive ; the latter partakes of the obscurity to 

3 1 o /- cttcrs of Balmcz. 

which facts are subject, the exact appreciation of which de- 
pends on many and various circumstances. 

We hold it as certain that no man shall be condemned solely 
for not belonging to the Catholic Church, if he have been in 
invincible ignorance of the truth of religion, and consequently 
of the law which obliged him to embrace it. This is so cer- 
tain that the following proposition of Baius was condemned : 
" Purely negative incredulity is a sin." The doctrine of the 
Church on this point is founded on very simple principles : 
there is no sin without liberty ; there is no liberty without 

When, in relation to this question, does the knowledge 
necessary to constitute a true fault in the eyes of God, exist ? 
Who are invincible, who in invincible ignorance ? Among 
schismatics, among Protestants, among infidels, how far does 
invincible ignorance go ? Who are culpable in the eyes of God 
for not embracing the true religion, and who innocent ? These 
are questions of fact, to which the teaching of the Church does 
not descend. She says nothing about these points : she limits 
herself to establishing the general doctrine, and leaves its 
application to the justice and mercy of God. 

Allow me to call your attention to this difference, which is 
not always attended to as it should. Infidels shower on us 
questions about the fate of those who do not belong to the 
Catholic Church, and, as it were, require us to save them all, 
under penalty of accusing our dogmas of being offensive to 
the justice and mercy of God. With this they spread for us 
a net into which the incautious may easily fall, by running 
into one of two extremes, either by sending to hell all those 
who do not belong to the Church, or by opening the gates of 
heaven to men of all religions. The first can spring from 
zeal to save our dogma about the necessity of faith for 
salvation, the second from a spirit of condescension, and the 
desire of defending the Catholic dogma from the imputation 
of harshness or injustice. I believe there is no necessity of 
running into either of these extremes, and that the Catholic's 
position is much less embarrassing than would appear at 
first sight. Is he asked about doctrine, or, to use other words, 
about the question of right ? He can present the Catholic 
dogma with entire security that no one can accuse it of 
being contrary to reason. Is he asked about the question 
of fact ? He may frankly confess his ignorance, and 
can involve in it the infidel himself, who certainly knows 
no more about it than the Catholic whom he attacks. 

To convince you of how unembarrassed our position is, so 
that we know how to take our stand and defend ourselves 

Letters of Ijalmt'z. 311 

constantly in it, I shall present you with a dialogue between 
an Infidel and a Catholic : 

Infidel The Catholic dogma is unjust, because it damns 
those who do not live in the Church, although there are many 
who can have no knowledge of the true religion. 

Catholic That is false ; when there is invincible ignorance 
there is no sin, and the Church, far from teaching what you 
say, rather teaches the contrary. Those who have invincible 
ignorance of the divine origin of the Catholic Church, are not 
culpable in the eyes of God for not entering it. 

Infidel But when in whom is this invincible ignorance 
found ? Mark a limit which can separate these two things, 
according to the different circumstances in which men and 
nations may be placed ? 

Catholic Will you have the goodness to mark it for me ? 

Infidel I do not know it. 

Catholic Nor I, and so we are equal. 

Infidel True ; but you speak of damnation, and I do not. 

Catholic Certainly ; but recollect that we only speak of 
damnation with respect to the culpable, and I think no one 
will dare deny that sin deserves punishment ; but when you 
come to ask me who and how many are culpable, the ignorance 
is equal on the side of both. I confine myself to the doctrine : 
as to its application, I limit myself to asking who are the 
culpable. If you cannot tell, it is unjust of you to require me 
to do so. 

From this short dialogue we see there are here two things : 
on the one hand, the dogma, which, besides being taught by 
the Church, is in conformity with sound reason ; on the other, 
the ignorance of men, who are not sufficiently acquainted with 
the secrets of conscience to be ever able to exactly determine 
in what individuals, in what people, in what circumstances, 
does ignorance cease to be invincible, and constitute a grave 
fault in the eyes of God. 

There is nothing more easy than to form conjectures about 
the fate of schismatics, of Protestants, and even of infidels : 
there is nothing more difficult than to lay these conjectures 
on solid foundations. God, who has revealed to us what is 
necessary for our sanctification in this life and our happiness 
in the future, has not thought fit to satisfy our curiosity by 
making us acquainted with things which would be of no service 
to us. These shades with which the dogmas of religion are 
surrounded, are highly advantageous to us, by exercising our 
submission and humility, by placing our ignorance before our 
eyes, and by reminding us of the primitive degeneration of 
the human race. To ask why God has brought the light of 

312 St. Aidan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 

truth to some nations, and allowed others to continue in dark* 
ness, is equivalent to investigating the reason of the secrets of 
Providence, and trying to rend the veil which covers the mys 
teries of the past and future from our eyes. We know God is 
just, and at the same time merciful : we feel our weakness, 
and are aware of His omnipotence. In our mode of conceiv- 
ing, we often meet with serious difficulties in reconciling justice 
with mercy ; and we can scarcely understand how a being 
supremely weak is not made the victim of a being infinitely 
strong. These difficulties are dissipated before the light of a 
severe, profound reflection, exempt from prejudices with which 
the inspirations of sentiment blind us. And if, owing to our 
weakness, some shadows still remain, let us wait, and they 
shall vanish in the other life, when, freed from this mortal body 
that weighs down our soul, we shall see God as He is in Him- 
self, and witness the friendly embrace of Mercy and Truth, 
and the sanctified kiss of Justice and Peace. 

I remain your most affectionate, 

J. B. 



T. Aidan, 2 one of the most illustrious saints who adorned 
the Irish Church in the sixth century, was born at Innis- 
Breagh-Muigh, a small island in Brackley Lough, 8 in the terri- 
tory of east Breffny (the north-west of the modern county of 
Cavan), about the year 530. His father's name was Sedna, 
through whom his lineage went back to the Colla Uais, 

1 See on the subject of this article an important and interesting paper of 
Miss Stokes, " On two works of ancient Irish Art, known as the Breac Moedog, and 
the Soiscd Molaise," communicated to the Society of Antiquaries, London, and 
published in the Archaeologia, 1871, vol. xliii. 

1 This is the usual Anglicised form of the saint's name. The original Irish 
name was Acdh, sometimes written Aodh, which in various Latin works became 
Aeda, Aidus, Aiduus, Aedeus, Oedeus, or Edus. The diminutive termination, an 
or og, being often added in Irish proper names, we find our saint in some ancient 
tracts called Aedhan or Oedhan, and Aedhog, which in Latin was modified into 
Afdan, Hedanus, Aidanus, and Edanus. See"J?eeves' Proceedings of the R. I. A., 
Dec. 14, 1863 ;" Colgan, " Acta SS." p. 216. Dr. Todd writes : " His Irish 
name was Aedhan, the diminutive of Aedh, or Hugh ; from which he was called 
indifferently, Aedan or Aedhog, i.e., ' little Aodh,' a mode adopted by the Irish of 
expressing affection." Martyrology of Christ 's Church, I. A. S. t 1844, p. xlvii. 

* Colgan writes : " Insula Brechmuigh est Diaecesis Kilmorensis sita in stagno 
qnodam in regiuncula Breffniae, Tellach-ethach vulgo appellata. "/. fit. 

S/. Aidan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 3 1 3 

the ancestor of the most illustrious clans of the Oirghialla ; 
whilst through his mother, Ethne, he was connected with the 
race of Amhalgaidh, whose descendants gave name to the 
territory of Tirawley in the county of Mayo. 

The name of Aedh (i.e. fire), which was given to him at 
baptism, as well as its endearing form, Moedoc, 1 had its origin 
in two visions of a heavenly light which a little before his 
birth, were seen by his parents, and foreshadowed his future 
greatness. Some holy men being asked to explain these visions, 
replied "Asa star led the wise men to worship Christ, so 
shall a son be born to you full of the fire of the Holy Ghost." 

The spot where the saint was born continued for a long time 
illumined with a more than human splendour : also, the flag- 
stone on which the water of his Baptism was poured, was 
regarded as hallowed in a special manner, it was jealously 
guarded in his church for a thousand years, and popular 
tradition preserved the memory of innumerable cures per- 
formed at it through the intercession of St. Aidan. The 
Martyrology of Donegal also records that Ethne, when giving 
birth to our saint, held in her hand a spinster's distaff, which 
was a withered hard stickof hazel, but subsequently it put forth 
leaves and blossoms, and was covered with goodly fruit ; and 
the writer of the martyrology adds, " this hazel is still in 
existence as a green tree, without decay or withering, pro- 
ducing nuts every year in Innis-Breach-mhaige." 2 

From his infancy he was remarkable for miracles, and ere 
he attained the years of manhood, his fame for sanctity was 
widespread throughout all Ireland. 8 Two facts connected with 
his youth are mentioned in his ancient life, which merit special 
mention. On one occasion he had retired to a lonely spot, 
where he was engaged in study and prayer. Thither a weary 
deer fled, as if seeking his protection from the hounds that 
pursued it. Our saint, taking the waxen tablet on which he 
wrote, placed it between the horns of the animal, and this 
sufficed to save it from its pursuers and render it invisible till the 
hounds passed by. Another time, some pious men, directed 

1 Moedot is a contraction for Afo-Atdh-og, i.e., "My little Aedh." Colgan thus 
writes : " Venerationis et amoris causa solebant nominibus propriis praefigere 
syllabam mo; vel ubi incipiebant nomina a vocali sol inn praefigebant litteram m : 
ct hinc Aedhoc, Oedhoc, appellahant Maedhoc et Moedhoc." Ibid. Thus, accord- 
ing to the ordinary changes, the name became Afaedof, Afafiihocc, and J\fa<>Mi>., : in 
Latin Afodofus, Alaulivns, and in Kngli>h, Afaidoc, Afoiioche, AMvck, Madoes, 
it; and Afoeg. See Alban Butler's "Lives," &c., at January 31 : Reeves, 
loc. til. 

The Afartyrology of Donegal, edited by DD. Todd and Reeves, for the I. A. S., 
in 1864, p. 33. 

1 " Coepit fama sanctitatis ejus multum ubique terrarum Hiberniae vulgari." 
Colgan, Acta SS. p. 208. 

314 Sf. Aidan, tiisliop and Patron of Fern*. 

by heaven, came to St. Aidan asking him to choose for them 
a spot where they might lead a life of penance, and await 
their resurrection. St. Aidan asked them had they heard 
the bell of any monastery as they travelled along. They 
replied that they had not ; then, setting out with them, 
he pointed out the place which God had marked for their 
resurrection, and there these holy men continued for the re- 
mainder of their lives in the practices of piety and penance. 
Miss Stokes, in the valuable paper on the shrine of St. Moedoc, 
already mentioned, having referred to this fact, adds the fol- 
lowing remarks : 

" Among these early Christians it was a favourite custom 
to seek the knowledge of the place they should be buried in 
from some holy man gifted with the spirit of prophecy, that 
in that spot they might erect their church and monastic 
establishment, there to live, and there to remain after death, 
until the day of the resurrection; and with them the burying- 
place was not called grave, or tomb, but 'the place of 
resurrection/ as if in the minds of these men the thought of 
death and the fear that springs from the contemplation of 
it, had been absorbed in the first fresh joy of the hope of the 
life eternal." 

It was at the school of Clonard that the youthful Aidan 
was trained in the higher paths of perfection and of science. 
St. Finnian, a little time before, had founded that great 
monastery, and so many were the saints who came forth 
from his school to adorn our island by their virtues and 
learning, that he is styled in our annals " the foster-father of 
the saints of Ireland," and his monastery was celebrated as 
" a holy city full of wisdom and virtue." 1 " Like the sun in the 
firmament (thus runs his ancient life), St. Finian enlightened 
the world with the rays of his virtues, wholesome doctrine, 
and miracles. For the fame of his good works invited many 
illustrious men from divers parts of the world to his school, 
as to a holy repository of all wisdom, partly to study the 
sacred scriptures, and partly to be instructed in ecclesiastical 
discipline." 2 

In this holy school of Clonard, St. Aidan formed a close 
friendship with St. Molaise of Devenish, and several facts 
mentioned in the ancient lives of both saints prove that that 
friendship lasted till death. On one occasion we find St. 
Molaise advising a sorrowing woman to turn for assistance to 
" Moedoc the most blessed." Her sons had been drowned 

'i Annals of the Four Masters, ad. an. 548, and Martyrology of 
Donegal, p. 335. 
* Ware's Antiquities, p 241., Cogans Diocese of Meath, I, 9. teq. 

Sf. Aidan, Bishop and Patron of Finis. 3 1 5 

in Lough Erne, and she had sought help of many saints, in 
the hope that at least their bodies might be found. St. 
Molaise told her to go to the shore of the lake, and there to 
await the coming of Moedoc. She hastened to the place, and 
straightway Moedoc came to her, and then, weeping bitterly, 
she told her sad talc. Moedoc, knowing that his friend St. 
Molaise had prophesied the return of her sons to life, and 
trusting in his sanctity, boldly entered the waters of the lake, 
and drew forth the young men alive, " wherefore their father, 
who was a powerful chieftain, offered to the saint one of his 
sons, with his children and posterity, as a perpetual gift to 
St. Moedoc for the honour of God." 1 

On another occasion, towards the close of their school-days, 
the devoted friends Moedoc and Molaise were seated beneath 
the shadow of two trees, and they prayed to God to make 
known to them whether they might continue together, or 
whether it was His will that they should separate and work 
apart. While they thus prayed, the tree which stood over 
St. Molaise fell towards the north, while the tree beneath 
which St. Moedoc was fell towards the south. Then, filled 
with the divine spirit, they said one to another " This token 
for parting is given to us by God, and we shall go as these 
trees have fallen ;" so " embracing each other, and weeping, 
the two friends parted, and St. Molaise turned towards the 
northern region of Ireland where he founded the celebrated 
monastery of Devenish in Lough Erne, while St. Moedoc went 
southwards, where, in after times, he became the founder of 
Ferns, in the province of Leinstcr." 

Whilst yet a youth, St. Aidan was led away a hostage with 
many more of the territory of the Hiia-Brinn? by Ainmuire, 
who subsequently was monarch of all Ireland. Our saint, 
when brought before him, appeared beautiful with the come- 
liness of God's grace (apparuit gratia Dei in vultu pueri 
Moedoc), so that the prince said to his attendants : " This 
youth is comely indeed ; should he consent to remain with 
me, he must be one of my royal court ; but if he is anxious 
to depart, let him be at once set free and restored to his 
parents." The blessed Aidan, filled with the Holy Ghost, 
replied : " O king, if thou wishest thus to favour me, I pray 
thee, through the mercy of that God whom alone I wish to 
serve, to set free all those who have been my companions 
as hostages under thy charge." Ainmuire granted the request, 
only asking in return the prayers of Aidan, foretelling at the 

1 / it. S. Maidc*. ap., Colgan, p. 209, Stokes loc. cit.. p. 3. 
* The Hua-liriuH were the descendants of Brian, son ol" Eochaidh Majjhniedlnn 
and at this time ruled over part of Breffny. 

316 St. Aldan, Bishop and Matron of Ferns. 

same time that one day he would be a great pillar of the Irish 
Church. 1 

Abiding for awhile in his native district, many resorted to 
him for counsel, and wished to become his disciples. Desiring 
to shun such honours, he was preparing to depart, but Aedh 
Finn, the chieftain of the Hy-Briuin, opposed his project, 
being unwilling that his territory should be deprived of the 
presence of the saint. " Do not detain me," said the holy man 
to Aedh, " and I pray that the blessings of Paradise may be 
your eternal portion." No entreaty however could avail, and 
it was only by a special manifestation of divine power that St. 
Moedoc could at length obtain permission to depart. The 
chieftain who thus sought to detain our saint in the district of 
Breffny, had been baptized by him, and in Baptism received 
the sirname of Finn, i.e. " the white," or " beautiful," whereas 
hitherto he had borne the name of Aedh Dubh, i.e. "Aedh 
the black." From him the two great families of the O'Reilly's 
and the O'Rorke's are descended, both of whom continued for 
centuries to honour St. Moedoc as their Patron. 

The life of St. Aidan also mentions another instance in 
which, at this period of his life, heaven interposed in his 
favour. He was journeying along Mount Beatha (famous for 
its shrine of St. Dympna,) on the confines of Monaghan and 
Fermanagh, wishing to arrive at Ardrinnygh, to visit there a 
holy man named Airedum, who enjoyed great fame for 
sanctity ; 2 but darkness set in, and he could no longer discern 
the path to pursue his journey. Betaking himself to prayer, he 
found himself borne by the hands of angels to the centre of the 
town he sought for, and in memory of this prodigy a cross was 
subsequently erected on the spot, which, at the time when the 
life was written, was still called " the Cross of St. Moedoc." 

The monastery of St. David, at Kilmuine, in Wales, was 
at this time a favourite resort for Irish pilgrims. Thither 
too went St Aidan, and during the years that he resided 
there, such was the odour of his sanctity, and such was the 
esteem in which he was held by that great master of virtue, 
St. David, that his history became thenceforward interwoven 
with the history of Menevia, and his abode in Britain is not 

1 Columnam magnam Ecclesiae, Colgan, " Acta SS.," p. 208. Some have- 
supposed, from the words of the Life, " Rex Temoriae Anmyreus," that Ainmuire 
was already monarch of Ireland when Aidan was led away a hostage by him. 
This, however, is wholly inconsistent with the chronology of our saint's life, as we 
will see further on. Ainmuire did not become monarch of Ireland till the year 
568 ( Reeves' " Adamnan, " p. 32), but the writer of our saint's life, even when 
speaking of earlier events, might well style him so, from the dignity to which he 
afterwards attained. 

* Capgrave in vit. S. Aidi. St. Airedum is mentioned in the Martyrologiv 
Tallaght and Marian ( )'Ciorman, on 26th of August. 

S/. Ai</<in, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 317 

only related in his own acts but in those of St. David and St. 
Cadoc. Among other remarkable facts we find it recorded 
that the Anglo Saxons made an inroad at this time into Wales. 
The Britains, though taken unawares, rushed to arms, and 
sent messengers to St. David, praying him to send St. Aidan 
to the field of battle to bless their army. At the bidding of 
the abbot, the blessed Aidan hastened thither and prostrated 
himself in prayer, whilst the Britains rushed on to battle. 
The invaders were at once seized with panic and fled. For 
two days the victorious Britains pursued them with great 
slaughter, whilst not one of their own men was slain. And 
the Life adds: "the Anglo Saxons abstained from further 
inroads as long as Moedoc continued in Menevia, for they 
were persuaded that the miracle was due to his prayers." 

After some years spent in the practice of piety, under the 
guidance of St. David, our saint, with the sanction and bless- 
ing of the holy Abbot, and accompanied by other Irish reli- 
gious of the same monastery, returned to his native land. 
As he approached the coast of Hy-Ceinnselach (the modern 
county of Wexford), he saw some travellers attacked and 
plundered on the shore. He at once sounded his bell, which 
being heard by the plunderers, their chief cried out, " This is 
the bell of a man of God, who wishes us to desist from our 
deeds of plunder." Thereupon they allowed the travellers to 
pursue their way unharmed, and themselves hastened to the 
sea-shore to welcome the man of God. One of them, named 
Dymma, even rushed into the sea, and bore St. Aidan on his 
shoulders to dry land. Nor satisfied with this, he devoted 
himself and his territory of Ardladhrann, in Hy-Ceinnselagh, 
to the service of God and of St. Aidan. Our Saint erected 
a church and monastery there, and such was the fame of his 
miracles and sanctity, that the faithful from all the surrounding 
country soon flocked to him to receive lessons of eternal life. 

It is not certain at what time St. Aidan founded the church 
of Ferns, but probably this foundation, which was cherished 
with special predilection by our saint, must be reckoned 
among the first of the thirty churches which, as Colgan assures 
us, were erected by St. Aidan in the territory of Wexford. 
The Irish name of Fearna is supposed by some to mean "the 
Land or Field of the Elder Tree," whilst others, with Colgan 
and Ware, derive it from the hero Ferna, son of Carill, King 
of the Desies, who was here interred, being slain in battle by 
Gall, son of Morna. 1 In the " Leabhar Breac" there is a 

, "Acta," p. 216 : Wan\ Hi>h<>ps, p. 435. Lynch, in his MS. History, 
\\uu->: " Fcrna juius dicta JAv7;<'j<- in (.'omitatus Wexfordiensis ici;i<>nc. dicta 
i, sita, nomcn a Kerna heroe Carilli regis Desiarum fil.o soitita cst." 

318 6V. Aidan t Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 

marginal gloss on the Felire of St. yngus, which, in two short 
verses, thus recounts the happy privileges of Ferns : 

" Plain of Ferna, Plain of Ferna, 
Where the chaste Moedoc shall be ; 
Plain where are hounds and troops ; 
Plain that will be filled with sacred chaunting ! 

" Moedoc shall sing hymns and the Psalter ; 
The desire for constant chaunting is awakened 
By that plain of heavenly sounds : 
O Lord, who rulest the elements !" x 

In the " Irish Life of St. Molaise," of which a copy is pre- 
served in the Royal Irish Academy, we read that that saint, 
when he had resolved on setting out on a pilgrimage to Rome,* 
to bring back thence relics and some clay to hallow his 
monastery of Devenish, proceeded first to visit his friend, St. 
Moedoc, at Ferns. It was on this occasion that the two saints 
entered into a new covenant of friendship, binding themselves 
that whosoever should merit the blessing of one, should inherit 
the other's blessing also ; and whosoever should incur the dis- 
pleasure of one, should incur, at the same time, the other's 
displeasure likewise. We are not told how long St. Molaise 
sojourned at the shrines of the Eternal City, but his life adds, 
that " having accomplished his visit to Rome, he again has- 

1 O'Curry, in his MS. Analysis of the Leabhar Brcac in the Library of R.I. A., 
remarks that these verses belong to an historical poem of the eighth or ninth 
century, which under the form of a prophetic announcement of Finn, before the 
arrival of St. Patrick, describes the intervening events. Six verses of the poem 
are given in the Book of Lismore, fol. 120, A. (R.I. A.), the first of which presents 
some interesting readings, varying from our text. It is thus translated by O'Curry: 

" Ath-Ferna (i.e., ford of Ferna), Ath-Ferna, 
Where yet will be Moedhoc the good 
This day though numerous its troops. 
More numerous will be its heavenly songs." 

* " After many prodigies, Molaise determined to go to Rome, that he might 
perfect his life there, and might bring over some of its clay and relics to Erin " 
MS. Life, R.I A. The old Latin Life also records the same fact: ' Beatus 
Lasrianus divino Spiritu instinctus Sedem Apostolicam visitare proposuit. Iter 
igitur aggrediens, collactaneum suum, Sanctum scilicet Edanum, antequam trans- 
fretaret, visitavit Cui S. Edanusdixit : si mihi dimidiam partcm tribuas reliquia- 
rum, pericula viarum tuarum in humeris meis suscipiam. Illis ergo talia mutuo 
promittentibus et invicem benedicentibus, S. Lasriamis prospero navigio ad portum 
pervenit desideratum." Hollandns. torn. 3. Januar. p. 734. Another curious fact 
connected with St. Molaise of Devenish, is preserved in the Ware Extracts from 
the ancient Register of Clogher, in the Library of T.t' I) , viz., that on his 
return to Ireland, he received from the Holy See special authority not only in 
regard to his own Monastery of Devenish, but for all Ireland : "Damhynis, vulgo 
Devenish, cujus patromis c.>t S. Lasrianus Abba>, mm solinn Krgalliae sed totius 
Iliberniae principatum habens tamquam Sedis Apostolicoe LegatUj." 

.SV. Aii/aii, Bisliop and Patron of Terns. 319 

tened to St. Moedoc, and presented to him a portion of the 
relics which he had brought thence," and the names of these 
holy relics are then given, viz., relics of SS. Peter and Paul, of 
SS. Lawrence and Clement and Stephen, of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary and St. Martin, and many other relics. 

The Life further adds that St. Molaise, having given these 
relics to his friend, St. Moedoc exclaimed, " Is Breac go maitli 
nait ntc anossa," i.e., " Now, indeed, I am well speckled by 
thee," as if he said, " You have given me such a corselet of 
relics, that I am now all over ornamented and protected by 
them." And St. Molaise then said, " Breac Moedoig (i.e., the 
speckled or variegated shrine of Moedoc) shall be the name of 
the reliquary for ever." 

This shrine, or " Breac Moedoig," is still happily preserved, 
and has been admirably illustrated by Miss Stokes for the 
Royal Society of Antiquarians, in the paper already more 
than once referred to in the preceding pages. The following 
is her account of the manner in which it passed into the 
" Petrie Collection," now accessible to the public in the 
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. The Breac Moedoc, 
she tells us, " was bought some years ago by Dr. Petrie, from 
a jeweller in Dublin, into whose possession it came in the 
following manner : The shrine had been preserved for many 
centuries in the Church of St. Moedoc, at Drumlane, where it 
had remained in the keeping of the Roman Catholic Parish 
Priest. It was occasionally lent for swearing the accused at 
trials, and so great was the reverence felt for it, that the people 
believed a false oath taken thereon would be surely followed 
by some singular judgment. About the year 1846 it was lent 
to a person named Magauran, from the parish of Templeport, 
he having deposited the usual pledge of a guinea for its safe 
restoration ; tempted, however, by the Dublin jeweller's offer 
of a larger sum than that which he had given in pledge, he 
broke faith with the priest, and sold the sacred relic." 1 

The following is Miss Stokes's description of this interesting 
reliquary of our early Church : " The Breac Moedoc is in form 
a box, the body or foundation of which is of pale bronze, 
covered with gilt plates. The height of this reliquary is 7^ 
inches, length 8^j inches, breadth of the base 3^ inches. For 
about one-third of the height the sides of the box are vertical, 
they then slope inwards until they meet at a very acute angle, 
so as to resemble the roof of a house. Thus, the general form 
is much like the c/iasses or shrines of Limoges work of much 
later date, of which many examples exist and have been 

1 ' On two Works of Ancient IrLsh Art," &c., p. 5, scq. 

320 St. Aidan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 

" It is not improbable that the form of an early church was 
intended to be represented in miniature by these shrines. The 
outlines of that under our notice recall such buildings as the 
Oratory on MacDara's Island, the Church of St. Benignus on 
the Island of Aran, the Oratory of Killaloe, and that of St. 
Columba at Kells, all having the simple quadrangular form 
which characterizes the primitive churches of Ireland, none of 
which were octagonal, circular, or cruciform, nor had they the 
couched semicircular apse of the Roman basilica. They are 
narrow, with a high-pitched roof, reminding us of a singular 
representation in the " Book of Kells" of the Temptation of 
our Lord, where He is led to the pinnacle of the Temple, in 
which the form of the Temple is exactly similar to that of 
these early churches and of the Breac Moedog. And, while on 
this point, it may be interesting to remark that the Rev. Mr. 
O'Reilly, P.P., of Drumlane, writing of this shrine, in March, 
1866, observes : " It is said, by the people of this parish who 
saw it, to resemble very closely in shape the great Church of 
Drumlane, now in ruins, of which it is here generally believed 
to have been the plan in miniature." 

A drawing of St. Mac Dara's Church, and also a sketch of 
the Oratory at Killaloe, referred to in this passage, are given 
in " Petrie's Round Towers," page 187 and 273; and it appears 
from another drawing of the ruins of the Church of St. 
Kenanach, in the middle Island of Aran, given in the same 
work, page ig6, that it, too, bore precisely the same features, 
and thus we have another example to corroborate the state- 
ment made by Miss Stokes. 

" The front of the Reliquary was covered with figures, 
twenty-one in number ; only .eleven in four groups remain 
entire, together with the feet only of another group of three 
figures . . . The six lower figures on the shrine, are of 
pale bronze, while the five upper ones appear to be of the 
same metal, though much redder in colour, from the deficiency 
of i'm in the alloy. The ends are now robbed of all ornament, 
with the exception of one figure, of bronze gilt (representing 
the Royal Psalmist), seated, and playing on a harp. The 
back (of the Reliquary), was evidently exactly similar to that 
of the Shrine of St. Patrick, and, indeed, the design is such 
as is usually found on the least important side of all early 
reliquaries, namely, a parallelogram of pierced rectangular 
crosses. The pierced work, it should be mentioned, is of 
bronze ; the border, of which only three fragments remain, has 
a ground of red enamel ; the margins, the knots, and squares, 
being of bronze gilt ; while the pattern within the squares is 
formed by four smaller squares of blue glass, apparently cast 

Sf. Aidati, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 321 

in a mould, and disposed alternately with five others of red 
and white enamel. Thc/j'/fot in the boss, which still remains 
in the centre of the border of one side, is enamelled in blue, 
on a gold ground, surrounded by alternate lines of the same 

The front of the Brcac Mocdog is divided into three tiers, 
or rows of figures. The lower tier has three compartments, 
and each compartment had originally three figures. The 
central and right compartments are still entire, but only the 
feet of the three figures of the left compartment remain. The 
central compartment presents to us our Saviour, with the 
Apostles, SS. Peter and Paul. The Redeemer holds in his 
right hand the Book of the Law, and in the left a vase, 
resembling the ancient Irish Chalices, of which some interest- 
ing specimens are preserved in the Royal Irish Academy. 
The arcade in which he stands is ornamented with birds, 
which, in our early church, were symbolical of the angelic 
choirs. Two of these winged beings have human heads, and 
seem to typify the cherubim. 

St. Paul is at the right of our Saviour, and holds a sword 
in his right, and a sceptre in his left hand. St. Peter stands 
at the left of the Redeemer, and it must be held in mind that 
this position, being to the right of the spectator, was the post 
of honour in many ancient monuments : he holds a sceptre in 
his right, and a crozier in his left hand. These sceptres of 
SS. Peter and Paul, the Princes of the Apostolic Body, " seem 
bursting into leaf and fruit, and are not new in the sacred 
figures of Irish art. Christ is seen to hold such a one in the 
last judgment, as represented on the cross of Clonmacnoise; 
while, in the Book of Kells, they are borne in the hands of 
angels, at the feet of the Blessed Virgin and Child." 1 

There seems to me but little room for doubt that the 
whole series of the apostles was represented in the figures of 
the lower tier. Allowing two figures to the corresponding 
part of the shrine at each end, we would have precisely thir- 
teen figures, including our blessed Lord. Now the sword and 
sceptre sufficiently determine one 'of the princes of the 
apostles, the Apostle of nations; the position of the other 
figure, his sceptre, and with it the pastoral staff, and indepen- 
dent of all this, the baldness and general outline of the 
features, mark him out as the apostle Peter, prince and supreme 
pastor of Christ's fold. In the three figures that still remain 
in the adjoining compartment, St. John is easily recognised 
by his youthful appearance, being represented beardless and 
bearing a cruciform crozier in his hand. St. Matthew, too, 

1 Mi !'-ig 10. 

322 St. Aidan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 

bears a book clasped in both hands, his usual characteristic 
symbol in ancient art. Speaking of this last-mentioned group, 
Miss Stokes observes, " the remains of an inscription running 
over the heads may be traced, but, unfortunately, it is so much 
broken away that no attempt can be made to decipher it. The 
borders round the ends of the dresses are of extreme interest, 
being formed of designs most characteristic of Scoto-Celtic 
art, patterns formed of angular lines and intersected bands. 
On one of these figures (i.e. St. John), as also in one of those 
of the other group (i.e. St. Paul), the collar brought round the 
neck and knotted over the breast, so as to form a triquctra, 
at once recalls to mind the figures of the Evangelists in the 
Book of Dimma, who wear the triquetra thus as a symbol of 
the Trinity." 

In the Codef Maelbriglite, in the British Museum, is preserved 
an Irish poem on the personal appearance and on the manner 
of death of our Saviour and the Apostles. Dr. Reeves, com- 
menting on this poem in 185 1, remarked that " it seemed to be 
framed according to certain rules which guided the ancient 
Scribes in the illumination of their biblical manuscripts, and may 
possibly find a partial illustration in the figures which appear 
in the Book of Kells, and other manuscripts of that class." 
{Proceedings of R.I. A., January 13, 1851, vol. v. 45). 

Now the features of the figures on the lower tier of the 
Breac Moedog correspond so perfectly with the description 
of our Saviour and the apostles in this poem, that we would 
almost be led to suppose it was specially composed to record 
the artistic details of this ancient reliquary. The following 
verses are fully descriptive of the figures still preserved : 

" Despicable all faces but the face of God ; 
His was not a face adorned but by one complexion 
An auburn, tripartite head of hair had he, 
And a beard red and very long. 

" The face of the apostle Peter was most venerable ; 
His glossy hair was of shining grey ; 
Fair and old was the favored man ; 
Short and close was his beard. 

" Paul the apostle, brilliant was his face, 
With beautiful glossy hair ; 
Until his companions had cut it off, 
The beard of Paul was very long. 

5/. Aidan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 323 

" John of the bosom, the adopted of the living God ; 
Lightly auburn was his hair, 
Calm and placid was his countenance ; 
I le was very gentle, young, and beardless. 

Black curly hair upon the head of Mathew, 
\\ithout the sign of a tyrant's beard. 

Thomas, choicest of faces was his face ; 
Brown and curly was his hair without doubt ; 
It was no blemish to my companion 
That coarse and short was his clean beard." 

The second, or central division is only capable of receiving 
two compartments, each with a group of three figures. One 
of these groups is still preserved, and presents, in an arcade, 
three female figures with hands gracefully clasped upon the 
bosom. While there is more or less difference in the dress of 
the male figures in this shrine, the dress of these three females 
is uniform : their countenances are peculiarly sweet, and there 
is something in their attitude so noble and divine that we have 
no hesitation in reckoning this group among the most perfect 
works of art of our early Church. We probably will not err 
in supposing that the central figure is the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
Mother of God, and that the figures on cither side are St. 
Brigid, the Mary of Erin, and St. Ita, the contemporary of 
our Saint Aidan, and celebrated in our annals as the Brigid of 

" It is curious to notice that the hands are reversed from 
their natural form, as if taken from a mould in which they 
were correctly represented. The very long faces and low 
broad forehead remind one forcibly of the type of female face 
which we find in the Book of Kells. The pellet-moulding 
round the arch and down the sides is remarkable, as also a 
design formed by the geometrical arrangement of a leaf 
filling the space between the arches," (page 13.) That the 
Blessed Virgin and the Apostles were represented in the 
figures of this Reliquary becomes the more probable when we 
reflect that their sacred relics wore preserved within the 
venerable shrine. 

The uppermost tier or division of the Brcac Mocdoig allows 
only of two compartments, and as these are smaller than 
those of the middle tier, they may possibly have contained 
only two figures each. It was perhaps to this tier that the 
group with two figures, now loosely appended to the middle 

324 <St. A titan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 

compartment originally belonged. The ornaments of this 
group are thus described by Miss Stokes. " In noticing the 
details of this group, that which strikes us most is the scroll 
running up, at the right side of the first figure. It is a 
beautiful example of the divergent spiral, or trumpet pattern. 
At the base of this scroll is the triquetra, and this favourite 
design, symbolical of the Trinity, is found in another form 
between the feet of the two figures Knots of other kinds and 
a diaper background complete the ornamental work of this 
group. The costume of the figures appears to be merely the 
alb, with an embroidered border, and the chasuble, which in 
its primitive form was circular, with an aperture in the centre 
for the head : it was when worn caught up on the arms, over 
which it fell in folds." Page 13. 

In one of the individuals represented in this group, there is 
a special expression of pain, or " impassioned sorrow," as Miss 
Stokes expresses it, wholly absent from all the other figures. 
His right hand, too, is raised towards his head, which is bent 
to recline on it. It may safely be affirmed that it was the 
desire of the artist in the painful attitude of this figure to 
present a characteristic token of the saint whom he repre- 
sented. Now a curious passage in the Life of St. Aedh 
MacBric, informs us that "a certain man who suffered 
exceedingly from headache, went to St. Aedh, saying : O 
holy man of God, I am greatly tortured with this headache, 
pray for me. The Bishop replied : you cannot be freed from 
that pain unless it come upon me, but great will be your 
reward if you bear it patiently. He answered : such pain is 
beyond my strength. St. Aedh then said : the pain which 
now agonizes you shall come into my head. And at once 
the headache became the portion of the Bishop, and the poor 
man went away free from it, returning thanks to God. Then 
the saint of Christ assumed his neighbour's suffering, that 
thus through Christ, he might succour him, and for Christ's 
sake endure a martyrdom. And since that time many are 
freed from headache, by invoking the name of St. Aedh, as 
was witnessed in the above event." 1 Colgan marks this saint 
as " patronum capite dolentinm" and in a Latin poem pub- 
lished by Mone, from a MS. of Reichenau, of the eighth 
century, the intercession of St. Aedh MacBric is invoked as 
a special protector against headache. 

Perhaps then in the two figures of this group we may be 
allowed to recognise St. Aidan of Ferns, and with him his 
synonynm saint, St. Aedh MacBric ; the similarity of name 
may the more easily have suggested this combination, as 

1 Colgan, Acta, page 420. 

Sf. Aidan, Bishop ami Patron of Ferns. 325 

St. Acdh Mac Brie, like the great patron of Ferns, was bound 
by special ties of friendship with St. Molaise of Devenish. 

'Miss Stokes (page 14), thus concludes her remarks on the 
ornamental figures of thcjjreac Aloedog: " In the description, 
hitherto given by other writers of the drawing of the human 
figure in Irish art, whether in metal work, stone, or painting, 
no language but that of contempt has been used. One writer, 
speaking of the extraordinary rudeness of this art, charac- 
terises the features in all the representations of Christ 
crucified as utterly expressionless ; while another describes a 
miniature belonging to this school, as the purest type to be 
found of all that is false and debasing in art, and significant 
of an utterly dead school, a school of dead barbarism, whose 
work belongs to the Jiopcless work of all ages. But we shall be 
grievously disappointed if they who see these four groups 
from the shrine of St. Moedoc fail to perceive in them some 
elements of nobleness, and some food for reverence. In the 
forms and faces of the female figures, there is not only strong 
individuality of character, but this character is one of sweet- 
ness, benevolence, and simple goodness, carried out not only 
in the expression of the faces, but in the mere attitude of 
the figures, and the quiet clasping of the hands upon the 
breast. The impassioned sorrow of (St. Aedh MacBric), 
and the contrast between his earnest tearful gaze, and the 
cheerful common sense expressed in his companion's face 
the solemn and severe dignity of the other six holy men who 
stand below, the strength of their firmly-closed mouths, and 
wistful outstretched gaze their wild and wavy hair blown in 
great masses round the head, the mystic breastplate, and 
borders of their robes, all tell of the existence of a dramatic, 
as well as a religious element in early Irish art, which 
elevates above that which is purely decorative, and is as 
much beyond the art of the mere savage or barbarian, as the 
faith which teaches of goodness and purity and love trans- 
cends the dark superstitions of heathenism." 

P. F. M. 

( To be continued. ) 

VOI.. VII. 22 



Venerabili Fratri Nostro Constantino S. R. E. Cardinali 
Patrizi Episcopo Ostiensi et Vclilcrno Sacri Cardinalium 
Collegii Decano Vicario Nostro Generali in spiritualibus 
Romae ej usque D is t rictus. 


V ENERABILIS Frater Noster, Salutem et Apostolicam 
Benedictionem. Ecclesia Dei, tanquam Regina circumdata 
varietate, sicuti nobili diversorum Regularium Ordinum orna- 
mento decorata fuit, sic sedulam semper opem adhibuit ad 
propagandam divini Nominis gloriam, ad christianae reipub- 
licae negocia expedienda, et ad inducendum etiam vel pro- 
vehendum in populis, doctrinae et caritatis ope, civilis vitae 
cultum. Quotquot idcirco fuerunt unquam osores Ecclesiae, 
Regulares Ordines maxime sunt insectati, et inter eos primas 
odii sui partes tribuere consueverunt Societati Jesu, utpote 
quam operosiorem suisque propterea consiliis infestiorem ex- 
istimarunt. Id in praesentiarum rursum fieri dolentes con- 
spicimus, dum civilis Nostrae ditionis invasores praedae 
inhiantcs, exitiosae semper ereptoribus, familiarum omnium 
Religiosarum suppressionem a Patribus Societatis Jesu ex- 
ordiri velle videntur. Cui quidem facinori ut viam sibi 
sternant, invidiam ipsis conflare nituntur apud populum, 
eosque simultatis accusant cum praesenti regimine, ac potis- 
simum insimulant ejus potentiae apud Nos et gratiae, quae 
Nos eidem regimini faciat infensiores, quaque sic occupemur, 
ut nonnisisuadentibus ipsis, quidquid agimusperficiamus. Quae 
stulta calumnia, si in summum vergit contemptum Nostrum, 
qui prorsus hebetes ducimur et inepti cuicumque ineundo 
consilio, absurda prorsus evincitur, cum noverint omnes, 
Romanum Pontificem, divino implorato lumine et auxilio, id 
facere et praecipere, quod rectum et utile judicaverit Ecclesiae : 
in gravioribus vero negociis eorum opera uti consuevisse, 
cujusvis demum sint gradus, aut conditionis, aut Regularis 
Ordinis, quos materiae, de qua agitur, peritiores, sententiam 
suam sapientius ac prudentius proferre posse arbitratur. 
Profecto Patres etiam e Societate Jesu baud raro adhibemus, 
et varia munera, ac illud inprimis sacri ministerii eis corn- 
mittimus, qui in hisce obeundis, probatius semper Nobis 
faciunt studium illud et zelum, quorum gratia c/ebras et am- 

Document. 327 

plissimas a Decessoribus Nostris promeruerunt laudes. Verum 
aequissima istadilectioNostra etcxistimatio Societatis, egregie 
semper de Ecclesia Christi, hac Sancta Sede, et christiano po- 
pulo meritae, longe abest a servili illo obsequio, quod com- 
miniscuntur ipsius obtrectatores ; quorum calumniama Nobis 
et a demissa optimorum Patrum devotione indignanter pro- 
pulsamus. Haec vero tibi significanda duximus, Venerabilis 
Prater Noster, ut et insidiae Socictati structae compertae fiant, 
et sententia Nostra turpiter insipienterque detorta ac subversa 
restituatur, et inclytae eidem Societati novum praesto sit pro- 
pensissimae voluntatis Nostrae testimonium. Liberet utique 
hac occasione nacta, te diutius distinere de aliis quotidie 
increbrescentibus doloris Nostri causis ; at cum adeo ampla 
sit earum seges, ut epistolae finibus concludi non valent, 
unum attingemus commentum concessionum, quas dicunt 
guarentigie, ubi nescias, num primas teneat absurditas, an 
versutia, an ludibrium, et cui jamdiu operosum et inutile 
studium inpendunt Subalpini Gubcrnii moderatores. Coacti 
enim a communi catholicorum expostulatione et politica neces- 
sitate ad larvam quandam Rcgiae potestatis Nostrae servan- 
dam, ne cuiquam obnoxii vidcamur in exercitio supremi regi- 
minis Ecclesiae, id assequi se posse censuerunt per conces- 
siones. Atqui cum concessio suapte natura postulet potesta- 
tem concedentis in eum cui conccditur, eumdemque, saltern 
quoad rem concessam, subjiciat illius ditioni et arbitrio ; ne- 
cessario fit, ut ipsi operam perdant in adstrucndo summae po- 
testatis Nostrae fastigio per ea adminicula, quae ipsum omnino 
subruant et deleant. Intima vcro concessionum indoles est 
eiusmodi, ut unaquaeque peculiarem servitutem inducat ; quae 
durior etiam fit ab invectis deinde emendationibus. Hostile 
demum et dolosum ingenium, quod ex iis, licet insidiose vela- 
turn, erumpit, sic illustratur a jugi factorum serie, ut neminem 
sanae mentis decipere possit, et apertissimam ludificationis 
speciem iis conditionibus affingat. Verum si Ecclesia referre 
debet imaginem divini auctoris sui ; nonne Nos, qui, licet im- 
merentes, Christi vices gerimus in terris, ei gratias agere de- 
bebimus, quod irrisoriis regni insighibus et Nos circumdari 
sinat ? Profecto sic ipse vicit mundum ; atque ita etiam per 
Sponsam suam Ecclesiam rursum de mundo triumphum aget. 
Interim copiosa tibi, Venerabilis Prater Noster, adprecamur 
caclestia munera ; eorumque auspicem et praecipuae Nostrae 
benevolentiae pignus Apostolicam Benedictionem tibi pera- 
manter impertimus. 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum die 2 Martii Anno 1871 
Pontificatus Nostri Anno Vicesimoquinto. 






SIR, The question of who was the immediate predecessor 
of Matthew De Oviedo, in the See of Dublin, has been much 
discussed, some Protestant writers going so far as to deny 
the existence of any such in communion with Rome, from 
the apostacy of Hugh Curwen, at the accession of Queen 
Elizabeth. But there is now no doubt on the subject, from 
the many incidental allusions in the state papers in the Record 
Office, London, and in Simancas, in Spain. Dr. Moran, in 
his "History of the Catholic Archbishops of Dublin," page 
84, quoting from the Btill, appointing De Oviedo, May, 
1600, shows that the See had become vacant by the 
death of Donaldus, of good memory, the late Archbishop. 
This fixes the Christian name, and the brief, appointing 
Francis Ribera, to be Bishop of Leighlin, dated 14 September, 
1587, expressly states, that at that date, there was a Catholic 
Archbishop of Dublin, to whom the Pope had written to 
favour and protect Ribera, the See of Leighlin being in his 
province. (Dr. Brady's Irish Reformation, fifth edition, 
pp. 90 and 105.) Dr. Moran conjectured that this Donaldus 
was the celebrated Donaldus M'Conghaill, Bishop of Raphoe, 
but as he died, according to the Four Masters, 29 Septem- 
ber, 1589, and as reference is made to the Archbishop 
subsequent to that date, his claim falls to the ground. 
The cause of obscurity on this subject arose from the well- 
known persecution which awaited Catholic bishops within the 
power of the Government, and the almost absolute neces- 
sity to conceal their names, places of refuge, and acts. In 
the volume of the Carew Calendar, published by Mr. Brewer 
in 1869, p. 54, there is given an article under the date 1600, 
entitled " An Abstract of several. Treasons committed by 
Florence M'Cartie," being what purports to be extracts from 
letters. In one of these, reference is made to Owen M'Kegan 
usurping the name of Bishop of Rosse. This was Eugene 
MacEgan, Vicar-Apostolic and Bishop Elect, who was slain 
by the English in 1602. Of course all the Catholic and valid 
bishops were styled "usurpers" by writers in English pay. 
Another of the charges is, " Florence received .letters from 

Correspondence. 329 

Thomas Shclton and from Donnaught M'Cragh, usurping the 
name of tJie Archbishop of Dublin, whereby it appeared that 
the traitors had commended Florence his service to the King 
of Spain, and that done upon Florence his own entreaty." 
Then follows " Examinations, proving Florence M'Cartye his 
treasons. Florence, upon his first coming into Ireland, had 
secret conference at Dreshane with James FitzThomas and 
Cragh, the usurped Bishop of Corke, and then combined with 
them in their rebellion." The Bishop of Cork here alluded 
to, was Dermod, otherwise Darby M'Cragh, appointed in 
consistory 7th October, 1580, Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, and 
who lived into the succeeding century. 

Mr. Brewer, in a foot note to this passage, states that 
" Corke" has been substituted for " Dublin," by Sir George 
Carew. Now this correction being by Carew himself, who, 
from his position as President of Munster, and having a 
whole posse of spies and traitors in pay, had a complete 
knowledge of the country, and his having permitted the 
statement respecting Donnaught M'Cragh, to remain un- 
changed, indisputably proves that Carew believed M'Cragh 
to have been recognised as Archbishop by the Catholics. In 
my opinion there can be no doubt he was the Donaldus of 
Dr. De Oviedo's Brief; Donaldus and Donadus are simply 
Latinized forms of the Irish proper name Domhnall. This 
is the only entry I can find in this volume of the Carew 
Calendar, nor do I find any ether after a hurried glance in 
the Life and Letters of Florence MacCarthy Reagh himself, 
published by Daniel MacCarthy (Glas), in 1867 : but I see in 
it a note of the death of Michael Walter, Bishop of Kerry, 
as occurring about November, 1599. Florence writes he 
was born at Limerick, and in Lenihan's History of that 
city, a Michael Waters is returned as serving the office 
of bailiff, analogous to the present city sheriff, in 1599. 
Waters is probably a mistake for Walter, as in 1614, Michael 
Walter, perhaps the same, is stated to have served as Mayor 
for five months, when he was deposed for not going to church. 
I hope some of your correspondents will further investigate 
the question of the Archbishop of Dublin. 



I. Address of the Roman Nobility. 2. Popes Allocution to the 
Lenten Preachers. 3. Loyalty of the Roman People. 
4. Loyalty of the Bolognesc. 5. Prince Rospigliosi. 
6. Deputation from Austria. 7. Seizure of Religious 
Houses in Rome. 8. False Allocution of the Pope. 
9. Appointment of Bishops. 10. Festival of St. Patrick 
in Rome. II. The Disturbances in the Gfsu, and the 
Chaplains Report. 

i. The Roman Patriciate have published an Address, 
directed to the several Catholic Associations of the world, 
which does them immortal honour, and which deserves to be 
registered in every Catholic publication. We subjoin it 
in full : 

" The strong proofs of attachment you have given to the 
Holy Father's sacred person, and the imprescriptible rights 
of the Holy See, have profoundly moved the hearts of the 
Catholics of Rome, who feel that their own duties are even 
more onerous than yours. The immense majority of them 
have always remained faithful, and with the help of God are 
firmly resolved never to alter their line of conduct. In testi- 
mony whereof, they call on the history of the past, and the 
facts of the present day, unaltered by calumny and passion. 
The clergy, as well as the laity, the nobles as well as the 
citizens, the man of science, and the artist, are alike moved by 
the voice of conscience, of gratitude, and of honest patriotism. 
And, therefore, as in the present state of matters, no other 
means than protestations and daily proofs of loyal attach- 
ment, in spite of sacrifices and insults, remain to them, they 
unite themselves in heart with you, and with one soul raise 
their voices in prayers to God to obtain the cessation of this 
cruel trial to which God has subjected His Church, and the 
City of Rome, chosen by Him as the seat of His Vicar on 
Earth. Perseverance in prayer, faith inviolate, and firm hope, 
will hasten the hour of His mercy." 

Sigismond Prince Chigi. Prince Campagnano. 

Orinete Marchcse Cavalletti, 
Matteo Matthieu Antici Mat- 

Marchese Patrizi. 
Prince Aldobrandini. 
Prince Rospigliosi. 

Tomaso Prince Antici Mattei. ' Pietro Aldobrandino Prince 
Don Filippo of the Dukes of Sarsini. 

Scotti, Commendatorc Df Rossi. 

Roman Chroniclt. 


Prince Clemente Altieri. 

Prince Lancellotti. 

Duke Pio Grazioli. 

Camillo Prince Massimo. 

Prince of Arsoli. 

Prince of Orsini. 

Marchese Fillipo Mattei An- 


Prince Enrico Barberini. 
Maurizio Cavaletti. 
Prince Eugenic Ruspoli, K.M. 
Annibale Count Moroni. 
Prince Giovanni Ruspoli. 
Livio Prince Odescalchi. 
Carlo Count Cardelli. 
Prince Giovanni Chigi. 
Marchese Lavaggi. 
Commendatore Datti. 
Duke Giuseppe Caffarelli. 
Count Francesco Sermi. 
Professore Gugliardi. 
Professore Jacometti. 
Barone Visconti. 

Padre Angelo Secchi, SJ. 
Marchese Luigi Serlupi-Cre- 


Marchese Angelo Vittelleschi. 
Professore Benzoni. 
Marchese Lepri. 
Don Alfonso Theodoli. 
Prince Borghese. 
Prince Viano. 

Francesco Marchese Serlupi. 
Prince Giustiniani-Bandini. 
Giuseppe Macchi Count Cel- 

Prince Baldassare Boncom- 

pagni (Piombino). 
Duke Salviati, 
Fillipo Count Cini. 
Pio Marchese Capranica. 
Alcssandro Capranica. 
Marchese Sacchetti. 
Marchese Camillo Sacchetti. 
Virginio Count Vespignani. 

2. On Thursday, the i6th of February, the Holy Father 
delivered his customary Allocution to the parish priests and 
Lenten preachers of Rome. The just praise which he accords 
to the people of Rome for their loyalty and true Catholic 
spirit, is another evidence of the falsehood and shamelessness 
of the Italian press. We quote a few extracts : 

" In the days of Pagan Rome, it was said, Facere et pati 
fortia, Romamim est! A father of the Church, in one of 
those apologies which he addressed to the persecutors of 
Christianity (and we have them to-day just the same), applied 
those words to the Christians, and wrote Facere et pati, 
Christianorum est ! Now, as we observe the actual conduct 
of the Roman people, I feel we can justly speak of them in 
the same language. When I say the Roman people, I do 
not mean the worshippers of Jupiter and Mercury, but the 
true adorers of Jesus Christ, and venerators of most holy 
Mary and the saints. Are not we ourselves witnesses of all 
that is being done in opposition to evil ? Noble associations 
have been formed to write up and defend truth, and succour 
the needy. The churches are crowded, the word of God is 
sought after with avidity, the sacraments received with great 
devotion. I do not go abroad, but you all know how much is 

332 Roman Chronicle. 

doing at present in Rome to counteract by good works the 
efforts of falsehood and vice. Well, then, precisely because 
I do not go abroad, let the parish priests and preachers say 
that the Pope cannot but bless this people, approving and 
encouraging them. Say, moreover, that fathers of families 
should not venture to bring their children to the theatres, 
where performances are enacted insulting to religion and 
morality, and where licentiousness and blasphemy reign 
triumphant. Such places are forbidden to a Christian family; 
they could not be spectators of representations against God, 
their faith, the Church, and every law however sacred. Say, 
also, that I am proud of, and thank the Romans for, their 
patient endurance of the present trials, especially of such a 
number holding official appointments, who, for honour, loyalty, 
and conscience sake, prefer every privation to betrayal of their 
trust or felony. Tell them that I know it all, and that I mean 
to bless them as those who do and suffer like true Romans." 

3. These earnest words, pronounced by the most august 
authority on earth, are more than a sufficient vindication of 
the Roman people from the calumnies circulated against 
them by their unscrupulous invaders, but in order to satisfy 
the most sceptical mind, we are enabled to furnish exact data, 
which establish beyond question the unflinching loyalty of 
the immense majority of the Romans to their imprisoned 
sovereign. The Tablet of February 25th gives the following 
statistics, favoured by a person in Rome who can speak with 
certain knowledge. 

Out of 46 magistrates, five only have transferred their 
allegiance to the new Government. The Piedmontese have 
requested the 41 to remain in office till March. In the 
" Finance Department" out of 1439, 344 only have gone over 
to the Italian Government, 1135 have preferred to give up 
office, and are now without any income or means of livelihood. 
In the " Internal Department" out of 53, only 17 remained in 
office. " The Military" out of 586 officers, only 58 have 
retained their position. The others, 528, have preferred to 
quit the army, though they were offered the same rank in the 
Italian Army, They too are now without means of support. 
" The Schools" The schools under ecclesiastical management 
(limited to the Departments of Literature and Philosophy), 
included a total of 1783 scholars; viz., " La Pace" 93; 
" The Apollinarf" 700 ; the Roman College, 985. The 
Piedmontese have taken away this last frem the Jesuits, and 
to the Government Lyceum, established instead, has been 
added a department, called the Technical, or " commercial" for 
boys who, under ecclesiastical management, were elsewhere 

Roman Chronic It. 333 

provided for. Now, observe, even with the bringing in of 
these " commercials" by the report just published by Brioschi, 
it is shown that only 656 scholars attended the new Lyceum, 
of these 250 are Jews, hitherto not admitted to these schools: 
of the remaining 406, the " commercials" viz., 280, should be 
substracted, and there will remain 126 to be compared with 
1783, under the Pontifical "regime" Finally, observe that 
with the new government a great number of officials have 
come to Rome, with their families, and of course they send 
their children to the schools set up by the new government. 
The failure in not attracting scholars to the new Lyceum 
schools, is the more remarkable, as, by a special enactment, 
attendance at the Lyceum schools has been made a necessary 
condition for eligibility to public offices of any kind. 

The Journals The Catholic Roman Journals opposed to 
the Piedmontese Government are 10, viz., the Osservatore ; 
L' Intparziale ; II Biionscnso ; La Frusta; La Stella; La 
Metropoli ; II Vcridico ; II Sahatore ; La Verging ; and La 
Famiglia. The new Government and Democratic Journals 
are 7, viz. : La Gazetta Ufficialc, II Tempo, La Nuova Roma, 
La Capitate, II Tribuno, and La Liberta, of these last, 3 are 
paid by government, 2 by Mazzini, and I by the moderate 
party. The Catholic journals are all self-supporting. The 
number of subscribers to the Cathode journals is much 
greater than to the others, e.g., the two popular papers are the 
frusta and Tribuno \ the former (Catholic) prints 6000 
copies, the latter (revolutionary) only 1400. 

The Aristocracy The splendid address which commences 
this Chronicle, is proof positive as to how the Roman aristo- 
cracy feel. The names of the few noble families who support 
the invasion can soon be quoted. They are as follows : 

Prince and Princess Pallavicini (Ne'e Piombino). 

Duke and Duchess di Teano (N& Piombino). 

Duke and Duchess di Piombino. 

Prince Doria, the father only. 

Duke and Duchess di Regnano (Ne'e Doria). 

Duke and Duchess di Sermoneta, Duke and Duchess di 

Teano (N& Wilbraham), father and son. 
Duke and Duchess Cesarini Sforza (NSe Colonna) ; Duke and 

Duchess di St. Fiore (Nt'c Santa Croce), two brothers. 
Count and Countess Locatelli (Ne'e Gaetani), daughter to 


Count and Countess Carlo Locatelli. 
Marchesa Lavaggi, her husband is on the Pope's side. 
Countess dc Cclere, her husband is on the Pope's side. 
Marquis and Marchesa Calabrini. 

334 Roman Chronicle. 

All the other Roman nobles, and they form a great majority, 
are with the Pontifical Government. On November 3, 1870, 
an address was presented to His Holiness, signed by two 
hundred and forty Roman ladies of rank. The signatures 
represent about one hundred and fifty Roman Patrician 
families. The address with the names has been printed ; 
about 5,000 of the Bourgeoisie united with the Patricians in 
expressing their sympathy. The only families who have 
opened their saloons, either during the Carnival or before it, 
are Prince Doria, Duke of Teano, and Prince Pallavicini. 
Not one of the Pope's party has given an evening reception 
since the 2Oth of September, and all the families who could 
conveniently leave Rome during the Carnival have done so. 

4. On the occasion of the entry of the Prince and Princess 
of Piedmont, the Roman nobility presented a second address, 
worded in the most fervent style, and signed still more 
numerously than the previous one. Scarcely a day passed 
during the month of February that groups of Civil Service 
officials and others, who had resigned their appointments, did 
not wait on the Holy Father, and, together with an address, 
present a substantial Peter's Pence offering. But a deputation 
from Bologna, now ten years under the rule of Piedmont, 
gave the greatest consolation to the Holy Father. He 
received the deputation on the 23rd of February. The con- 
course of illustrious personages, both Italians and foreigners, 
was considerable ; all the ante-chambers were thronged. The 
deputation was composed of: Alfonso Rubbiani, President of 
the Circle of St. Petronius ; Marquis Hannibal Maroigli ; 
Prince Alfonso Hercolani; Marquis Alexander Guidotti ; 
Count Vincent Ranuzzi ; Marquis Alfonso Malvezzi ; Marquis 
Francis Malvezzi ; Dr. Peter Gardini ; Count Mark Bentivoglio; 
Dr. Guido Bagni, President of the Circle of St. Blaze in Ceuto. 
The Holy Father entered the Audience Chamber about noon, 
followed by a numerous suite, including Cardinals Guidi, 
Milesi, Barnabo, Bilio, Catarini, Borromeo, Capath, Amat, 
Bonaparte ; General Kanzler, Prince Chigi, Marquis Cavaletti, 
and Monsignors Ricci, Rocca, Negrotto, Casali, De Bisogno, 
Negrone, and De Merode. The Pope looked in excellent 
health his countenance beaming confidence and resignation. 
As soon as he had ascended the throne, the President of the 
Circle of St. Petronius read the address. 

He then presented the Holy Father with three large volumes, 
containing 31,854 signatures, collected in the city and suburbs 
of Bologna, and the Treasurer of the Circle, Marquis Francis 
Malvizzi, laid at the feet of the Pope a purse of 13,173 francs 
(nearly ^530). The volumes were splendidly bound in red 

Roman Chronick. 355 

morocco, and bore the arms of Pio IX. and those of Bologna, 
with an inscription in letters of gold " Pio IX. , Bononia 
Fidelisy The purse, the gift of a noble lady, was exquisitely 
embroidered in gold. The members of the deputation were 
then presented to the Holy Father, who admitted each to 
kiss hands. In the course of his reply the Holy Father said : 
" Blessed be God who permits so many scandals, nt veniant 
bona ; and if youth is an active element in revolutions, we 
behold, on the other hand, to our great consolation, a power- 
ful reaction amongst Catholic youth in many parts of Italy 
and other nations in favour of the Church. The chief sin of 
young men is human respect, and consequently young Catholics 
do well to commence by frankly manifesting their faith and 
their devotion to holy Church. The examples of Bologna 
have exercised great influence in the other cities of the 
Romagna; and if the revolution had its origin in Bologna, it 
is with unfeigned pleasure that we now see the reaction of 
the Catholic spirit against the principles of the revolution 
lead off from the same city. Wherefore, with all the fervour 
of my heart I bless you and all whose names are signed 
in that most voluminous list of good Catholics Benedictio 
Dei, &c." The Holy Father then passed through the ante- 
chambers, where, amongst others, he encountered four Fran- 
ciscan friars of Bologna about to leave for the Indian mission. 
In another room were collected quite a crowd of English 
and Americans, principally the latter, and mostly Protestants. 
The Holy Father addressed them in French, and alluded to 
his having read with pleasure, many years ago, the book of a 
distinguished Irish author Thomas Moore entitled, "Travels 
of an Irish gentleman in Search of a Religion," and he sup- 
posed that many of those whom he now addressed were 
engaged in such travels : such persons he would counsel to 
search their own hearts with sincerity and confidence, and 
God would lead them to the profession of the truth. When 
he raised his hands to bless them, all, without exception, went 
on their knees. Some of them, although Protestants, offered 
considerable sums towards the Peter's Pence. Then, preceded 
by two noble guards, and followed by the suite of Cardi- 
nals, &c., already mentioned, and the Bologna deputation, the 
Holy Father went down to the gardens for his usual walk. 
After a considerable round of the garden he entered the 
library, and inviting all to sit down, entered into three 
quarters of an hour's familiar conversation, occasionally allud- 
ing to a ''ray of hope" He subsequently retired to his own 

336 Roman Chronicle. 

5. Prince Joseph Rospigliosi of Rome has written to the 
Nazione, deploring that he should have been classified 
amongst the nobles of doubtful fidelity to the Holy Father. 
He glories in the fact of having served the Holy Father 
faithfully in the regiment of Zouaves. 

6. The Austrian Catholic Deputation, numbering 43, was 
received by the Pope, on Monday, the 5th of March. He 
made, in his usual happy style, a most apposite reply to their 
affectionate address. They presented a considerable sum of 
money for Peter's Pence. 

7. By a Royal Decree, dated Florence, March 4th, 1871, 
the following Roman Convents are seized on by the Govern- 
ment, as a first instalment : 

1st. Santa Maria in Vallicella, oratory and house of the 
Fathers of St. Philip Neri. 

2nd. Santi Dodici Apostoli, Convent of Franciscans, Minor 

3rd. 56". Silvestro e Stefano in Capite, Convent of the Poor 

4th. San Silvestro in Monte Cavallo, house and garden of 
the Fathers of the Mission (Vincentians). 

5th. Santa Maria delle Vergini, Convent of Augustinian 

6th. Sanf Andrea della Valle, house of the Teatines. 

7th. Santa Maria sopra Minerva, head house of the Domi- 
nican Fathers. 

8th. Sanf Agostino, Convent of the Augustinian Fathers. 

8. The Ageusia Stefani, the great telegraphic agency of 
Italy, invented an allocution of the Pope, supposed to be 
delivered at the Consistory of the 6th of March. The tele- 
graphic summary was copied into all the Catholic papers of 
the provinces, not excluding the well conducted Unita 
Cattolica. This last concludes a scathing article against this 
base trick, in the following terms. 

" There was no consistory at the Vatican, but only a private 
Council of the Cardinals to provide for several vacant sees. 
And Pius the Ninth did not utter a word. And yet the 
Agenzia Stefani not only gave us the summary of the pre- 
tended allocution, but added that it was drawn up by three 
Jesuits. We purpose consulting our legal adviser, to see if 
we have grounds for an action against the Agenzia Stefani. 
But for the present we may remark that now it is plain to all 
that the Catholic world may be deceived by the actual rulers 
in Rome. Several foreign journals copied the telegram ; and 
the responsibility of it falls upon the government that allowed 

Koiuan Chronicle. 337 

it to go abroad. Which means this, that it is in the power of 
Lanza, Gadda, and the like, to tell the universe that the Pope 
has said so and so, when he has preserved complete silence. 
Can this state of things last ? Is the government of the 
Church possible, when the Pope suffers such a cruel imprison- 
ment ?" 

9. Among the Bishops precognised by the Holy Father, 
on the occasion of this pro-consistory, we are happy to find 
the Rev. James Rickard, D.D., appointed Bishop in the 
Vicariate Apostolic of the Eastern District, South Africa ; 
Rev. George Conroy, D.D., Bishop of Ardagh ; Rev. Hugh 
O'Rorke, Professor in St. Patrick's, Maynooth, Bishop of 
Clonfert, and Rev. James MacDevit, Professor in All Hallows 
College, Bishop of Raphoe. 

10. The Festival of our glorious Apostle St. Patrick, was 
this year attended with unusual honours in Rome. The 
Cardinal Vicar of Rome, Cardinal Patrizi, issued an Invito 
Sacro or Pastoral Notice to the People of Rome, relative to 
Ireland's festival. He mentioned that " Ireland was justly 
proud of her Apostle, which merited through his labours the 
title of the Island of Saints, and which through centuries ot 
trial still preserves the fruits of his Apostolic zeal, and the 
memory of his example." He reminds the Roman people 
that the Festival of St. Patrick, preceded by a devout 
Triduum will be celebrated, in the Church of S. Agata a 
Monti attached to the Irish College, and adds that the Holy 
Father grants a Plenary Indulgence on the Feast, and an 
Indulgence of seven years and quarantines for each attendance 
at the Triduum. 

1 1. The riots which took place in the Piazza and Church ot 
the Gesu, on the Qth and loth March, have attracted so much 
attention that we deem it requisite to give a detailed and 
impartial account of these sad occurrences. The Pall Mall 
Gazette, in a Roman correspondence copied into the Saunders's 
News-Letter, of Dublin, has put in circulation a multitude ot 
falsehoods, that would not be easy to. overtake at this distance. 
However, in order that we may appear impartial, we select 
the history of these riots from the revolutionary Journals of 
Rome, principally two, La Libcrta, edited by a Jew, and 
subsidized by the Italian Government, and L Italia Nuoi'a, 
a rabid Anti-Catholic Paper. La Liberia, in its number of 
the loth of March, traces the origin of the disturbances that 
occurred at the Gesu, on the day previous, to the fact of 
some young Liberals, in National Guard uniform, entering the 
church, behaving disrespectfully during the sermon of Father 

338 Roman Chronicle. 

Tommasi, and expressing aloud their disapprobation of some 
principles advanced by him ; whence, on leaving the church, 
an altercation arose between these young nationals, and a 
a few pious Catholics. Words and blows followed on both 
sides, and the police had to interfere. " We cannot," adds 
the Liberia, " but disapprove of National Guards going to the 
sermon in uniform, or being permitted to mark their disap- 
probation of the words used by the preacher." The Nuova 
Roma, of the I2th, blames the Liberal party for " provoking 
the Clericals by their exclamations of dissent during 
the course of the sermon." Notwithstanding that the 
Liberal party were thus blamed for provoking' the disorders 
of the Qth, they resolved to continue them on the loth. The 
Liberia of the nth again speaks: "To-day again fresh 
disorders at the Gesu. Two of our staff, eye-witnesses, give 
the following report. The sermon of Father Tommasi was 
no way extraordinary ; it was on confession, and he made 
no allusion whatsoever to politics. The church was less crowded 
than usual. Meanwhile, groups of young men, known for 
their liberal opinions, were gathering in the Piazza, and the 
streets adjacent, until, about the conclusion of the sermon, quite 
an unusual crowd had formed." The Italia Nuova. of the I2th, 
adds : " These young men were armed with sticks ; they were 
not in uniform, and waited patiently outside the Gesu from eleven 
o'clock. It is certain that the Questor knew full well what was 
in the wind, because he already sent an increased police force, 
and some carbineers ; and orders had reached the 62nd regi- 
ment, quartered in the adjoining convent, to hold themselves 
in readiness. Immediately after twelve, the sermon being 
over, the congregation began to leave the church, the great 
majority being caccialepri (an opprobrious epithet for the 
Catholic young men of Rome), armed with sticks. Their 
adversaries who waited for them outside, commenced to hiss 
them, and close round them, until coming within reach of 
each other, a vigorous onslaught with the sticks was made by 
both sides. The police promptly intervened, and the car- 
bineers succeeded in separating the combatants, forcing the 
caccialepri to re-enter the church, and warning off their ad- 
versaries. The troops arrived at this moment, and were 
placed at the disposal of three Delegates of Public Security, 
who ordered them to clear the Piazza, and leave a free passage 
for the people to leave the church. This, however, was a 
slow process. The bugle was sounded repeatedly, the usual 
intimations given, and the bayonet charges ordered, however 
we have not to deplore any killed or wounded : the advances 

Roman Chronicle. 339 

with fixed bayonets were made more for formality than else. 
Seven or eight were arrested because they did not disperse 
when summoned. But in the church, the officials of the 
Questor arrested eleven or twelve suspected persons, and 
carrying sticks. It was rumoured that arms were also 
found, but I cannot confirm that rumour, not having seen 
any ; I saw about twenty sticks, more or less formidable 

From this information, derived exclusively from hostile 
sources, we may infer as follows : 

1st. That the disorders of the loth, were a revenge for the 
insult of the Qth, provoked by the Liberals themselves. 

2nd. That the Liberals were armed with sticks to attack, 
and the Clericals for defence. 

3rd. That Father Tommasi's sermon had no reference to 

4th. That the Liberals "began' to hiss and close around the 

5th. That the troops entered the church, and, leaving the 
crowd to fight outside, arrested within the sacred edifice 
eleven or twelve " suspects" Catholics of course. 

6th. That the Clericals had arms, but nobody saw them. 

7th. That the troops charged with the bayonet, but only for 
formality sake. 

8th. That the Questor was fully informed of the intentions 
of the Liberals, but made no effort to prevent their being 
carried out. 

If we add to all this, the courageous exploit of arresting at 
the foot of the High Altar a priest celebrating Mass, clad in 
the sacred vestments, and with the chalice in his hand, we 
may be able to form some idea of what the Italian Government 
mean by moral order, and guaranteeing the liberty of the 
Church. We give the priest's report, as drawn up by him- 

" On Friday, the loth inst., the Lenten sermon being con- 
cluded, I, the undersigned, Ordinary Chaplain at the Church 
of the Gesu, according to custom, went to the High Altar to 
celebrate the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Continuing the 
Holy Sacrifice, I was very much distracted by the disturbance, 
the cries, and the clash of weapons, every moment increasing 
within the church ; and I discovered that the soldiers had 
even entered the sanctuary, and were upon the very steps of 
the altar ; and I was better enabled to observe this when I 
turned round to give Holy Communion to some of the faithful, 
and found I could not descend from the altar, while the faith- 

340 Roman Chronicle. 

ful could with difficulty approach the last step of the altar to 
receive Holy Communion. Then I saw soldiers of every 
description with pistols, sabres, and guns, who ordered the 
devout persons assisting at the Holy Communion to retire 
and leave the Church. Seized with Catholic zeal, I turned to 
the soldiers who were round me within the sanctuary, and told 
them to go back, because that was not the proper place for 
them, and that they were all excommunicated. When mass 
was concluded, with the chalice in one hand, and my biretta 
in the other, wishing to return to the sacristy, and not being 
able to do so from the crowd of soldiers that surrounded me, 
I begged them to allow me to pass, but no one moving, I was 
obliged to open a way with the hand in which I held my 
biretta. Laid hold of by the chasuble, and stopped at the 
door leading from the high altar to the sacristy, I was told 
that I was under arrest, whilst I had yet on the sacred vest- 
ments. On my declining to lay aside the sacred vestments 
before speaking with the Superior of the church, a National 
Guard said ' Let us tie him just as fie is, dressed like 
Pnlcinella, and lead him handcuffed through Rome.' A dele- 
gate answered that that could not be done. The same fellow 
rejoined 'Ohyes,let us take him as he is, because he has eaten 
that ' ( I cannot write it). One of the Royal Car- 
bineers (I believe an under officer because of the braid on his 
arm) turning to me said ' That he would put the handcuffs 
not only on me, but also on tJiat hangman Pius IX., and drag 
him through all Rome.' One of the delegates asked me if I 
wished to put on a citizen's dress, and I refused, saying that 
I was not ashamed of my habit. Thus, escorted by a dele- 
gate and a municipal guard, I was brought to Monte Citorio, 
and, after three hours delay, was interrogated by Questor Berti. 
He dismissed me, making me wait another half hour in an 
ante-room, and then politely told me I could return home, 
adding, that the Catholic party (the forty-six of the plebiscite) 
would do well to be moderate and have more prudence, and 
cease to insult those of the opposite party. 

" D. RAFFAELE COLALTI, Chaplain at the Gesu." 




[N.B. Thetextofthe "Monasticon" is taken verbatim from Archdall : the notes 
marked with numbers are added by the Editors.] 


Kilcrea? five miles west of Cork, in the barony of Musketry. 
Nunnery ; St. Cyra, or Chera, 23 was abbess here ; where her 
feast is celebrated October i6th. z 
Franciscan Monastery ; was founded in this town under the 

y The Earls of Clancarty had a strong castle here. * Calendar. 

Continuation of Note 22, p. 292. 

from yourself? You shall have a place of resurrection on the brink of the sea. 
said Senan, but I fear the tide will take away your remains. I fear not, said she, 
for my hope is in the Lord God, and I have confidence in your great sanctity that 
you will put a protection over my body. The holy virgin was standing on the 
water, and her Trosdan under her bosom as if she had been on the dry land all this 
time while Senan was conversing with her, and at last Senan permitted her to 
come in on the brink of the island, and Cannera scarcely reached the island 
alive. Senan then went into the church and brought communion and sacrament 
with him to Cannera, and she then died and was buried in the strand on the 
south side of the island, where her grave is. Any person in the state of grace who 
goes to the stone which is over her grave, and who prays there with fervent 
piety, beseeching her intercession with the Trinity for him, if he be going on sea, 
he will return by the grace of God, and he will not be drowned in any part of the 
world." Life of Saint Senan. GLooney, MS., C.U.I., chap. 5, pp. 30, 31; see 
also Book of Lismore, fol. 64, l.a. 

M Oil Chera. The following passage from an account of the Saints of Erin in 
"Leabhar Breac," in the Royal Irish Academy, p. 21, col. 4, mentions this place, 
and preserves the names of some of the ancient churches and distinguished saints 
in this part of the country : 

" Nine persons of the race of Conaire, i.t., Senach, son of Coirill, and Eolaing, 
from Athbii Bole in Muscraidh Mittaine, and Odran, from Lathrach Odran in 
Muscraidhe Tire ; these are the three seniors of the race of Conaire. 

" Crescliad from Cill Chera, Gobinait, the sharp-beaked Caillech (nun), from 
Buirnech (Mourn) in the boundary between Muscraidhe Mittaine and Eoganacht 
Locha Lein, and Sciath, daughter of Meachair, in Pert Sceith in Muscraidhe Aeda; 
these are the three virgins of the race of Conaire. 

" I.achtain of Achad Ur, and of Aie Cind Chaille in Ossory, and from Bealach 
Abrath, in Sliabh Cain, Finan Cam Chind Ettig, in the boundary of Ely and Per- 
cell ; Senan of Inis Cathaigh ; these are the three candles (luminaries) of the race 
of Conaire. 

" Nine persons of the race of Conaire, 
By learned persons called 
Three candles, three seniors, three virgins, 
Commemorated by the learned sages. 

" These are the three seniors 
Who spoke with Christ in conversation 
Senach, son of Cairill, without tribulation, 
Eolaing, and Odran. 

VOL. VII. 2 

342 A ncient Monasteries of Ireland. 

invocation of St. Brigid by Cormac M'Carthuigh, the Great, 
Prince of Desmond, in the year 1465. He was murdered by 
Owen his brother, 15 and was buried here in the middle of the 
choir, with the following inscription on his tomb : 

Hie jacet Cormacus fil. Thadci, fil. Cormaci, fil. Dermitii 
magni M'Carthy, Dnus. de Musgraigh Flayn ac istius con- 
ventus primus fundator. an. Dom. 1494. 

Thomas O'Herlihy, bishop of Ross, was interred here in 
1579, and the Roman Catholics repaired this house in 1604.' 

A great part of this building still remains, with the nave 
and choir of the church ; on the south side of the nave is an 
handsome arcade of three Gothic arches, supported by marble 
columns, more massive than those of the Tuscan order ; this 
arcade continues to form one side of a chapel, being a cross 
isle. In the choir are some old tombs of the family of Clan- 
carty, &c. The steeple, a light building about eighty feet 
high, and placed between the nave and choir, is still entire, 
and supported by Gothic arches. From the gateway, on 
either side, to the high road, are high banks entirely formed 
of human bones and sculls, which are cemented together with 
moss : besides these, and great numbers strown about, there 
are several thousands piled up in the arches, windows, &c. 
The river Bride runs near this ruin. The lands were granted 
to Lord Muskerry, but after the wars of 1641, Oliver Crom- 
well gave them to Lord Broghill.* 

Act. SS.,p. 15. b War. Annal. c War. Mss. , vol. 34, /. 164. War. Bpt. 
p. 588. f Smith, vol. 2, p. 101. Smith, vol. \, p. 210, 211. 

" These are the three Cailec/is (nuns) 
Who freely gave their love to Christ 
Ciarascach, Gobinait, with devotion, 
And Sciach, daughter of Meachair. 

" These are the three candles 
Who saved middle Munster 
Lachtain, the fair, the good instructor, 
Finan Cam, and Scnan. 

" Senan of Sliabh Luimnigh, who is not weak, 
Lachtain from Bealach Abrath, 

With the King of the elements, a deed not concealed, 
And Finan-Cam-Chind-Ettig. 

" They are alike in state with the King of Heaven, 
Alike their right and their family, 
Alike the union they have consummated 
In heaven and on earth," &c., &c. 

The seven sons of Torben, son of Nuachadh, i.e. , Lilan. from Ath-na-Ceall, on 
the brink of Abhan Mor (Blackwater) ; Silen and Cellan, from Ath-na-Ceall also; 
Senan Liath, from Cill T-Senain Leith ; Trian, from Domnach Mor Muscraidhe 
Mittaine ; Mochoba, from Lismore ; Crocho, from Cill Crochan, in the boundary 
of Leix and Ossory ; Lachtain, from Achad Ur, in Acs Chind Chaille, in Ossory 
also. The seven daughters of Torben were, Coirsech, Cersech, Sodelb, Cellsech, 
from Ath-na-g-cell, &c., &c., &c. 

County of Cork. 343 

Kilcruimthir ;** near the city of Cluainchollaing, or Kilchuile, 
in Hy Liathain, the modern barony of Barrymore. St. Abban 
built a church here and died in a respectable old age A.D. 650. 
St. Cruimthcrfraech gave his name to this church and is 
honoured there. h This place is now unknown. 

Kilfeacle ; or the church of the Tooth, so called from a 
tooth of St. Patrick, that was preserved there. We cannot 
find any circumstance on record respecting this abbey, but 
that St. Beoan of Cluainfiachul, in Muscragia, was a disciple 
of St. Patrick's. 1 This place is also now unknown. 

Killabraher ; or the Church of the Brotherhood ; a ruined 
monastery between Churchtown and Liscarol, in the barony 
of Kilmorc ; it is uncertain to what order it did belong. k 

Killcigh ; a small village four miles from Youghal, in the 
barony of Imokilly. 

St. Abban, who died A.D. 650, built an abbey at Killachadh 
conchean.and made the holy Virgin, St. Conchenna, abbess of it. 1 

Kit Na Marbhan ; or the Church of the Dead ; near 
Briggoban, or Brigown, in the barony of Clongibbon. This 
church was also founded by St. Abban. m 

Kingsale ; in the barony of Kerrycurry and Kinallea, is a 
corporation town, sending two burgesses to parliament, and is 
well known for its excellent harbour and strong fortifications. 

Priory of Regular Canons ; St. Cobban, a disciple of St. 
Ailb, was patron of the monastery of Kingsale ; r ' and in the 
sixth century we meet with St. Began of Kinnsaile. St. 
Senan lies buried here : he presided over the Churchof Cluan, 
between the mountains Crot and Mairge, in Munster. 

White Friars ; we have no information about the foundation 
of this house ; but Stephen Prene, the prior of it, obtained, 
in the year 1350, a quarter of land in Lischan from Robert 

11 Act. SS., p. 615, 623. *Tr. Th.p.\%\. k Smith, vol. I,/. 326. * Act. SS., 
p. 632. m Id., p. 527. "/</.,/. 750. "/</.,/. 573. 

*Kilcruimthir was situated about a mile and a-half north of Fermoy, on the old 
road to Ballyhindon Castle ; it is now an old ruin and burial ground. It was thr 
parish church of /// Maoile Machaire, in the ancient territory of Fermoy. See notf 
under Fermoy. 

The genealogy of St. Cruimthir Fraech, from whom this place has its name, is 
thus preserved in Leabhar Breac in the Royal Irish Academv, p. 16, col. 4 : 
Crnimthir Fraech, son of Carthach, son of Nedi, son of Onchon, son of Findloga, 
son of Find Fir, son of Causcrach, &c. 

The following passage from an ancient Irish life of St. Aban, mentions this and 
other churches in the same country : 

" And Aban then returned into the territory of Corca-Duibhne, and he blessed 
Boumeach and he gave it to Gobnait ; and he blessed Cill-Aithfe, on Magh Con- 
chon, and he gave it to Fionnan, and Fionnan foretold the coming of Aban many 
years before he was born. He blessed Cul [Cill] Cullainge and Brigobann, and Cill 
Cruimthir and Cill na Marbh, and he blessed Cluain Aird Mo Beococ, and Cluain- 
Fionnglaise, and he left Beccan in it ; and he left the office of the Holy Church in 
every church of them." Life of St. Aban. O'C., MS., C.U.I., p. 54. 

344 Ancient Monasteries of Ireland. 

Fitz-Richard Balrayne. p Part of the ruins of this monastery 
still remain in the north end of the town.^ 25 

Lcgan; there was a monastery here, of which John de Comp- 
ton was prior in the year i3Oi. r We have no other account of 
it, but that, at the suppression of religious houses, the prior of 
St. John in Waterford was found to be seized of this priory. 

Lneim ; there was a monastery here, of which the only 
account we have is, that it was situated near the city of Cork, 
and that David de Cogan was patron in the year 1318." 

Maiir, see Carigiliky. 

Middletown /* a market and borough, pleasantly situated 
in the barony of Imokilly. An abbey was founded here 
A.D. 1 1 80, by the Fitzgeralds ; u or, according to others, by 
the family of Barry ; w it was supplied with monks of the 
Cistertian order from the abbey of Nenay, or Magio, in the 
county of Limerick, and was called the abbey of St. Mary of 
Chore, or of the Chore of St. Benedict* 

Donald was abbot of this house, and was succeeded by 
Robert, who governed the abbey A.D. 1 3097 

1476. Gerald, bishop of Cloyne, appropriated several vicar- 
ages to this abbey. 226 

Monanimy ; is seated on the river Blackwater, in the 

P War. Mss., -vol. 34, /. 108. * Smith, vol. I, /. 227. * King, p. 141. Id., 
p. 142. * Was called by the Irish Castre ni chora. War. Man. w Allemande. 
1 War. Mon. ' King, p. 376. * War. Bps.,p. 563. 

M Cluain. This is probably the place referred to in the following passage of the 
Irish life of St. Findbarr : 

After St. Barra had built the church of Achadh Duirbchon, near Cuas Barra, he 
crossed the Abhan Mor to Cill-Cluana, and he built a church there, and remained 
there for some time, till two pupils of St. Ruadan of Lothra, i.e., Cormacand 
Baoithin came to him, and soon after Ruadan himself came to him there. After 
this, Ruadan's pupils came to ask him for a place for themselves, and Ruadan 
said to them, " Go forth to where the tongues of your bells will sound, and it is 
in that place your resurrection will be on the last day, and remain in that place. 
They then went forth till they reached Cill Cluana (the Church of Cluain), where 
Barra was, and the bells sounded there, and the clerics became very much dis- 
heartened, as they did not expect to get this church or place. Barra saw this, and 
said to them, " Be not disheartened," said he, " for I will give up this church and 
all the wealth and property that belong to it, to God and to you ;" and so Barra gave 
his church to them, and the above-named clerics remained in that church. And 
Barra built twelve churches more after this before he came to Cork, and gave them 
all in charity and love of God. And he was then led by the angel to where Cork is 
to-day, where he settled down in the seat of his resurrection. " O 1 Curry, MS. C. U. I. 

** Middletown ; The Inquisition given in the the text thus commences in the 
copy of R. I. A. : Inquisition the Tuesday next after the nativity of the Virgin 
Mary, 3ist Henry VIII., finds the abbot was seized of the abbey, dormitory, 
cloister, chapter-house, an hall, &c. 

Inquisition 3rd May, 1612, finds that Sir John Fitz Emund Gerrald, knight, was, 
at his death, seized of this monastery, and of the possessions thereunto belonging, 
containing three carucates of land, and of an hundred acres of land in this county, 
and Cowlebanj, one carucate. A mill on the River Awnye Corrg. 

Inquisition 26th January, i/th Elizabeth, finds that the castk and townland of 

( To be continued.) 





MAY, 1871. 


the last Number of the RECORD we endeavoured to trace 
the personal and political career of Macchiavelli ; the present 
paper will deal with his writings, which have, indeed, made his 
name widely known, whether favourably or otherwise, our 
readers must decide for themselves when they shall have 
finished the perusal of this notice. 

The works of the Florentine diplomatist may be divided 
into two classes, viz., those treating ex professo of politics, 
and those which are purely literary. The former have made 
him famous ; the latter are known only to the " virtuosi" in 
literature, and the most that can be said of them is, that they 
prove him to have been a man of some literary taste. We 
shall dispose of the minor works first, and purpose doing so 
very briefly, devoting the greater portion of our paper to 
Macchiavelli's political treatises, and the soundness of the views 
put forward in them. 

Macchiavelli was not only a writer of prose, but of poetry 
as well. His poems must be regarded, however, as the pro- 
ductions of a licentious and irreligious young man, who was 
vain enough to think he might attain a high position in the 
world of letters by employing his talents in a field which had 
been already cultivated with distinguished success by many of 
his countrymen, under the patronage of the Medici at Florence, 
and of Leo X. at Rome. Of their claim to a place in Italian 
literature we cannot presume to speak, having never read them 
except through the medium of a French translation. But the 
learned historian, Roscoe, who had read them in the original, 
thus pronounces his judgment on the subject : " Of the 
poetical works of Macchiavelli in his native tongue, several 
VOL. vu. 24 

346 Macchiavelli. 

pieces remain, which are distinguished rather by vigour and 
conciseness of expression, than by poetical ornament." 1 Nor 
could it well be otherwise; for Macchiavelli, though a vigorous 
word-wielder in prose, and possessed of a sharp, clear intellect, 
was yet of too cold and frigid a disposition ever to become a 
successful votary of the Muses. He lacked both fancy and 
imagination ; and, if we are to credit Roscoe (loc. cit.), his 
verses lacked the grace of harmony as well. 

If we except his correspondence with Vettori and some 
other friends, the prose works of Macchiavelli at least such 
of them as deserve special notice may be reduced to three, viz., 
the " Discourses on Livy," "The History of Florence," and 
" The Prince." 

The first-mentioned is a commentary on the first decade of 
Livy, in which the author, taking for his theme the principal 
facts recorded in the pages of the great Roman historian, 
furnishes us with his own views on the origin of civil power, 
and the means by which sovereignty may be acquired, and 
its possession secured to the ruler. The work is, in truth, 
nothing else than a foreshadowing of those pernicious doc- 
trines embodied at a later period in "The Prince," and when 
treating of that celebrated composition we shall have occasion 
sometimes to allude again to the " Discorsi su Tito Livio." 

The history of Florence, in eight books, comprises the trans- 
actions of that state from its origin in 1205 to the death of 
Lorenzo the Magnificent in 1492. The commencement of 
the work, describing the origin of the Italian sovereignties, 
is well written, combining the clearness of Livy with the 
terseness of Tacitus, and would well repay the labours of the 
historical student. Whoever would read even these chapters, 
must, however, be constantly on his guard against the 
poisonous maxims of a false philosophy, which here and 
there lie hid as wasps in a garden of flowers. In the Storie 
Florentine, as in all Macchiavelli's other works, the reader is . 
at once struck with the intimate acquaintance he manifests 
with history, and more particularly with that of ancient 
Rome and of the Italian states. He scarcely ever treats of 
any event without illustrating it with one or more facts drawn 
from history,and from a combination of apparently similar facts 
producing similar results, he draws conclusions which he would 
seem to regard as infallible for the guidance of men's actions 
in the future. We may call this " the Macchiavellian system 
of the philosophy of history," and it has been praised by 
some writers who, we suspect, knew far more of romance 

1 See Roscoe, Life of Leo X., vol. ii., p. 490, note 47 (Ed. Bogue). 

AfacckiavfUi, 347 

than of history, or philosophy cither. Thus, the elder 
Disraeli, in that very curious work, The Curiosities of 
Literature} writes, " Macchiavcl seems to have been the first 
writer who discovered the secret of what may be called 
comparative history. He it was who first sought in ancient 
history for the materials which were to illustrate the events 
of his own times, by fixing on analogous facts, similar per- 
sonages and parallel periods. His profound 

genius advanced still further ; he not only explained modern 
by ancient history, but he deduced those results or principles 
founded on this new sort of evidence,, which guided him in 
forming his opinions." We by no means object to the system 
of the " Philosophy of History." On the contrary, we believe 
history philosophically studied, to be a true and a grand 
science, if that study be carried out on true principles, not 
based on sophistry. We have read more than once and to 
read was to admire Bossuet's magnificent Discours sur t His- 
toirc Univcrsclle, which is generally admitted to be the most 
perfect practical expose of the philosophy of history extant. 
We know that the Catholic Church has spread her protecting 
aegis over this study, and we know by our own experience 
that in Rome, the centre of Catholic unity, and the fount of 
Catholic truth, many months of the scholastic year, in every 
seminary, are spent by the students of history in learning the 
true principles on which this science is based. But we do 
most strenuously object to the system of Messrs. Macchiavelli 
and Disraeli a system which would banish God and provi- 
dence from the world, and leave everything to blind chance. 
In reply to the remarks of these soi-disant philosophers 
we shall cite the words of Frederick Von Schlegel, 2 who 
thus corrects the supporters of the Macchiavellian doctrines 
" He who regards everything in humanity, and the progress 
of humanity, in a mere natural or rationalist point of view, 
and will explain everything by such views ; who, though per- 
haps not without a certain instinctive feeling of an all-ruling 
Providence and a certain pious deference for its secret ways and 
high designs, yet is devoid of a full knowledge of, and deep 
insight into, the conduct of Providence he to whom the 
power of evil is not clear, evident, and fully intelligible ; he 
will ever rest on the surface of events and historical facts, 
and satisfied with the outward appearance of things, neither 
comprehend the meaning of the whole, nor understand the 

1 See page 444 of "The Curiosities of Literature" (Ed. Routledge). 

1 He who wishes to study this question would do well to read ^chlegcl's truly 
admirable 1st Lecture in "The Philosophy of History," which serves as an intro- 
duction to the entire work. 

348 Macchiavclli. 

import of any part. But the matter of greatest moment is to 
watch the spirit of God, revealing itself in history, enlightening 
and directing the judgments of men, saving and conducting 
mankind, and even here below admonishing, judging and 
chastising nations and generations ; to watch this spirit in its 
progress through all ages, and discern the fiery marks and 
traces of its footsteps. This threefold law of the world, these 
three mighty principles in the historical progress of mankind 
the hidden ways of a Providence delivering and emancipating 
the human race next, ti\t frit-will of man doomed to a decisive 
choice in the struggle of life, and every action and sentiment 
springing from that freedom lastly, the power permitted by God 
to the evil principle, cannot be deduced as things absolutely 
necessary, like the phenomena of nature, or the laws of human 
reason. It is only when we have gone very deeply into the 
varied and complex nature of the circumstances of any age, 
and examined in their manifold bearings those historical pheno- 
mena which attend or produce the critical turning points, the 
decisive eras of history, that we can clearly discover the spiritual 
elements the great ideas which lie at the bottom of a mighty 
revolution in society. In every other abstract science, an 
exception from the rule appears a contradiction ; but in the 
science of history, every real exception serves but the better 
to make us comprehend and judge the rest." 1 We shall leave 
our readers to decide for themselves whether the views of the 
English novelist and panegyrist of Macchiavelli, or those 
of the German philosopher, merit best the attention of a 
Christian who would study the philosophy of history. 

We now come to consider Macchiavelli's most famous work, 
" The Prince." It was composed at his country house (or,* 
rather cabin, for he himself styles it "tugttrio") of San Cassiano, 
about eight miles from Florence, whither he had retired when 
the government in whose employ he had been had fallen by 
the restoration of the Medici to power in September, 1512. In 
this famous composition the author aims at setting forth his 
views regarding the different kinds of sovereignties, and the 
principles which should regulate the conduct of princes in 
governing their states. In the eleven first chapters he treats 
(a) of the different kinds of principalities, and the means by 
which they are acquired ; (/?) of hereditary principalities ; (y) of 
mixed principalities ; (8) how principalities should be governed ; 
(() of new principalities acquired by foreign aid or good fortune ; 
() of those who have attained sovereignty by their crimes ; 
(TJ) of civil principalities; (6) of ecclesiastical principalities. In 
chapters 12, 13, 14, he treats of military governments, and of 

* See " The Philosophy of History," by Frederick Von Schlegel. Lecture xv. 

Macchiavelli. 349 

the duties of a prince towards his soldiers, and of their duties 
in return towards him. From chapter the sixteenth to the end 
of the treatise he discusses the various qualities of princes, 
and the duties incumbent on them. Such as, " Of liberality and 
economy;" (ch. xvi.) "Of cruelty and clemency; and whether 
it is better to be loved than feared ;" (ch. xvii.) "Whether princes 
ought to be faithful to their engagements;" (ch. xviii.) "That 
it is necessary to avoid being hated and despised ; " (ch. xix.) 
" Whether fortresses and some other things are really of service 
to a prince;" (ch. xx.) "How a prince ought to avoid flatterers;" 
(ch. xxi.) " Of ministers ;" (ch. xxii.) " By what means a 
prince may become esteemed;" ch. xxiii.) " How far fortune 
influences the things of this world ; and how far she may be 
resisted ;" (ch. xxv.) "Exhortation to deliver Italy from foreign 
princes (ch. xxvi.). 

From the headings of the chapters which we have given, it 
will be perceived at a glance that the author's purpose when 
writing Tlie Prince, was 

1. To describe, according to his views, the nature of diffe- 
rent governments. 

2. To point out how supreme power might be obtained in 
a state. 

3. To teach by what means the possession of power might 
be secured to any particular prince or family. 

Before we proceed to treat of Macchiavelli's views on these 
subjects, or to discuss the arguments by which he strives to 
support them, we must bring one or two preliminary matters 
under the notice of our readers. 

A question which has given rise to no little controversy is 
this : in writing The Prince, was Macchiavelli sincere ? 
Did he really mean that sovereigns should put in practice the 
atrocious maxims which he inculcates in that book ? In a 
word, was he actuated by good or bad motives when he 
deliberately sat down after his game of " Cricca," at San 
Cassiano, to pen the pages of The Prince ? 

Some writers have maintained that Macchiavelli in writing 
" II Principe" was actuated by an excellent motive, viz. that 
of deterring princes from the commission of crime, by paint- 
ing it in all its odious deformity. Thus one of his most 
warm apologists in the " Elogii Toscani" writes " If it be 
contended that this work is fit for the perusal of all sovereigns, 
as well legitimate as usurpers, and that he intended to give 
an eulogium on tyranny, he can neither be defended nor 
excused. But how can it be thought possible that Mac- 
chiavelli, who was born under a Republic, who was employed 
as one of its secretaries, who performed so many important 

3 5 O A face Ida velli. 

embassies, and who in his conversation always dwelt on the 
glorious actions of Brutus and Cassius, should have formed 
such a design." 1 And Lord Bacon 2 writes, "Our thanks are 
due to Macchiavelli, and to similar writers, who have openly 
and without dissimulation, shown us what men are accus- 
tomed to do, not what they ought to do." 

Now we would be pleased indeed could we only persuade 
ourselves that Macchiavelli was actuated by such good 
motives, when he composed his " Prince." It is not only per- 
mitted, but laudable, nay even sometimes necessary, to paint 
vice in its most odious colours, in order to deter men from 
committing it. Juvenal is sometimes exceedingly coarse in 
describing Roman licentiousness, but any intelligent reader 
of his satires can perceive at a glance that he detested those 
vices which he so graphically describes. The great Apostle 
of the Gentiles in some of his Epistles, more particularly in 
that to the Romans, occasionally describes, in rather strong 
language, the vices of his age, but he distinctly informs us that 
his object in so doing is to rebuke, not to encourage them. 

This being premised, we proceed to enunciate two propo- 
sitions, of the truth of which we hope to convince our 
readers : 

I. That the motive which Lord Bacon and others attribute 
to Macchiavelli in writing The Prince is irreconcilable with 
the established canons of criticism. 

II. That in the treatise The Prince, Macchiavelli meant 
what he said ; and intended the maxims there laid down to 
serve for the guidance of Lorenzo de Medici in his political 
conduct. Let us come to proofs. 

(a) If Macchiavelli seriously meant the description of 
political profligacy contained in // Principe to excite solely 
feelings of horror and disgust, why, we ask, did he not state 
so plainly "a limine?" or at least why not give his readers 
some clue by which they might discover that such was his 
real purpose ? for the relations of mankind, whether domestic, 
social, or political, are of too sacred a character to be lightly 
trifled with, or treated of in ambiguous terms. Yet, (b) Mac- 
chiavelli not only docs not disavow such principles as those 
he inculcates in The Prince, but a tone of emphasis runs 

1 Vide Elogii Toscani iii. 89. The defence set up for Macchiaveli in the lext 
is exceedingly weak. His entire life, as detailed in the last " RECORD'," shows that 
he could be either a Despot or a Red Republican, just as it suited his interest, 
and perhaps the very best answer to the argument given above, can be found in 
Macchiavelli's own words. " If I taught princes Jicnu to be tyrants 1 taught the 
people hmi> to slay them" 

'* " De augment, sclent. ' vii. In. op. iii. 137. 

Macchiavelli. 351 

through the entire work which clearly indicates that he entirely 
approves of them. Nay more (c) the principles which he 
inculcates in The Prince had been previously advanced in 
the Discourses on Livy, and he even sometimes refers to 
the Discourses for the further elucidation of the meaning 
of some passages in The Prince. Ex. gr., compare the 
" Discorsi su Tito Livio," iii. 42, and // Principe, cap. 18, in 
both of which identically the same principles are laid down 
regarding the question " Whether a Prince ought to be faith- 
ful to his engagements." Compare also the " Discorsi," lib. 
ii., cap. 13, and // Principe, cap. 18. Now who, we ask, 
will be rash enough to assert that the " Discorsi" were not 
penned by Macchiavelli in downright sober earnestness ? 

(d) Again, Macchiavelli's intimate friend, Biaggio Buonac- 
corsi, in a letter to Pandolfo Bellucci, thus writes of The 
Prince: "I send you a little work lately published by 
Niccolo Macchiavelli, in which you will find described with 
brevity, but with great clearness, all the qualities incidental 
to principalities, the methods of preserving them, the failings 
to which they are liable, with accurate observations upon history, 
ancient and modern, and many otJicr most useful features, from 
all of wJiich, if you read the book with your "wonted attention, 
you will derive great benefit"^- From this extract it is quite 
evident that Buonaccorsi did not regard Macchiavelli's work 
as a satire, but as a bona fide code of instruction for princes ; 
and knowing the Florentine statesman intimately as he did, 
Buonaccorsi must be at least a tolerable interpreter of his 

(e) But perhaps the most conclusive proof of all, and one 
which will, to our mind, incontestibly establish at once both 
our propositions, may be drawn from Macchiavelli's dedicatory 
epistle to The Prince, addressed to Lorenzo de Medici, and 
which, notwithstanding its length, we here subjoin in full, 
because of its importance. 

" Niccolo Macchiavelli, Citizen and Secretary of Florence, to the 

Most Magnificent Lorenzo dc Medici, 

" Those who court the favour of princes generally present 
them with whatever they possess that is most rare, curious, or 
valuable, as horses, armour, embroidered cloths, precious 
stones, &c., according to the dignity of the personage they 
seek to propitiate. For my part, my anxiety to present my- 
self to the notice of your Highness, with the best proof of my 
devotion, has not enabled me to discover anything that I 
esteem more or account so valuable as a knowledge of the 

1 See Baudin. monumcn. ined., in praef. 37. 

352 Macchiavelli. 

actions of celebrated men a knowledge acquired by a long 
experience of modern times, and a diligent perusal of the 
ancients. The observations which I have made with all the 
accuracy, reflection, and care of which I am capable, are contained 
in the small volume now addressed to you. And although I 
have not the vanity to deem it worthy of your acceptance, yet 
I feel persuaded that your goodness will not refuse the offer- 
ing, since it is impossible to present you with anything more 
valuable than a work which will place before you, in a small 
compass, all the experience I have acquired during many 
years of continual meditation and suffering in the school of 

" You will find in this fragment, neither a glowing and lofty 
style, nor any of those meretricious ornaments, with which 
authors seek to embellish their works. Its interest must 
depend upon the importance of the subject, the solidity of the 
reflexions, and the truth of the facts recorded. 

" It will, perhaps, appear presumptuous in me, a man of 
humble birth, to propose rules of conduct to those who govern; 
but as the painter, when about to sketch a mountain in our 
country, places himself in the plain, and in order to draw the 
scenery of a vale, ascends an eminence, even so, I conceive, 
that a person must be a prince to discover the nature and 
character of a people, and one of the people to judge properly 
of a prince. 

" I am, therefore, bold enough to hope that^w will accept 
this feeble tribute, in reference to the intention with which it 
is offered ; and if you condescend to read it with attention, 
you will have evidence of my ardent desire to see you fill with 
glory those high destinies to which fortune and your splendid 
talents have called you. 

" If, from your elevated position, you should condescend to 
look down on a person in my lowly station, you will see how 
long and how unworthily I have been persecuted by the 
extreme and unrelenting malevolence of fortune. 


Such is the dedicatory epistle prefixed by Macchiavelli to 
" The Prince ;" and we unhesitatingly ask any candid reader, 
whether, after having perused it, he will not join with us in 
asserting that it was the author's object in this treatise, to 
teach princes how to acquire and retain power by fair means 
or foul, and that he was impelled to its composition by a 
desire to ingratiate himself with the Medici family, and 
obtain some position under them in the Government of 

Macchiavelli. 353 

We now proceed to examine what those principles are 
which Macchiavelli proposes for the adoption of princes^ if 
they would secure power, and retain it. They may all be 
summed up in this one sentence THE END JUSTIFIES THE. 
MEANS. A prince ought not hesitate to commit the most 
heinous crimes to violate the most sacred promises to- 
trample on the most unequivocal rights to sanction the 
most flagrant injustice, provided power can thereby be 
obtained and secured. 

Such is an epitome of the principles laid down by Macchia- 
velli, for the guidance of princes ; and if we only succeed in 
establishing, by extracts from " II Principe" itself, that we 
have impartially represented the spirit of that work, we pre- 
sume our readers will join with vis in affirming that the name 
of Macchiavelli ought to be consigned to eternal infamy. .Let 
us come to proofs : 

First of all, in chapter xv. of the Prince we find this 
general principle laid down " A prince who wishes to main fain 
his power, ought to learn that he should not be always good, and 
must use that knowledge as circumstances and the exigencies of 
his own affairs may seem to require" This, we take it, is but 
a more explicit form of expressing the idea that the end justifies 
tlu means. 

Hence, true to this general principle, we find Macchiavelli 
advocating : 

(a) Murder and cruelties, of the most atrocious description, 
whenever they may serve to work out one's projects. Thus 
("The Prince," chapter viii.), after narrating the many murders, 
cruelties, and crimes, perpetrated by Agathocles, a Sicilian, 
who, in ancient times, usurped the throne of Syracuse, and 
similar enormities committed about the time at which he 
wrote, by Oliverotto da Fermo, he proceeds to defend both 
these monsters, on the ground that their crimes were expedient, 
or, as he himself naively puts it, well-applied, and sums up thus: 
" Whence I conclude that the usurper of a state should commit 
all the cruelties which his safety renders necessary at once, that 
he may nc*scr have cause to repeat than." 

Again, in the same work (chap, xvii.) we find this very 
remarkable" but characteristic passage "When a prince is at 
the head of his army, and has under his command a multitude 
of soldiers, he should make little account of being esteemed 
cruel ; such a character will be of use to him, by keeping his 
troops in obedience, and preventing every species of fac- 

Everyone who has read anything of history is acquainted 
with the infamous character of Caesar Borgia. Should any- 

354 Macchiavelli. 

one wish to read it sketched by a master hand, let him con- 
sult the first volume of the Life of Leo X. by Roscoe. Borgia 
was simply a lawless bandit, whose hands were red with the 
blood of his victims, whose days were spent in murder and 
rapine, and whose nights were passed in shameless debauchery. 
And yet this is the model which the Florentine secretary 
would propose to princes for imitation. Thus, he writes in 
chap. vii. of The Prince " If we examine the whole conduct 
of Borgia, we shall see how firm a foundation he laid for 
future greatness. This examination will not be superfluous; 
for I know no better lesson for the instruction of a prince 
than is afforded by the actions and example of the Duke, 1 for 
if the measures he adopted did not succeed, it was not his 
fault, but rather owing to the extreme perversity of fortune!" 
And again, .towards the close of the same chapter, he writes 
" Upon a thorough review, therefore, of the Duke's conduct 
and actions, I cannot reproach him with having omitted any 
precaution ; and I feel that he merits being proposed as a 
model to all who by fortune or foreign arms succeed in acquir- 
ing sovereignty." Whence it follows, in the judgment of 
Macchiavelli, that to be a model prince one must be a model 

(b.) The observance of treaties, good faith, and such matters, 
are treated with the greatest contempt by Macchiavelli. He 
would have his model prince shun them as a something 
defiled. This is how he treats the subject in chap, xviii. of 
// Principe " Now, as a prince must learn to act the part of 
a beast sometimes, he should make the fox and the lion his 
patterns. The first can but feebly defend himself against the 
wolf, and the latter readily falls into such snares as are laid 
for him. From the fox, therefore, a prince will learn dexterity 
in avoiding snares ; and from the lion, how to employ his 
strength to keep the wolves in awe. But they who entirely rely 
upon the lion's strength, will not always meet with success ; 
in other words, a prudent prince cannot and ought not to keep his 
word, except when he can do it witJiont injury to himself, or 
when the circumstances under which lie contracted the engage- 
ment still exist." Lest anybody might be inclined to suppose 
that this sentence was penned inadvertently by Macchiavelli, 
that worthy man proceeds to inform us in the very next para- 
graph, that the sentiment just quoted is his deliberate convic- 
tion, for he adds, " I should be cautious in inculcating such a 
precept if all men were good ; but as the generality of man- 

1 Caesar Borgia \cas commonly known among his contemporaries as Duke 

Valentino. . 

Macchia : r///. 355 

kind are wicked and ever ready to break their words, a 
prince should not pique himself in keeping his more scrupulously, 
especially as it is always easy to justify a breach of faith on his 

(c). Cunning is, next to force, the great piece de resistance in 
the Macchiavellian system. In the "Discourses on Liyy" 
(lib. ii., chap. 13) he writes thus, " I do not think there is a 
single instance on record of a man, who, from an obscure station, 
arrived at great power by the single means of avowed and 
open force ; but I have seen others succeed by cunning alone, 
as, for instance, John Galeazzo de Visconti, who wrested the 
sovereignty of Lombardy from the hands of his uncle Bernardo. 
What princes are obliged to do in the commencement of their 
career, republics ought continually to practise until they are 
powerful enough to be able to conquer by force alone ; and as 
Rome, to aggrandise herself, adopted every method by chance 
or choice, she also practised the political system of deception." 
Again, in giving instructions to Raphael Girolami on his 
appointment as ambassador to the Emperor, Macchiavelli 
writes to him thus, " It is undoubtedly necessary for the 
ambassador occasionally to mask his game ; but it should be 
done so as not to awaken suspicion, and he ought ahvays to be 
prepared with an answer in case of 'discovery '." In chap, xviii. 
of The Prince we find these remarkable sentences, " I could 
show numberless engagements and treaties which have been 
violated by the treachery of princes, and that tliosewho enacted 
the part of the fox, have always succeeded best in their affairs. 
It is necessary, however, to disguise the appearance of craft, and 
thoroughly to understand the art of feigning and dissembling; 
for men are generally so simple and so weak, that he who wishes 
to deceive easily finds dupes." 

(d.) Conscience must be a very pliable article in Macchia- 
velli's model prince, for in chap, xviii of " // Principe " we find 
this doctrine laid down, " I maintain that a prince, and 
especially a new prince, cannot with impunity exercise all the 
virtues because his own self-preservation will often compel him 
to violate the laws of charity, religion and humanity. He should 
habituate himself to bend easily to the various circumstances 
which may from time to time surround him. In a word, it will be 
as useful to him to persevere in the path of rectitude, while he feels 
no inconvenience in doing so, as to know how to deinate from it 
when circumstances dictate such a course" But though Macchia- 
velli would not advise his prince to be over-scrupulous, 
yet he counsels him to put on the appearance of piety : and 

(e) Hypocrisy must be a leading feature in his character, for 
in the xviii. chapter of The Prittce we find this sentence, " He 

356 Macchiavelli. 

(the Prince) should make it a rule above all things never to utter 
anything which does not breathe of kindness, justice, good faith, 
and piety this last quality it is most important for him to appear 
to possess, as men in general judge more from appearances tJian 
from reality? 

We could fill several pages with such extracts, but cuibono? 
The specimens which we have given are, we believe, quite suf- 
ficient to induct our readers into a knowledge of the code of 
political ethics laid down in The Prince, and will serve also to 
give some insight into the character of the famous author of 
that work. It would be interesting and instructive to review 
the practical working of the Macchiavellian system of politics. 
This system has been largely adopted by modern statesmen, 
and however it may have seemed to prosper for a while, it has 
invariably ended in failure. The first French empire had its 
Macchiavelli ; everything seemed prosperous for a while, but 
the system was radically rotten, and St. Helena can tell the 
final result The second French empire followed, to some 
extent, in the track of the first, and the exile of Chiselhurst 
is in a position to state his views regarding the soundness of 
that policy. The rulers of the kingdom of Italy have been 
most devoted adherents of the Macchiavellian system, and a 
bankrupt exchequer, a discontented population, and a govern- 
ment powerless to enforce law at home or respect abroad , 
testify to the success of the experiment. Spain has had her 
Macchiavelli, and the anarchy which has distracted that unhappy 
country for the past three years, proves that there as else- 
where the system has been fraught with evil. Germany has 
her Macchiavelli ; to-day she is elated with successes which 
surpassed even her most sanguine expectations. But let 
her beware, for the day may not be very far distant which 
may see the victorious Teutons of 1871, craving peace from 
some stronger and equally unscrupulous power. No ! the 
political system of Macchiavelli is based on iniquity, and can 
bring nought but evil. in its train. 

We should extend this paper beyond its just limits were 
we to discuss further at present the evils of this policy. We 
purpose, however, returning to the subject in our next 

W. H. 




MY ESTEEMED FRIEND The concluding words of my last 
fetter have induced you, I see, to ask for some explanation 
about the beatific vision, because you have never been able, 
you say, to form a clear idea of what we understand by this 
sovereign felicity. I am undoubtedly glad to have my atten- 
tion called to this point, which does not produce in the mind 
the painful impressions, with which some of those examined 
in other letters afflict us. In a word, felicity is in question, 
and this can cause only one unpleasant sensation, viz. : the 
fear of not attaining it. 

As far as I see, you do not comprehend "how a simple 
knowledge can constitute perfect felicity, and yet the 
intuitive vision of God can be nothing else. It cannot be 
denied the exercise of our intellectual faculties affords us some 
enjoyments; but it is also certain that these require the con- 
currence of sentiment, without which they are cold and 
severe as reason, from which they spring." You wish " that 
we, Catholics, would note this characteristic of our mind, 
which, though it comes at objects by means of the under- 
standing, does not intimately unite itself to them, so as to 
produce enjoyment, till sentiment steps in to realise that 
mysterious expansion of soul, through which we adhere to the 
object perceived, and establish an affectionate compenetra- 
tion between it and us." These words of yours are true at 
bottom, inasmuch as they require, for the felicity of an 
intellectual being, a union of love, besides the intellectual act. 
Be the object known what it might, it would never make us 
happy if we contemplated it with indifference. I unhesitat- 
ingly admit that the soul would never be happy, if on 
knowing the object which is to make her so, she did not love 
it. Without love there is no felicity. 

But though your doctrine is true at bottom, it is applied 
very inexactly and inopportunely, when you try to found on 
it an argument against the beatific vision, as taught by 
Catholics. We make eternal blessedness consist in the 
intuitive vision of God ; but we do riot thereby exclude love, 
but on the contrary hold that this love is necessarily bound 
up with the intuitive vision. And theologians have gone so 
far as to dispute whether the essence of blessedness consisted 

3 5 8 Letters of Balmes. 

in the vision or the love ; but all agree that the latter is a 
necessary consequence of the former. It is easily seen it is a 
long time since you threw away mystic books and treatises on 
religion, when you think to improve the Christian felicity by 
that philosophical scntimentalism, which is far from rising to 
the pure sphere of the love of charity which Catholics admit, 
imperfect in this life, and perfect in the next. 

The simple knowledge of which you speak, when treating of 
the intuitive vision of God, makes me suspect you do not com- 
prehend what we mean by intuitive vision, but confound this 
act of the soul with the common exercise of the intellectual 
faculties as experienced in this life. Allow me, then, to enter 
on some philosophical considerations about the different ways 
in which we can know an object. 

Our understanding can know in two ways : by intuition, and 
by conceptions. We have a knowledge of intuition when the 
object is presented immediately to the perceptive faculty, 
without necessity for combinations of any sort to complete 
the knowledge. In this operation the understanding limits 
itself to the contemplation of what is before it : it does not 
compose, nor divide, nor abstract, nor apply, nor do anything 
but see what it has present. The object, as it is in itself, is given 
to it immediately, is presented to it with all clearness ; and 
though the operation terminates objectively, and in this sense 
exercises the activity of the subject, it also influences the latter, 
mastering and investing it with its intimate presence. 

Knowledge by conception is of a different nature. The 
object is not given immediately to the perceptive faculty: 
the latter occupies itself with an idea, which, in a certain way, 
is the work of the understanding itself, which has formed it by 
combining, dividing, comparing, abstracting, and sometimes 
running over the long chain of a complicated and troublesome 
process of reasoning. 

Though I am sure the profound difference there is between 
these two classes of knowledge will not escape your penetra- 
tion, still I will render it clear by an example within the 
comprehension of the whole world. Intuitive knowledge can be 
compared to the sight oi objects : but the knowledge acquired 
by conceptions is like the idea we form by means of descrip- 
tions. Being a lover of the fine arts, you must have a thousand 
times admired the treasures of some museums, and read the 
description of others which were not within your reach. Do 
you discover no difference between a picture seen and one 
described ? Immense, you will tell me. The picture seen 
displays its beauty to me at a flash ; I do not require to use 
my productive powers, it is enough for me to look ; I do not 

Letters of Balmcz. 359 

combine, I contemplate ; my mind is rather passive than 
active ; and if it exercises its activity in any way, it is to 
expand itself constantly under the pleasing impressions it 
receives, as plants gently open under the soft influence of 
the vivifying atmosphere. In the description, I require to 
collect the elements given me, to combine them conformably 
to the conditions marked out, and so elaborate the aggregate 
of the picture, but imperfectly and incompletely, suspecting 
all the time the difference there is between the idea and the 
reality a difference which strikes me instantaneously, as 
soon as an opportunity presents itself, of viewing the picture 

This example, though inexact, gives us an idea of the dif- 
ference there is between these two classes of knowledge, and 
shows us the distance between the knowledge and the vision of 
God. In the former we have united in one conception the 
ideas of a being necessary, intelligent, free, all-powerful, in- 
finitely perfect, the cause of all things, and the end of all : 
in the latter the divine essence will be immediately presented 
to our mind, without comparisons, without combinations, with- 
out reasonings of any sort. Intimately present to our under- 
standing, it will master and invest it ; the eyes of the soul 
cannot be directed to any other object, and then we shall 
purely and ineffably experience that affectionate compenctration, 
that intimate union of seraphic love, described with such mag- 
nificent touches by some of the saints, who, filled with the 
divine spirit, felt in this life a presentiment of what they were 
soon to experience in the mansions of the blessed. 

You must allow me to tell you, I wondered to find you did 
not feel the beauty and sublimity of the Catholic dogma con- 
cerning the felicity of the saved. Prescinding from all religious 
considerations, what can be imagined more grand or elevated 
than to constitute supreme happiness in the intuitive vision of 
the infinite Being? If this idea had sprung from some philoso- 
phical school, there would not be tongues enough to praise 
it. The author of it would be the philosopher par excellence, 
worthy of apotheosis, and of having incense burned to him 
by all lovers of the sublime. The vague idealism of the Ger- 
mans that confused sentiment of the infinite that breathes 
in their enigmatical writings that tendency to confound 
everything in a monstrous unity, in an obscure and unknown 
being, which is called absolute; all these dreams, all these 
ravings, meet with admirers and enthusiasts, and profoundly 
move some men's minds, simply because they touch on the 
grand ideas of unity and infinity ; and can no claim be laid 
to admiration and enthusiasm by the teaching of the Catholic 

360 Letters of Balmez. 

Church, which, while it represents God as the beginning and 
end of all existences, displays him to us in a particular 
manner as the object of intellectual creatures, like an ocean 
of light and love in which all those shall be submerged who 
shall have deserved it by the observance of the laws 
that have emanated from His infinite wisdom ? Is not the 
august dogma which represents to us all spiritual beings as 
drawn from nothing by an all-powerful word, and endowed 
with an intellectual spark, the participation and image of the 
divine intelligence, through which, while dwelling for a short 
time on one of the globes of the universe, they can merit 
being united with the Being that created them, and living 
afterwards with Him in intimacy of knowledge and love for 
all eternity, worthy of admiration and enthusiasm, even if 
regarded as a simple philosophical system ? 

If this is not grand if this is not sublime if this is not 
worthy of exciting admiration and enthusiasm, I know not in 
what, sublimity and grandeur consist. No philosophical sect 
no religion, has conceived such an idea. It may well be said, 
the first words of the catechism contain infinitely more wisdom 
than is to be found in the most lofty conceptions of Plato, 
surnamed the divine. It is lamentable that you who boast of 
being philosophers should treat with levity mysteries so pro- 
found. The more one meditates on them the stronger grows 
the conviction that they could have emanated from infinite 
intelligence alone. In the midst of the shades which surround 
them through the august vales that cover their ineffable 
depths from our view, we discover rays of purest light sud- 
denly bursting forth and illumining heaven and earth. 
During the happy moments in which inspiration descends on 
the brow of mortals, treasures of infinite value are discovered 
in that which the sceptic disdainfully regards as the miserable 
pabulum of superstition and fanaticism. Do not allow your- 
self to be mastered, my dear friend, by those low prejudices 
which cloud the intellect and clip the wings of the mind ; 
meditate profoundly on religious truths : they do not fear ex- 
amination, for the harder the proof is to which they are sub- 
jected, the more complete is the victory they are certain to 

I am, &c., &c., 

J. B. 


the Breac Mocdhog preserves to us the memory of St. 
Aidan, so another shrine, called the Soiscel Molaise, has come 
down to us a memorial of his friend St. Molaise, of Devenish. 
This venerable work of early Irish art, now preserved in the 
Royal Irish Academy, derives its name from the Irish word 
for gospel (i.e., soiscel, pronounced "seeshkel"), because it 
formerly contained a copy of the Gospels, which for centuries 
was cherished with religious reverence in the monastery of 
Devenish, as written by, or belonging to, their great founder 
St. Molaise. " It is a small box or cumdach (writes Miss Stokes), 
of yellow mixed metal, such as that made to hold the gospel 
of St. Moling, or the Book of Dimma, in Trinity College 
Library, Dublin. The date of this reliquary, if so it may be 
called, can hardly be of a period later than the close of the 
tenth century. The inscription 1 which it bears, proves that 
it was executed for the use of Cennfailad, who died early in 
the eleventh century, as we are told in the Annals of the 
Four Masters, A.D. 1025 ' Cennfaeladh, son of Flaithbhear- 
tach, successor of Molaise of Daimhinis, died.' 2 The shrine 
was preserved by the family of O'Meehan, in the county of 
Lcitrim, who for more than 500 years were representatives, 
/>., com/iarbas, of St. Molaise in Devenish. Mr. Meehan, so 
late as the year 1845, still held the reliquary in his possession. 
.... The ornamental portions consist of plates of silver, with 
gilt patterns, riveted to the bronze box ..... On one side 
of the case is seen a robed ecclesiastical figure, holding 
an object, believed by Dr. Petrie to be a pastoral staff of a 
very ancient form. Details are revealed, however, by the mag- 
nified photograph, which would rather lead us to believe it to 
be the aspersory in use in the present day in the service of 
the Roman Catholic Church. A book is held in the other 
hand. This figure was probably intended to represent St. 
Molaise himself. The chasuble worn by this ecclesiastic was 
evidently embroidered. The design upon it would appear to 
have been palm leaves. The vesture round the neck, giving 

1 The old Irish inscription is still legible, and fixes the date of this shrine with 
an accuracy which is seldom attainable in the monuments that have come down to 
us from the early ages of our Church. It has been thus translated by O'Donovan 
and Petrie : " A prayer for Cennfailad, the comharb of Molaise, by whom this 
case was made ; and for Gillabaithin, the artificer who made these ornaments." 

1 The Annals of Ulster (ad. an. 10251 give the same entry " Cennfaeladh, son 
of Flaithbertach. successor of Molaise of Devenish, fell asleep in Christ." 

VOL. vn. 25 

362 S/. Aidan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 

the appearance of a collar cut in Vandykes, is also interesting, 
and unlike anything we have hitherto seen." 1 

In the life of St. Molaise, it is recorded that though himself 
wholly devoted to deeds of self-denial and penance, yet he was 
generous to others, and lavish of hospitality to the pilgrims 
who flocked to his monastery. Hence, St. Cuimin, of Connor, 
wrote of him : 

" Molaise of the lakes loves 
To be in a prison of hard stone ; 
To have a guest-house for the men of Erinn, 
Without refusal, without a particle of churlishness." 

Among those many pilgrims were the sons of Declan, who, 
being requested by St. Molaise to write a copy of the Gospels 
for him, executed that task in the space of two days and one 
night, the night being illumined as though it were day through 
the grace of the saint. 2 Some have supposed that this is 
the copy of the Gospels which was handed down in the 
monastery of Devenish, and from which the Soiscel Molaise 
derives its name. 

There is, however, another missal, or portable copy of the 
Gospels, referred to in the life of the Saint, which seems to be 
pointed out by the ancient compiler as the MS. which was 
thus held in special veneration at Devenish. St. Molaise 
arriving in Rome, the city gates, which happened to be closed 
at the time, were opened at his prayer. It soon reached the 
ears of the Pontiff that " a wonderful holy cleric of the 
Gaedhil had arrived." St. Molaise was accordingly summoned 
to the presence " of the Abbot of Rome," who welcomed 
him and invited him " to say a Mass in presence of the whole 
community of Rome." At the appointed time St. Molaise 
proceeded "to the great altar of Peter in Rome (thus runs 
the narrative in the ancient life) : the altar was prepared in his 
presence, but no Mass-book was upon it, and no cruisce* and 
no bell. Molaise having meditated for awhile, said tjiat he 
never celebrated Mass without these three things ; and forth- 
with they were sent from heaven upon the altar through his 
prayers ; the Mass-book was not large, and was subsequently 
called the soiscel, and it alone of the three articles Molaise 
consented to accept of after he had completed the office. 

1 Stokes, "On two Works of Ancient Irish Art, &c." See page 18. 

* MS. Irish Life of St. Molaise, in Royal Irish Academy. 

* I retain the original Irish word, as its meaning has not been as yet clearly 
denned. Mr. Ilennessy translates \tgoblet, in which sense it might, perhaps, in- 
dicate a chalice ; but it seems to me rather to correspond with the Latin crux, and 
to mean a crucifix. 

S/. Aidan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 363 

Molaise said he would only have the soiscel bcc (i.e., the small 
book of the Gospels), whereupon the Pope said soiscel bee 
shall be its name, and therefore it is called the soiscel bcc of 
Molaise. He remained in Rome, and wrote there the rules 
and laws that were necessary for Erinn. On his return home 
he found before him the bell and cruisce ; and, though thrice 
he sent them back to Rome, they were each time miraculously 
returned to him. Some of the relics that he brought from 
Rome were deposited in the little rdig (t.e., cemetery) of 
Devenish, to which, in consequence, great privileges were 
attached." 1 

As the year 571 is the latest date that can be assigned for the 
death of St. Molaise, 2 we may safely assert that his journey 
to Rome, and his visit to St. Aidan, and consequently the 
foundation of St. Aidan's religious establishment in Ferns, 
must be registered in the Pontificate of Pope John the Third, 8 
and not later than 570. 

Ferns had long been one of the royal seats of the Kings of 
Leinster ; and when St. Aidan founded his religious establish- 
ment there, he received from these devoted princes every aid 
in his mission of piety and charity. Colman, son of Cairbre, 
King of Leinster, died in 576, and was succeeded by Bran- 
dubh, son of Eathach, of the race of Cathair-Mor, who during 
his long reign of 28 years, proved himself the constant friend 
and patron of our saint. In 593 Leinster was invaded by 
Cumasgach, son of the Monarch of Ireland, who, without 
receiving any provocation, ravaged the territory around 
Baltinglass (where Brandubh then resided) : he, however, was 
soon put to flight, and, near the Church of Kill-Rannairech,* 
was slain by the adherents of the Leinster King. The armies 
of Ulster were at once mustered to avenge the death of 
Cumasgach, and being led in person by the Monarch himself, 
threatened to lay waste the whole of Leinster. It was on this 
occasion that St. Aidan encouraged Brandubh to go forth 
fearlessly to repel the unjust invasion. As we read in his 
ancient life, 5 he said to the king, " many saints have served 

1 M.S. Irish Life in Royal Irish Academy. 

1 The Annals of Ulster, ad an. 563, have the entry "The death of Laisre of 
Damhinis," but, ad an. 570, they give a second entry, " or in this year the repose of 
Molnisse of Daimhinis." Daimhinis, in Latin Bovhim insvla. is situated in 
Ixnigh Erne, near Knni-killen. and is still rcm rkable for its Round Tower. St. 
Molaise. founder of this monastery, was son of Nadfraich, and his festival is kept 
on 1 2th September. 

* Pope John III. sat in the chair of St Peter, from A.D. 560 to 573. 

4 (.'Ui-tianitaircck, now Kilranelagh, is situate near Baltinglass, in the county 
of \Vicklow. 

* ' Ait vir Dei : multi sancti servierunt Domino in term vestra ; ite vos 
forti animo ad certamen et nos omncs ibi eiimus vobiscum." Vita, cap 60. 

364 St. Aidan, Bis/top and Patron of Ferns. 

God faithfully in thy territory ; go forth, therefore, coura- 
geously to battle, and we will all be there in spirit to aid thee 
with our prayers in the combat ;" and the life adds, that 
throughout all that night, St Aidan continued at his church 
in prayer, imploring, with arms stretched out, the blessing 
of God on Brandubh. The decisive battle was fought in 
498, at Dunbolg (i.e. Fort of tfte sacks}, which is described as 
situated south of Hollywood, and not far from the Church 
of Kil-belat (now Kilbaylet), near Donard, in the county 
Wicklow. The victory of Brandubh was complete, and the 
monarch Aedh himself, with many of his chieftains, was slain. 
The ancient tract called the Borumlia-Laighean, tells us that 
when the northern army had advanced as far as Baltinglass, 
St. Aidan, who was half-brother of the monarch Aedh, went 
forward in the name of Brandubh to solicit an armistice that, in 
the mean time, the terms of peace might be arranged ; he how- 
ever was treated with insult by Aedh, wherefore departing from 
the hostile camp, he prophesied the ruin and death which should 
soon be the lot of the ill-fated monarch. The same tale also 
relates that it was our saint who planned the stratagem to 
which Brandubh was indebted for his victory. Three thousand 
six hundred oxen, carrying provision hampers in which 
armed men were concealed, were conducted towards the place 
where the troops of Aedh were encamped ; they were at once 
seized and driven within the camp, when the armed men, at 
a given signal, threw off their disguise, and gained an easy 
victory over their astonished enemy. All this time Aidan was 
in the church absorbed in prayer, and more to his interces- 
sion than to the valour of the troops, Brandubh ascribed his 
brilliant success. A poem was composed on this occasion by 
St. Aidan, of which the first strophe is preserved in the Annals 
of the Four Masters: 

" I implore the powerful Lord : near Cill-Rannairech 
It was he that took revenge of Comasach, and slew Aedh 
Mac Ainmirech." 

It was on this occasion that the king bestowed upon St. 
Aidan the royal seat of Ferns, its banqueting halls and 
champions' apartments, its woods and hunting grounds and 
other lands, all to be devoted to the service of God. A coun- 
cil of the bishops and chieftains of Leinster was also convened, 
by whom it was unanimously resolved that the archiepiscopate 
of Leinster should thenceforth be held by Aidan and his 

Such an election by the bishops of Leinster was quite 

.SV. Aidan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 365 

in accordance with the disciplinary code that prevailed at 
this early period in the Irish Church. As yet, none of 
our metropolitan sees had been definitively fixed by Rome, 
but it was deemed expedient, not to say necessary, for the 
maintenance of discipline, and for the observance of the 
canonical decrees, that in each province there should be 
at least one bishop enjoying pre-eminence, and invested with 
quasi-metropolitical jurisdiction. The MS. "Liber Canonum" 
drawn up as an ecclesiastical code of laws for Ireland before 
the year 700, expressly sanctions such an election of a metro- 
politan by the decree of his brother bishops, and it cannot 
surprise us if, as in the case of St. Aidan, the bishops of the 
province should be desirous to have their decree sanctioned 
and confirmed by the temporal authority. 

On one occasion, when returning with an immense booty 
from the northern districts of Ireland, Brandubh was met by a 
poor leper who asked an alms for the love of God. The king 
at once bestowed on him a good milch cow, and recommended 
himself to the prayers of the poor man. Soon after, being 
encamped on the banks of the Slaney, he was seized with a 
grievous malady, and seemed, in a vision, to be carried down 
to the very gates of hell. All the demons were assembled 
there awaiting their prey, and one fiery dragon rushed forth 
to devour him. At that moment a comely and joyous priest 
cast between the dragon and the king the cow which had been 
bestowed on the poor leper ; and, when a second time the 
dragon rushed on towards the king, the same priest smote the 
dragon with his staff and put him to flight. The king narrated 
this vision to his attendants, and recovering somewhat, 
proceeded to a place called Inver-Graimchin, where again 
his illness increased. There he was reminded by his attend- 
ants of the many miracles performed by Aidan, and how 
water blessed by him restored many that were sick to perfect 
health. Wherefore, Brandubh set out to visit the saint, and 
meeting him near the monastery, cried out, this is the holy 
priest whom I saw in my vision saving me from the dragon 
that would devour me ; and prostrating himself before Aidan, 
he confessed his evil deeds and prayed him to impose a salu- 
tary penance for the blessing of his soul. At the prayers of 
the saint his bodily health was also restored to him, and then 
the king gave to Aidan many presents for the poor, and 
decreed that himself and his race should be interred in the 
monastery of Aidan. The ancient writer adds : " to this day 
Brandubh and his descendants arc interred in Ferns." 

One of the tributary chiefs of Leinster, named Saran, 
jealous of the power of Brandubh, and availing himself of the 

366 St. Aidan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 

free access to his presence permitted by that monarch, assassi- 
nated him in his royal residence. Thus, adds the chronicler, 
was the pious king cut off without confession, and without the 
divine viaticum. St. Aidan hearing this, was filled with grief, 
and, weeping, foretold that the hand would wither which had 
thus murdered " the defender of the churches of the kingdom, 
and the protector of the widow and the poor." The prophecy 
was fulfilled : and St. Aidan coming to the place where the 
deceased king lay, offered fervent prayers, and by the power 
of God restored him to life. But the king said : " I pray thee, 
father, do not detain me on earth, if through thy prayers the 
gates of heaven may be now open to me." The saint was 
rejoiced at these pious dispositions of Brandubh, and the 
holy viaticum being administered, and prayers being said, the 
king once more closed his eyes in peace, and his remains were 
interred in the cemetery at the monastery of Aidan. 1 As for 
the murderer, seeing what had happened, he was moved with 
sorrow for his wicked deeds, and coming to the sepulchre of 
Brandubh, led there a most penitential life in fasting and 
assiduous watching, till at length he heard a voice from the 
tomb saying : O, Saran ! thou hast obtained mercy from God. 
He passed the remainder of his life in holiness, but the 
prophecy of Aidan was verified, that his right arm should be 
lifeless and withered till his death. 

When St. Aidan proposed to build his chief monastery at 
Ferns, many of his disciples complained that there was no 
spring of water there to serve for their drink. But the saint 
directed them to cut down a tree which overshadowed the 
spot on which they stood, assuring them that they would find 
there an abundant supply of water. They did so, and a clear 
fountain gushed forth, which retains to this day the name of 
Tubber-Mogue, i.e., the fountain of St. Aidan. It was whilst 
engaged in building this monastery of Ferns, that another 
miracle was performed by our saint, which continued long to 
exercise a salutary influence on the Ecclesiastical architecture 
of the nation. A church was to be erected, thus writes the 
ancient chronicler, but no builder could be found to guide 
the religious brethren in this work wherefore, full of con- 
fidence in God, St. Aiclan blessed the hands of an untutored 
man named Gobban ; 2 from that moment he became most 

1 " Et tune, accepto sacrificio, et facta orationeet data indulgentia, Rex Brandubh 
ad coelum migravit, ct sepultus est honorifice in coemeterio Sancti Moedoc, quod est 
in civitate sua Fearna, uU genus ejus, reges Laginiensium, semper sepeliuntur." 
Vita, cap. 47. 

* "Confidens in Deo bcnedixit nianus cujusdam ineruditi, nomine Gobbanus, 
et statim subtilissimus artifex est factus : postea summa arte 411am Basilicam 
acdificavit." Vita, cap. 51. 

St. Aidan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 367 

skilled in all the intricacies of the art, and was able, in a 
most perfect manner, to complete the church of the monastery. 
His skill was subsequently shown in the erection of many other 
famous churches and monasteries, and he is known in the 
ancient historic tales and legendary poems of our island, as 
Goban Saer, i.e., " Goban the builder." What was of still more 
importance, he combined sanctity with his architectural skill : 
his name is entered in our calendars among the saints of 
our early church, and it is, probably, from him that Cill- 
Gobban, now Kilgobbin, near Dundrum, in the county of 
Dublin, derives its name. 

Theerectionof someof the most ancient of the Round Towers 
and other stone buildings of our island, is traditionally refer- 
red to this disciple of St. Aidan. A few passages from 
Petrie's Round Towers will serve to convince the reader of 
the important place held by St. Gobban Saer in the traditions 
of our early Church : " The great church of Kilmacduagh," 
he says, "was erected about the year 610, for St. Colman 
Mac Duach, by his kinsman, Guaire Aidhne, King of Con- 
naught : and the perfect similarity of the masonry of the tower 
to that of the original portions of the great church, leaves no 
doubt of their being cotemporaneous structures. In the 
popular traditions of the country, the erection of both is 
assigned to the Gobban Saer, and these traditions are not 
falsified by being at variance with the known period at which 
he flourished. The doorway of the tower of Glendalough 
has a perfect similarity of form and style of construction to 
that of the tower of Kilmacduagh ; and it is not unlikely that 
both are the work of the same eminent builder with whose era 
the erection of the great church of Glendalough would very 
well synchronise. . . . It is remarkable, that though the 
foundation of the church of Antrim is ascribed, perhaps 
erroneously, to St. Mochaoi, a cotemporary of St. Patrick, 
who died, according to the Irish annalists, in the year 496, the 
popular tradition of the country ascribes the erection of the 
tower to the celebrated builder called Gobban Saer, who 
flourished in the seventh century." 1 Again : " Nor can I 
think the popular tradition of the country is of little value, 
which ascribes the erection of several of the existing towers to 
the celebrated architect, Gobban Saer, who flourished early in 
the seventh century ; for it is remarkable that such a tradition 
never exists in connection with any towers but those in which 
the architecture is in perfect harmony with the churches of 
that period, as in the towers of Kilmacduagh, Killala, and 

1 Petrif, " Round Towers," pp. 400 and 399. 

368 St. AiJan, Bishop and Patron of Ferns. 

Antrim. And it is further remarkable, that the age assigned 
to the first buildings at Kilmacduagh, about the year 620, is 
exactly that in which this celebrated Irish architect flourished. 
It is equally remarkable, that though the reputation of this 
architect is preserved in all parts of the island in which the 
Irish language is still spoken, yet the erection of the oldest 
buildings in certain districts in the south and west of Ireland 
is never ascribed to him, the tradition of these districts being, 
that he never visited or was employed on buildings south- 
west of Galway, or south-west of Tipperary." 1 

One of the principal churches or oratories for which Ire- 
land was indebted to Gobban Saer was that erected at Tigh- 
Moling, now St. Mullin's, by St. Moling, successor of St. 
Aidan. I shall have occasion hereafter to speak more at 
length of this oratory. Dr. Petrie having made mention of it, 
adds : " its artificer was the celebrated St. Gobban, whose 
reputation as a builder, under the appellation of Gobban 
Saer, is still so vividly preserved in the traditions of most 
parts of Ireland, and of whom, in the ancient Life of St. 
Abban, as published by Colgan, it is prophetically said, that 
his fame, as a builder in wood as well as stone, will exist in 
Ireland to the end of time." 2 The ancient Irish Life of St. 
Abban makes known to us another great church in Leinster, 
constructed by the miraculous architect, Gobban Saer. This 
saint, it says, had travelled much in Munster and Connaught, 
and founded many churches in these provinces ; at length he 
returned to his native province of Leinster, and decided on 
settling down for the future. "There was a distinguished 
builder (it thus continues), residing not far from St. Abban, 
and Gobban was his name ; and it was his constant occupation 
to do the work of the saints in every place in which t